8. Por si acaso No regreso…

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

Video, Alma Llanera por Simón Diáz:

https://youtu.be/4bRWvupRaLE

El Emigrante, de Gabriel Raymond:

 

Preface

This blog is dedicated to all Venezuelans, para todos los Venezolanos.

This is our tribute to You and to Venezuela. Thanking you for the splendid time we were allowed to have with you all. Muchísimas graciás de corazón, un gran abrazo para nuestros amigos y familiares etc. etc..

Venezuela is a country very dear to me and my family. Located 60 south of the little rock where I was born, that I could often see with the naked eyes on clear days. It is the country where I began my geology and explorations career. Where I got the unique opportunity to enjoy each and every day. Where I was accepted to be an integral part of the local society and to assimilate with friends, colleagues, people. Everywhere.

Where I could develop my career, know how, expertise. With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas and PDVSA. Where I was so lucky to participate in important petroleum discoveries and thus to contribute to progress of the country.

Where I could study and graduate again, following my first Alma Mater in Leiden, Holland, now at the Universidad Central de Caracas.

Where we happily got married and where my son grew up the first part of his youth.

Such as in our most precious apartment that I was then able to acquire. On the fifth floor, mahogany floor inside, with a 270 degrees panoramic mountain view. A place with 24h/365 days spring climate. In a fully equipped brand new condominium. With marble and granite floors, a large heated swimming pool, tennis and basket ball courts, opulent gardens where to stroll and meet with neighbours, 2 private parking spots, 24h security guards, 6 meter diameter satellite outdoor tv antenna, 2 giant saloons especially for parties and meetings with neighbours.

With the light fog and clouds ascending from the valley of Potrerito and Arte Murano, visiting us every day at around sunset via the balcony. Idyllic.

We literally live in the Clouds, we used to joke.

Area donde nacio y creció también Cecilio Acosta. Humanista y uno de los más polifacéticos escritores y pensadores del siglo XIX. Muy amigo del poeta cubano José Martí, que vio la luz en el pueblo cercano San Diego de los Altos en febrero, 1818. Vivió por esas montañas hasta que tuvo 13 años. Con esos paisajes seguramente se inspiró para escribir su mejor poema: “La casita blanca”. Cual ofrece una descripción idílica de un paisaje rural en endecasílabos de gran musicalidad. En pocas pinceladas dibuja su tierra natal. Las montañas de San Diego en Los Altos, muy similar a como también nosotros nos sentimos en la cercana San Antonio de Los Altos, ahora de antaño:

“Haya no lejos alfombrada loma / Que se alce apenas a la tierra llana, / Y allí subas a ver cada mañana, / Si el alba ríe, o cuando el sol asoma!” (Obras V: 412)”.

Etc. etc. etc.

Simply, part of Paradise.

” Chinito, eres uno de los nuestros, un Venezolano re-encauchado ” my friends soon used to joke amiably to me at work.

It certainly was a moveable feast and incredible feat.

” Solo te acompaño en tus futuros andanzas de explorador petrolero por el mundo, si me prometes que vamos a vivir igual o aún mejor de chévere que aquí, me aseguró muy severamente…

Te lo juro y te lo prometo, mi Amorrrr…susurré. Igual que este 20 de diciembre ante el cura en la iglesia de Prado de Maria “, …anadiendo,

” pero, vamonos pronto. Porque esto aqui se viene p’abajo. Por seguro. Pedro y los 6 otros ya vendieron sus casas y volaron para otros horizontes. Unos se fueron a Australia, otros EEUU, Canada, Espana y Portugal. Acuérdate, camaron que se duerme se lo lleva la corriente. El dolar esta por 33. El sueldo anda casi por el suelo, calculado en dolares. Estaría ganando allí mas con el seguro social, aun si estuviera sin trabajo. El puesto fijo de jefe que me ofrecio esta petrolera paga 15 veces mas que aquí y en moneda fuerte, dólares.

Ademas.

Estuve estudiando todos los reportes del FMI en la biblioteca en Intevep. La situacion y el futuro de Venezuela es muy, muy diferente y mucho mas grave de como lo pintan. Y como dicen el Sr. Presidente dr. Lusinchi y su secretaria dona Blanquita, todos los días en la tele….anno 1989″.

La pude cumplir, woww, G.A.D.

P.D.

Muy, muy, muy lamentablemente, pero mis premoniciones se hicieron realidad. Tal como lo explico muy claramente luego en 1988 y 1999 ex-presidente Carlos Andres Perez en sus celebres entrevistas con Napoleon Bravo y Marcel Granier:

” Avanzamos hacia el caos. Nuestro pueblo vive una inconsciencia inverosimil. Que lo ha llevado a una ceguera insólita. Vamos a hundir al pais en una tragedia que ya no debería volver a vivir jamas, nunca Venezuela. Parece que tenemos que llegar hasta abajo, trepidar sobre el fondo para que volvamos a levantarnos……Una dictadura de Chavez….”.

Y en el profundo y premonitorio análisis psicológico hecho por Gabriel Garcia Marquez en 1999:

El enigma de los dos Chavez. Terminando su brillante articulo con “…Y el otro, un ilusionista, que podia pasar a la historia como un despota mas.”

La suerte de la democracia Venezolana a partir del 1999?

                                 “  Paradise gone rack and ruin “.

Similar a los sucesos en el thriller de Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Cronologia de una muerte anunciada,

Chronology of a Death Foretold.

Amen.

R.I.P.

Now it really hurts. Whether from the near distance while swimming in the pristine emerald blue sea of Curacao. Or from the far distance from wherever we are, to read, hear, and see what is happening to this paradisiac place. It is all Gone.

In Curacao, April 2019, already some 20 000 refugees form Venezuela. Many escape and cross the sea in small boats. Many drowned and died, similar to the refugees form Syria in the Mediterranean Sea. What a gigantic tragedy. Planned and executed by the politicians with insane ideas on how to develop, better said how to efficiently and fast destroy a country.

Caracas and Venezuela,

Presently…?

Unfortunately, unwillingly and recklessly being forced to mimic:

” Paradise Lost ” of John Milton.

By ideology encapsulated, money driven buccaneers, privateers, devil-red coloured and chamelion-reddened opportunists, former military coup actors, Andorra & Panama-bank-account-holders, professional robbers dedicated to corruption and to steal billions US$,  filibusters, etc. etc.

And whatever with red shirts, spectacles, etc..

The following chapters in it’s history, for sure, though in the very, very far, far distance… ?

” There is Never Any End to Caracas “ followed by ” Paradise Regained “, also from John Milton.

Anno 2021, in retrospective:

In 1917 Stalin, followed by Lenin, founded the communistic-socialistic Sovjet Union after his October Revolution.
Bye bye to emperors, tsars and capitalism.
Wellcome to walhalla socialism wellfare state.

In december 1990, after 73 years, the Soviet Union was dissolved. Goodbye, bye bye to socialism- communism.
Welcome to capitalism.

Anno  march 10, 2021, República Bolivariana with socialistic Revolución Bolivariana, facts ?

Some 5 million Venezuelans fled their beautiful country.
Millions are surviving with state supplied basic foodstuff cages, socalled Clap, some 7 boxes per year.
Montly salary equals about 1 (one) US$.
One (1) US$ equals some 1.25 million Bolívares.

” Those who cannot remember or do not want to understand the past, are condemned to repeat it “.

Paradise Lost.

https://youtu.be/1D1A9BTV8Eo

When I hear, listen, when we dance the following music, ahora definitivamente adictos a la salsa y bachata, we always think within others of Caracas, San Antonio de Los Altos and Ciudad Ojeda, where we lived.

And think of all our dear friends and family with whom fortunately we have continually been in contact with, since 1989 already.

The lyrics of these following songs for sure represents what the each of the some 5 million Venezuelan diaspora emigrants on this globe now feel deep in their own heart and soul.

A feeling that we equally share with You all.

de Celia Cruz

LETRA POR SI ACASO NO REGRESO

Por si acaso no regreso,
yo me llevo tu bandera;
lamentando que mis ojos,
liberada no te vieran.

Porque tuve que marcharme,
todos pueden comprender;
Yo pensé que en cualquer momento
a tu suelo iba a volver.

Pero el tiempo va pasando,
y tu sol sigue llorando.
Las cadenas siguen atando,
pero yo sigo esperando,
y al cielo rezando.

Y siempre me sentí dichosa,
de haber nacido entre tus brazos.
Y anunque ya no esté,
de mi corazón te dejo un pedazo-
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Pronto llegará el momento
que se borre el sufrimiento;
guardaremos los rencores – Dios mío,
y compartiremos todos,
un mismo sentimiento.

Aunque el tiempo haya pasado,
con orgullo y dignidad,
tu nombre lo he llevado;
a todo mundo entero,
le he contado tu verdad.

Pero, tierra ya no sufras,
corazón no te quebrantes;
no hay mal que dure cien años,
ni mi cuerpo que aguante.

Y nunca quize abandonarte,
te llevaba en cada paso;
y quedará mi amor,
para siempre como flor de un regazo –
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Y si no vuelvo a mi tierra,
me muero de dolor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
A esa tierra yo la adoro,
con todo el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Tierra mía, tierra linda,
te quiero con amor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
Tanto tiempo sin verla,
me duele el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
cuando me muera,
que en mi tumba pongan mi bandera.

Si acaso no regreso,
y que me entierren con la música,
de mi tierra querida.

Si acaso no regreso,
si no regreso recuerden,
que la quise con mi vida.

Si acaso no regreso,
ay, me muero de dolor;
me estoy muriendo ya.

Me matará el dolor;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor.

Ay, ya me está matando ese dolor,
me matará el dolor.
Siempre te quise y te querré;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor, me matará el dolor.
me matará el dolor.

Si no regreso a esa tierra,
me duele el corazón.

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

La Vanguardia, 30 Agosto 2018:

” Con los pies llenos de ampollas y el estómago vacío, los caminantes venezolanos recorren más de 200 kilómetros para llegar (de Cúcuta) a Bucaramanga.

Meten en un bolso los recuerdos de toda su vida y se arman de valor para recorrer el vasto territorio colombiano “.

” Himno Nacional: Gloria al bravo pueblo

Mas que nunca ahora se aplica y se debe de hacer, lo que dice el precioso himno nacional. Con texto ya escrito en 1810 por Vicente Salias.

FYI:

Dos compatriotas de mi pequeña isla natal dushi Curacao fueron próceres en la lucha de Simon Bolivar para la Independencia.

Felipe Luis Brión Detrox (Curazao, 6 de julio de 1782 – Curazao, 27 de septiembre de 1821) fue un militar curazoleño-venezolano que luchó en la Guerra de independencia de Venezuela alcanzando el grado de Almirante de las Marinas de Guerra de Venezuela y la Gran Colombia.

Manuel Carlos María Francisco Piar Gómez (Willemstad, Curazao; 28 de abril de 1774Angostura del Orinoco,116 de octubrede 1817) fue un militar venezolano de origen curazoleño, prócer de la Independencia de Venezuela. Y además dentro de los canales de la historia republicana venezolana es reconocido como el Libertador de Guayana y Generalísimo Invicto, por haber disputado 24 batallas y no haber sido derrotado.

Manual Piar fue fusilado, por orden del propio Simon Bolivar. Aparentemente por una diferencia de opinion, por Piar estar mucho a la defensa de la gente de color (el mismo era morenito), es decir por discrimination racial. Y por hacerse mas popular que el propio Bolivar.

” He derramado mi propia sangre ” dijo Bolivar llorando, después del fusilamiento que el mismo no quiso presenciar.

Así se paga aparentemente a los buenos amigos y colaboradores. Fusilándolos.

Yo mismo estuve en la celebración, conmemoración 201 anos, muerte/fusilamiento Piar, en Willemstad, Curacao en octubre 2018. Con representante oficial, el consul de Venezuela, familiares actuales y descendientes directos de Piar y dignatarios de Curacao. En esta oportunidad se dijo que Piar sera incorporado en el Panteón Nacional en Caracas.

Simon Bolivar y sus 2 hermanas vivieron en Curacao, donde fueron cobijados y bien recibidos cuando se tuvieron que escapar de Venezuela.

The Octagon Museum houses the Bolívar exhibit in memory of the Curaçao connection to Simón Bolívar (1783-1830). In 1812 after the first stage of the revolt in Venezuela had failed, Bolívar took refuge on the island of Curaçao. He and his two sisters arrived penniless and had to rely on the generosity of friends on the island. Lawyer and merchant Mordechai Ricardo lodged them in two houses. The two sisters stayed in the octagonal building by the sea, while Bolívar worked an studied in a small house on a hill overlooking the busy harbor of Willemstad.

Alma Llanera, tiene su origen y esta basada sobre una composición del músico Jan Gerard Palm músico de Curacao. Es un “cover” hecho por Pedro Elias Gutiérrez en 1914.The Engelenzang waltz is not only one of the most beautiful but also the oldest known Curaçaon waltz and dates from before 1867. Jan Gerard Palm wrote this waltz dreaming of singing angels visiting him to take away his soul… The second part of Palm’s waltz Mita was reused by Pedro Elias Gutiérrez in 1914 when he composed Alma Llanera. It became one of the most popular joropos from Venezuela.

que el yugo lanzó,
la ley respetando,
la virtud y honor.

¡Abajo cadenas!
gritaba el señor,
y el pobre en su choza
libertad pidió.
A este santo nombre
tembló de pavor
el vil egoísmo
que otra vez triunfó.

Gritemos con brío:
¡Muera la opresión!
Compatriotas fieles,
la fuerza es la unión;

y si el despotismo
levanta la voz,
seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dio.”

“Yo no vi las casas, ni vi las ruinas. Yo sólo vi las llagas de los hombres. Se están derrumbando como las casas, como el país en el que nacimos. No es posible soportar más. A este país se lo han cogido cuatro bárbaros, veinte bárbaros, a punta de lanza y látigo. Se necesita no ser hombre, estar castrado cómo los bueyes, para quedarse callado, resignado y conforme, como si uno estuviera de acuerdo, como si uno fuera cómplice”.

Fragmento de la novela “Casas muertas” escrita por Miguel Otero Silva en 1955, que describía el estado de destrucción de un pueblo golpeado por la epidemias y el éxodo de sus habitantes, el pueblo de Ortiz.

Hoy como si se retrocediéra sesenta y tres años en el tiempo pareciera que asistiéramos a un nuevo capítulo de aquella realidad descrita por Otero Silva. Esta vez a escala nacional.

Por si acaso no regreso – Celia Cruz

https://youtu.be/u548DVdZe9k

Celia Cruz, Cuando salí de Cuba:

https://youtu.be/0__RxpYQGtA

Gloria Estéfan, Mi Tierra:

https://youtu.be/WWAWQmhqWGo

Article: The Tragedy of Venezuela – WSJ.com, Anatoly Kurtmanaev, May 24, 2018:

https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-tragedy-of-venezuela-1527177202

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “

1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills

1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills V.070318

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences – Research in an Age of Info-glut. by Kristin Luker

3. Psychophysiological Responses to Salsa Dance. by  Laura Guidetti et al.

4. Why Is Dancing So Good for Your Brain?

5. Benefits of Salsa Dancing

5.1 Benefits from a Social perspective

5.2 Salsa is a great form of exercise

5.3. Dancing for Emotional Well-being

6. Dance Figures (100+)

Universalsa & La Bodeguita: Latin Dance Academy & Club
Universalsa & La Bodeguita: Latin Dance Academy & Club – Our teachers.
Salsa - MCAL
Salsa – book Cesar Miguel Rondon – MCAL

1) Introduction

Explorer ? Geoscientists ? Communication skills, leadership and competencies ? How to enhance them ? ?

A simple, unconventional, tip.
Just (learn to) dance. For example. Salsa and bachata.

In addition to all the physical and psychological benefits, of dancing in general, it helps you to develop your leadership, communication skills and competencies.

Dancefree - Medellin - MCAL
Dancefree – Medellin – Our teachers Edison, Karina, Keren – MCAL

Why ??

Swift dancing is about efficiently, clearly, timely, gently and graciously communicating. Just as you have to do at work and with colleagues.

To do this the male has to show clear leadership and stewardship for the dance figures that he wants to execute. The female partner has to trust his focus and follow his signs.

It is about creating synergy, between the leader and the follower, both in private and in public, with your dance partner/colleague.

I did not get this, what I consider a ” communication skills ” subject and module earlier at school, university or during my executive MBA and M.Sc. Management.

We ventured to learn dancing salsa and bachata, just for fun ? It was one of our long standing wishes to swirl in a most free way, though based on a grounded dance structure, on the dance floor ? Such as by dancing and swinging on the tones of ” Cali Aji ” from Grupo Niche. And ” Oiga, Mira, Vea”  from Orquesta Guayacan, both classic songs and orchestra from Cali, Colombia.

We succeeded…

https://youtu.be/TbefdHhYvN0

https://youtu.be/4KXwgZourtc

“ Bailar es algo que te da vitalidad, que ayuda a expresar emociones, que nutre, que te hace sentir bien y que te eleva “, Sara Martín, famosa bailarina Madrileña de flamenco.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, personalised – prime leather – exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin

With the help of so many excellent end enthusiastic teachers at the salsa schools that now exist in different places on this globe.

Teachers, such as ?

Gilbert, Eva, Annemarie, Farai; Desmond; Edison, Karina, Keren; Navin, Daysi; Cyldra, Vanessa:

Hi all, many Thanks for your classes and patience !

I also discovered that swift dancing intrinsically has to do with clear leadership, stewardship and with following, in a seamless and harmonious way.

Ask your Human Resource department, for a course, for yourself together with your near colleagues ?

To improve communication skills in your group. And to promote teambuilding.

Such as when you have to dance the Cuban ” En Rueda ” salsa figure. Where you must fluently and efficiently communicate and interact fluently with many other colleagues.

” El baile es la poesia hecha con brazos y piernas “.

Enjoy. A bailarrrrr se dijo. Photo:

Salsa, Bachata, Communication skils development
Salsa, Bachata: also Communication skills and Leadership development – SalsaVentura – Our teachers Gilbert, Eva; Annemarie, Farai.

Our ” Graduation Party Salsa dancing “.

SalsaVentura – Teachers Gilbert and Eva.

After many years of daily, weekly hard work, classes, workshops and free dancing. At renowned dance academies in Holland, Dushi Korsou, Colombia etc. etc..

Our teachers - La Bodeguita - MCAL
Our teachers – La Bodeguita – Navin, Daysi – MCAL

2) Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences – Research in an Age of Info-glut

Kristin Luker is Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt Professor of Law and Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. 

Table of contents:

  • 1. Salsa Dancing? In the Social Sciences?
  • 11. Living Your Life as a Salsa-Dancing Social
First LP with Salsa as title - MCAL
First LP with ” Salsa ” as title – MCAL

 

3) Psychophysiological Responses to Salsa Dance

Laura Guidetti1☯, Cosme Franklim Buzzachera2☯, Gian Pietro Emerenziani1, Marco Meucci3, Francisco Saavedra4, Maria Chiara Gallotta1‡, Carlo Baldari1‡* http://www.felecianastevenson.com/uploads/4/3/6/0/43607421/salsapsycho.pdf

These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, leather and personalised with initials – Mis ” Coca Colo’s ” classics, made exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin.

4) Why Is Dancing So Good for the Brain of an Oil Explorationist ?

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201310/why-is-dancing-so-good-your-brain

Dancers maximize cognitive function and muscle memory through practice.
Dancing improves brain function on a variety of levels. Two recent studies show how different types of practice allow dancers to achieve peak performance by blending cerebral and cognitive thought processes with muscle memory and ‘proprioception’ held in the cerebellum. Through regular aerobic training that incorporates some type of dance at least once a week anyone can maximize his or her brain function.
IMG_3636 - Salsa & Bachata
” Dancing The Dream “. Salsa & Bachata – 2018 – Official photoshoot in La Bodeguita Dance Academy & Club. Sollicited by and as our own contribution to the national health campaign promotion of GGD, Municipal Health Services, The Hague. Photoshoot by www.lodewijkphotography.com

5) Benefits of Salsa Dancing

http://www.dancingfever.co.uk/benefits-of-salsa-dancing/

Salsa dancing is completely inclusive and is suitable for anyone regardless of age, or level of ability. There is also a fantastic range of benefits gained from this dance. Music and dance have been a part of many different cultures for centuries. It has always been a part of celebration, ritual, exercise, communication and pleasure and whether they knew it or not way back when the dancing began, the health benefits were, and still are enormous!

5.1 Benefits from a Social perspective

Latin dance is a great way to develop new social relationships. In Latin America, Salsa dancing is a massive part of the culture and its social life. Within an established class setting, if the group of students are always the same, a natural understanding develops over time. Based on the fact of exercising together people discover an instinctive way to communicate with body language. Dancing is actually a way to express feelings, emotions, personality, thoughts, and is consequently a very direct instrument to develop new friendships. If the group is harmonic, it often happens that people decide to go out together to a Salsa event or other places other than the regular classes. Come along, make new friends and see new places!

Salsa - Salsaventura - 2017
Salsa – Salsaventura – 2017

5.2 Salsa is a great form of exercise

Salsa dancing is a unique form of exercise because it provides the heart-healthy benefits of an aerobic exercise while also allowing you to engage in a social activity.

Salsa Dancing;

– Builds endurance and stamina
– Helps with weight loss (Salsa Dancing on average Burns off 420 + calories per hour).
– Dancing can burn more calories an hour than riding a bike or swimming.
– Relieves stress
– Helps you release toxins
– Greatly increase your overall fitness and general well being
– Can lead to a reduced heart rate over time

Salsa - Salsaventura - 2017
Salsa & Bachata – Fina Dance Art Academy – Curacao – 2016

5.3 Dancing for Emotional Well-being

 ” El baile es la poesia hecha con brazos y piernas “.

Salsa dancing has been found to be a very good anti-stress therapy. Through dance an individual can release tensions, worries, and negative feelings. Dancing is great for overcoming shyness and as you realise that you are able to reproduce steps that seem so hard at the beginning, this becomes a fantastic boost in self-esteem. As a consequence of this, the body relaxes, and movements become lighter and more fluent.

Dancing in general has been found to be especially stimulating to the mind; this has been concluded by the New England Journal of Medicine who in their research found dancing can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia in the elderly.

Within this study, it was found that participants who were over the age of 75 who engaged in reading, dancing and playing musical instruments and board games once a week had a 7 percent lower risk of dementia compared to those who did not. In addition to this it was discovered that the participants who continued in these activities at least 11 days a month had a 63 percent lower risk!

“Dancing may be a triple benefit for the brain. Not only does the physical aspect of dancing increase blood flow to the brain, but also the social aspect of the activity leads to less stress, depression and loneliness. Further, dancing requires memorizing steps and working with a partner, both of which provide mental challenges that are crucial for brain health”. Varghese, J

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, leather, personalised – exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin

6. Dance Figures

Some of the hundred plus figures of Los Angeles and Cuban salsa styles that you may want to master.

  1. Mambo – Basic step
  2. Rumba – Side step
  3. Mambo with Rumba
  4. Right turn
  5. Right turn with open-break
  6. Cross body lead (CBL)
  7. Left turn
  8. Basic, CBL, Right turn
  9. Around the neck
  10. Back to back
  11. Copa + inside
  12. Hand throw during Copa
  13. Wrap behind the back
  14. Basic in the middle
  15. Check
  16. Copa and hook turn
  17. Copa
  18. Double handed right turn
  19. Hand throw
  20. Hook turn in the CBL
  21. Inside turn
  22. Inside, outside
  23. Inside, right
  24. Inside, switch, right
  25. Just as dealing cards
  26. Just let the right go
  27. Left turn and walk
  28. Left, right, right
  29. Outside turn
  30. Outside with one hand wrapped behind
  31. Right arm up, left arm up
  32. Right turn with arm styling
  33. Right turn with hand change
  34. Right, right, right
  35. Slide down on her arm
  36. Titanic
  37. Turn and hug
  38. Two turns for the guys
  39. Walk around her basic
  40. Open and close
  41. The Hammer bridge
  42. Brush into inside turn
  43. Check and pull
  44. Coca Cola
  45. Copa + inside or outside
  46. Double drop and catch
  47. Drop catch rainbow
  48. Elbow hook and and left turn
  49. Fake double inside turn
  50. Fast point
  51. Zapatos a la medida - d’Raso, Medellin
    Zapatos a la medida – d’Raso, Medellin
  52. Hands behind the back
  53. Hook turn and check
  54. In-rotation change hands
  55. Inverse check
  56. Just under the shoulder
  57. Cross Body Turn Plus
  58. Double Right turn R-R and R-L
  59. Mambo together – Butterfly
  60. Mambo together – Shoulder check
  61. Mambo together – SRT lady – SRT gent
  62. Mambo together – SRT lady
  63. Mambo together – Basic Step
  64. Mambo together – Basic Step and CBL
  65. Mambo solo – Suzy Q
  66. Mambo solo – 3 taps
  67. Mambo solo – SLT
  68. Mambo solo – SRT
  69. Mambo solo – Basics
  70. Mambo together – SRT lady – SRT gent
  71. Salsa Solo Cross Pass on 2 and 3
  72. Salsa Solo Marching
  73. Salsa Solo 4 Basic Steps
  74. Salsa Together – Show the World
  75. Salsa Together – Copa – Enchufa 1,5 SLT gent
  76. Salsa Together – Copa – Enchufa – Paperclip
  77. Salsa Together – Copa Parallel
  78. Salsa Together – CBL + DRT R_L
  79. Salsa Together – Double Right turn R-R and R-L
  80. Drop and Catch Paperclip_1
  81. Salsa Solo Suzy Q
  82. Salsa Shine – Half Flair
  83. Salsa Shine – Full Flair
  84. Salsa Together – Cross Body Plus
  85. Lead with inside turn
  86. Cucaracha
  87. Basic with Heel kick
  88. Rotating Basic
  89. Cumbia
  90. Enchufla
  91. Dile que no
  92. Guapeando
  93. Adios con la hermana
  94. Candado
  95. Candado P’arriba
  96. Ronde Kentucky
  97. Se fue, el uno
  98. Se fue, el dos
  99. Exibela
  100. Doce
  101. Zapatos a la medida - d’Raso, Medellin
    Zapatos a la medida – d’Raso, Medellin
  102. Setenta complicado con gancho
  103. Setenta y Nueve
  104. Ochenta y Ocho
  105. Noventa
  106. Cruce
  107. Tornillo
  108. Juana la Cubana
  109. Remolino
  110. Besito
  111. Abrazala
  112. El Salao
  113. Dedo de Lazaro
  114. Pasea arriba y complica
  115. Bebe
  116. La Jenny
  117. Thalia
  118. Niagara
Salsa & Bachata - Fina Dance Art Academy - Curaçao 2016
Salsa & Bachata – Fina Dance Art Academy – Curaçao 2016

Continue reading “1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills”

6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

3. Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

4. La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos: Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America.

& History: How African Muslims “Civilized Spain”

https://www.globalresearch.ca/before-columbus-how-africans-brought-civilization-to-america/5407584

1) Introduction

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…”

Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

As a child at primary school, I became interested in Cristobal Colón and his voyages, during the history classes.

l was born and grew up on Curacao. An island in the Caribbean discovered by Alonso de Ojeda, one of the captains of the ships of Cristobal Colon, during his third voyage, in 1499.

Curazao, 1499, Descubrimiento - MCAL
Discovery of Curazao: 1499..descubriendo las islas de Curazao, p. 5. Noticia cronologica de algunos viajes y descubrimientos marítimos hechos por los Espanoles por Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin, 1803, 16 p. – http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000081158&page=1 – MCAL

Additionally, as a child, I was able to make 4 transatlantic crossings in cruise liners with my parents and family. Covering often about the same route. This made Colon’s voyages even more imaginable, appreciable, vivid and intriguing to me. Since I was 6.

My interest has persisted in reading about the travels of Colon. Discovery trips in search of the still unknown.

Also related with the fascinating history of the Caribbean, Middle and South America, soon afterwards brutally conquered and submitted by Spain.

La Conquista.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Estatua Cristóbal Colón – Madrid – my own pic. – MCAL

Columbus sailed from Palos de la Frontera on 3 August, 1492. With three ships, the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María.

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

We have visited the replica’s of his flagship Santa Maria (a “nao”,18 m. length; crew of 52) in different countries. Such as in Venezuela, Caracas, in the Parque del Este. In Barcelona, in the harbour.

And with the well known, famous ” Santa María ” in 1957 we made a transatlantic crossing with my parents, from Lisbon to Curacao. The Portuguese cruise liner, from the Companhia Colonial de Navegacao, in the sixties and seventies. First cruise liner to be hijacked the 9th January 1961 by Henrique Galvao. By a ” terrorist ” we would say in 2017.

Impressive the monument,dedicated to Colón and his crew, in Plaza Colon, Madrid.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – “…cruzaron por primera vez el océano y vieron el alba del Nuevo Mundo…” – Historical explorers and discoverers – my own pic. MCAL

Following are a few pages on the voyages that called my attention. Specific aspects. Such as what happened on the 12th October. This manuscript answers many questions that I had on Colon, his voyages and his life. Such as, what emotions did they have realising that they had discovered a new continent. What was going on, on the other ships and with the mariners?

Many of the original documents related to Colon are now freely available on internet. Such as in the open files of the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. Formerly one had to travel, long and expensive, to Spain, such as to Sevilla and the ” Archivo de las Indias “, to try to get a glimpse of these historic documents. As we indeed did in the past. Now they are available for everyone, just a click away.

Archivo General de las Indias - Sevilla - MCAL
Archivo General de las Indias – Impressive building, the former ” database” of all documents from Latin America, since its discovery .- Sevilla – my own pic. MCAL

I wish to share my own findings with you. Enjoy !

A few quotes of the pages that called my attention:

” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo “.

Nota: me hace pensar en los extranjeros, inmigrantes que hoy en día llegan diariamente en patera, desembarcando en las playas, entre los bañistas. Cargados de ilusiones para su futuro. Parecido a Colón? Los frailes del convento Santa Maria de la Rabida auxiliaron piadosamente a Colon y su hijo. Sin saber que seria el gran descubridor de América.

” …el 20 de Septiembre…Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles…p.16 “.

Nota: ya se percebía la cercanía de tierras.

“…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperación al furor…p. 17”.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?”.

Nota: 12 Octubre 1492, el Descubrimiento de America.

“…Procedió luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – List of the crew that accompanied Colón to America – Such as Juan Romero – my own pic. – MCAL

“…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extra habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo…Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro…tomando a bordo de la Santa María una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de inérprete…p.21 “.

Nota: estaban convencidos de estar en la India.

“…entretanto los celos y la envidia corroían las entrañas de Alonzo Pinzón…desapareció sin que sus compañeros supiesen el rumbo que seguía. Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego darles su nombreregresar el primeroa Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro…p. ?”.

Nota: los celos y la gran falsedád de Alonzo Pinzón.

“… Informados Fernando e Isabél del regreso de Colón, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de España acudió solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entró en la capital de Cataluña como un héroe…p. 26 “.

2) Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000048660

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000048660&page=1 (Manuscrito, 151 paginas)

Viajes Cristóbal Colón - Bartolomé de las Casas - Manuscrito - MCAL
Bartolomé de las Casas – Manuscrito Original de 150 paginas – Incluye los Viajes de Cristóbal Colón – MCAL
Los diarios originales de los cuatro (4) viajes colombinos se han perdido, pero los hechos se han podido reconstruir en parte gracias a otros documentos.
Del primer viaje (I) se conservan dos (2) extractos escritos por fray Bartolomé de las Casas.
Uno (1) de ellos es este que comentamos, que ingresó en la Biblioteca Nacional formando parte de la magnífica biblioteca del duque de Osuna, adquirida por el Estado.
Pero el dominico no utilizó el documento original, que estaba en los archivos reales, ni es seguro que el resumen lo hiciera él mismo; más bien parece que utilizara un texto ya abreviado.
Este resumen vio la luz por primera vez en el volumen I de la Colección de viajes? de Fernández de Navarrete en 1825, y fue ampliamente traducido y reproducido.
El otro extracto (2) está incluido en la Historia de las Indias del propio De las Casas, que también guarda nuestra Biblioteca Nacional, y fue elaborado en base al primer resumen y a la biografía de Colón que escribió su hijo Hernando.
El diario del segundo viaje (II) se ha reconstruido, en la medida de lo posible, mediante las historias del dominico y del hijo de Colón, ya que ambos consultaron el escrito del almirante.
Para el tercer viaje (III), los dos autores utilizaron el diario perdido y la relación que escribió Colón a los reyes, desde La Española, publicada también por Navarrete, tomándola del documento arriba citado, que entonces, según nota del editor, estaba en la biblioteca del duque del Infantado.
Hernando Colón acompañó a su padre en el cuarto viaje (IV), y, aunque era muy joven, no pudo olvidar, al escribir la biografía del almirante, los dramáticos hechos que le tocó vivir. Hernando cuenta en esta obra que su padre envió una carta (7 de julio de 1503) a los Reyes Católicos desde Jamaica. Es la misma que se conservaba impresa en la biblioteca de Juan de Saldierna, hacia 1629, citada por León Pinelo cuando publicó la primera edición de su Epítome. Lorenzo Ramírez de Prado, del Consejo de India tenía un manuscrito de la misma carta que, traducida al italiano, se publicó en Venecia en 1505.
Contenido
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariamente sin el prologo que hizo a los Reyes, que va a la letra y comiença desta manera (h. 1-67).
Historia del viaje que el almirante don Christoval Colon hizo la tercera vez que vino a las Indias quando descubrio la tierra firme, como lo envio a los Reyes desde la Isla Spanyola (h. 67v-76).
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariam…

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL

Colon – Discovery America – MCAL

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” …el 20 de Septiembre..Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles..p.16 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperacion al furor…p. 17 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…. Procedio luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “- MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extranos habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo….Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro….tomando a bordo de la Santa Maria una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de interprete…p.21 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “….entretanto los celos y la envidia corroian las entranas de Alonzo Pinzon…desaparecio sin que sus companeros supiesen el rumbo que seguia….Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego de darles su nombre, regresar el primero a Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro….p.22 ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “… Informados Fernando e Isabel del regreso de Colon, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de Espana acudio solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entro en la capital de Cataluna como un heroe…p. 26 “. – MCAL

3) Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000202198&page=1

Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos - MCAL
Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos – MCAL

4) La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000129231&page=1

Colón - carta jeográfica...P.135 - MCAL

Colón – carta jeográfica…p.135 – MCAL

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos:

http://Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés – V060917

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Hernan Cortes
  3. Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado en 1770.

1) Introduction

Geschiedenis van Amerika, I and II. By Prof. Dr. C. Goslinga, Drs. C. van Noort, H.E. Sjak Shie.

One of my history books on HBS-B, Maria Immaculate Lyceum, Curacao, in the sixties.

Mister Herman Sjak Shie, one of the authors of the textbook was my history teacher. Always very enthusiastic, explaining the historical context. Such as when talking about Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) the conquerer of Mexico.

Mr. Sjak  Shie could present historical subjects in a most interesting way. I can still hear his clear voice and remember the black-white picture of Cortes in the textbook. Even in the afternoon, at the end of the school day, in the hot tropics and without air conditioning.

Amazing, nowadays accessible and available to read, all for free, on your own PC, tablet or smartphone. The original historical manuscript of 553 pages. This edition published 1770 and perfectly legible.

En general es la historia de la Conquista, de guerra y de invasion en Mexico. De como los Espanoles conquistaron y sometieron a fuerza de armamentos, a Mexico y a su poblacion y cultura india.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

These are a few of the pages and pictures that called my attention. Questions that I had assembled since long ago? While scrolling through the digital book, a lot of answers. A digital exploration and discovery voyage, such as:

The original map of La Nueva Espana, with a description of the route of his voyage on land, from coastal Vera Cruz to Mexico.

The Mexican calendar, somewhat different from the European. With 18 month’s in a year. The names of the months’s and the names of the days of each month.

” Quimichoccan: Ratones por todas partes, o por todo el rededor “, p.36.

” esta los vestigios , o los senales de los Pueblos que quemo Cortes …. p.37″.

” se dejo caer por entre los dos Volcanes a Chalco, Cuitláhuac (hoy Tláhuac) e Iztapalapa, Ciudades situadas en la Laguna, y desde esta ultima hizo su primera entrada en Mexico, donde fue recibido de Pa, y con toda magnificencia. p. 39″.

” volvió a Mexico, donde hallo revueltos los humores de los Mexicanos, que ocasionaron la muerte de su Emperador, y Monarca Muteczuma, y obligaron a Hernan Cortes a resolver su salida de noche, que aun se conoce por la noche triste, por las funestas consecuencias y trabajos que padecieron los Espanoles…p.40, 41 “.

‘ Papel en que escribian. ..se hacia de las Pencas de el Maguei. o Pita, que llaman en Espana: las echaban a podrid en Agua, lababan el hilo de ellas, ablandado le estendian para componer su Papel gruesso, que después brunian para pintar en el, p.55″.

‘ Carta de relación embijada a su Sacra Majestad del Emperador nuestro Señor, por el capitán general de la N.Espana.llamado D. Fernando Cortes. En la cual hace relación de las tierras…(2)…de la cual Ciudad, y Provincia es Rey un grandísimo Señor llamado Muteczuma…(4) del dicho Muteczuma, y de sus ritos, y ceremonias, y de como se sirve…p. 85”.

Etc. etc. etc.

Please join and enjoy ???

2) Hernan Cortes

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernán_Cortés)

Hernán Cortés - MCAL
Hernán Cortés – MCAL

This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Cortés de Monroy and the second or maternal family name is Pizarro.

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue a livelihood in the New World. He went to Hispaniola and later to Cuba, where he received an encomienda and, for a short time, became alcalde (magistrate) of the second Spanish town founded on the island. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, an expedition which he partly funded. His enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored.

Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others. He also used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter; she would later give birth to his first son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of being punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died peacefully but embittered, six years later.

Because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it has become difficult to assert anything definitive about his personality and motivations. Early lionizing of the conquistadors did not encourage deep examination of Cortés. Later reconsideration of the conquistadors’ character in the context of modern anti-colonial sentiment also did little to expand understanding of Cortés as an individual. As a result of these historical trends, descriptions of Cortés tend to be simplistic, and either damning or idealizing.

3) Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado 1770.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz

Historia Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz – MCAL

Contenido - Libro Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Contenido – Libro Hernan Cortes – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan - MCAL
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Mexico - MCAL
Mexico – MCAL
Mexico - Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Mexico – Hernan Cortes – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL

 

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

1. Introduction

2. Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

3. From the Caribbean to Italy

4. Geology Fenestrelle – Parco Orsiera – Rocciavré

1) Introduction

In the summers of 1973 and 1974 I spent 7 months in NW Italy, Piemonte Province, Cottian Alps.

This area was to become the site of the Winter Olympics in 2005. Val Chisone.

Vilar Perosa in Val Chisone is home village of the famous Agnelli, Fiat dynasty family. And of their Juventus football club that every year celebrates the grande festa della Juve in august.

Il Campo sportivo di Villar Perosa è noto in tutta Italia per ospitare ogni anno la Juventus. Infatti qui viene presentata la squadra ufficiale e si svolge la consueta “partita in famiglia”, ed era nota l’immancabile presenza dell’ Avvocato Agnelli. Si tratta di una vera passerella per i nuovi giocatori, che hanno modo di presentarsi al Campionato di calcio che sta per iniziare. La partita di Villar Perosa è un appuntamento fisso della Juventus in Val Chisone: un evento estivo irrinunciabile per tutti i suoi tifosi, che possono ammirare i propri beniamini dal vivo. La consueta partita in famiglia organizzata nel “feudo” degli Agnelli è un appuntamento classico della preparazione estiva bianconera.

Since august 2018 also with CR7, Cristiano Ronaldo, and since 2019 Mathijs de Ligt, ex-Ajax, with Juve.

Located close to my thesis fieldwork area, Fenestrelle and ” Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré “.

Complemented at the end with an amazingly interesting roundtrip in Northern Italy.

With my brand new trusted, iconic and legendary Citroen 2CV AK40, ” Deux Cheveaux Vapour “.

2 Cylinders – boxer, 425 cc, 500 kg, Solex 28BCI carburator, just 10 HP and a top speed of 95 kilometres.

Classic Car anno 2017, attaining prices up to 30,000 Euro’s. In the seventies a preferred car for geology students.

Together with my fellow student. Wilbert Hocks and his dear wife Josely. On honeymoon, just married.

We were allowed to set up our 3 tents and camp together, near Rifugio Bergeria Selleries.

Località Alpe Selleries. Quota 2023 m. 10060 Roreto Chisone, Piemonte, Italy.

At a height of 2023 meters, we had a fabulous time. An Italian fairy tale. Thanks to the really splendid, open, accessible and most interested Italian people that we met. Many of them have become life-long friends. We just felt that it was also our home.

Refugio Bergeria Selleries.

And surroundings in northern Italy?

Val Chisone, Sestriere, Pragelato, Fenestrelle, Chambons, Roure, Perosa Argentina, Pinerolo, Cavour, Torino.

Val di Susa. Cuneo.

Italian Riviera, Riviera dei Fiori, Albenga, Alassio, Ventimiglia, Menton, Monaco.

Genova (then…still with ponte Morandi intact), Rapallo, Porto Fino, Carrara, Pisa, Firenze, Fiesole.

Venezia, Padova, Lago di Garda, Trento, Bolzano, Brennero…….

Through time we have met many times, both in Italy and in the Netherlands. La nostra famiglia Italiana ! La bella Italia & La Dolce Vita.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

I wish to dedicate this post to them All.

In gratitude for their friendship and friendliness of all the Italians that we met at Rifugio Bergeria Selleries and in Italy. Which made every day of our visit so exciting and special:

Persons?

Marisa, Silvana, Tonino, Giovanna.

Madama Lidia Berger, Signore Giacomo Miraglio, Sra. Lida MIraglio, Lida Jr. Miraglio.

Famiglia pastore Agu, Mario, Giovanni, Rita (la bella pastora cantante; inoltre grazie per il gustoso caffe nella grotta, lassù, vicino Lago Ciardonnet), Piero Blengino (minerali), Loredana.

Ing. Gastaldi, Torino.

Prof. dr. Giorgio Dal Piaz, geologo Universita Torino (Padua), that gave us a field introduction in the geology of the Cottian Alps. He received me in his office in Torino to discus my field results.

"Marcel, l'anno scorso non parli affatto italiano. E ora parli correntemente italiano. Sono sorpreso ha detto il professor Giorgio."

So many people of which I have unfortunately forgotten the names. Very sorry about that. But I can still remember your faces and voices.

Molto grazie, carissimi amici. Ciao, ci vediamo. Mille Grazie Tutti !

The son of Silvana and Beppe, dr. Wilbert, is since 2015 post-doc researcher at the University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Anche Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin, ciaoooo.

” In Selleries ho lasciato un pezzo del mio cuore, 1973, 1974 “

The seventies in Bergeria Selleries and Val Chisone ?

The time in slow motion, compared with nowadays. Every thing. Living, driving, food, music. All slow.

Music?

The pace of life and the music was as the mood so nicely created in ” Summertime and the living is easy “.

In Italy and Val Chisone, on my Sony transistor radio, the sounds of Patty Pravo, La Bambola, Pazza Idea.

Domenico Modugno, Ciao ciao bambina, Volare, Nel blu dipinto di blu.

Nicola di Bari, Sai che bevo,  sai che fumo:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCoqyU3-4wk

Gigliola Cinquetti, Non ho l’eta:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QlA3Xd9aAo

Claudio Baglioni, Questo piccolo grande amore.

Claudio Villa, O sole Mio:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNYP_wGVqzI

Tony Dallara, Come Prima.

Mia Martini, Minuetto:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-s21DL8hLM

Communication?

Fortunately no superfast internet, tablets, mobiles, WhatsApp, Social Media yet existed. The world was not yet mainly focussed on and limited to the screen of the iPhone or iPad. Social media was socialising, verbal and non-verbal communication, face to face, in italian (.)

http://www.lastampa.it/2016/05/02/multimedia/societa/come-parlare-litaliano-con-le-mani-guida-turistica-fa-impazzire-gli-usa-BA40txTlmyFw104p0GrzII/pagina.html

Via slow post. Writing and receiving handwritten letters with postal stamps, to and from home, travelling 7969 km to reach destiny. My mother still cherishes the Edelweiss flower from my field area that I included in one of my letters. Sending postcards. My post was received and well kept at the lobby of the only hotel in Villaretto. Unfortunately forgot the name of the hotel and the owners. Each saturday we would also go to Fenestrelle to buy our food and of course, the two liter bottles with red, strong Barbera wine from Piemonte.

On several lazy, touristic saturday’s also regularly to Pinerolo (Pinareul). A charming old little town, at the beginning of Val Chisone, 50 km southwest of Torino. With a beautiful historic center, cathedral, bustling open air market, cinema’s and excellent pizzerias. The home town of Tonino and Giovanna, our friends and members of the ” Banda Rifugio Selleries 1973-1974 “. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinerolo).

Times now gone when slow living was still an art.

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
La-Banda-di-Selleries, 1973,1974 – Val Chisone – Marcel, Madama Lida, Tonino, Silvana, Josely, Giovanna, il Cane – MCAL

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Camp site – 2023 m. – Val Chisone – MCAL

 

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Il Cane, Josely, Marcel, Tonino, Silvana, Giovanna, le mucce di signor Agu – MCAL

 

2) Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

Rifugio Selleries - Val Chisone - Italia - MCAL
Rifugio Selleries – Val Chisone – Italia – MCAL

Credit: http://www.rifugioselleries.it/?page_id=109 – https://www.facebook.com/rifugioselleries/

stufa_selleries
Si trova nel cuore del Parco Naturale Orsiera Rocciavrè e costituisce base di partenza per numerosi itinerari escursionistici ed alpinistici. A poca distanza dal rifugio è inoltre possibile praticare l’arrampicata sportiva su una piccola struttura rocciosa. Il 18 Giugno del 2006 è stato ufficialmente inaugurato ed ora è dotato di un’ampia sala ristorante, bar e di 12 camere per un totale di 40 posti letto. Alcune camere sono dotate di servizi indipendenti, e l’edificio è stato reso totalmente accessibile ai disabili. Il rifugio è aperto tutto l’anno, ed è raggiungibile anche in auto nel periodo estivo (comodo parcheggio nei pressi dell’edificio). Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin curano, grazie alla loro grande esperienza nel settore, la gestione del rifugio coadiuvati da alcuni bravi collaboratori nei periodi di grande affluenza. La cucina, magistralmente diretta e curata da Sylvie, è ovviamente tradizionale, con interessanti specialità locali, e piacevolmente affiancata da vini e birra di ottima qualità. Il piccolo Leonardo, classe 2005, sta imparando rapidamente come si intrattengono gli ospiti e dimostra come si possano allevare i bambini in un ambiente così fiabesco. Nei giorni festivi e nei periodi di alta stagione è consigliabile la prenotazione.Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL Selleries – Wilbert, Marisa, Marcel H., Silvana, Lida Jr., Tonino – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Forte Fenestrelle – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Monte Orsiera, 2878 m. – Val Chisone & Val di Susa – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Fenestrelle teleferico – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert, Josely and Amici – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Lida, Tonino, friend ?, Marisa, Loredana, Wilbert, friend ?, Silvana – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Arie Schaap, Andre van der Meulen, Marcel, Ray Bergval (R.I.P.) – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Marcel Chin-A-Lien, Wilbert Hocks (sitting), Ray Bergval (R.I.P., 2016, Paramaribo, Suriname), Andre van der Meulen, Arie Schaap – MCAL

Additionally:

My thesis fieldwork area covered from the village of Fenetrelle up to Bergería Rifugio Selleries. Along this route one encounters the famous Forte Fenestrelle and a little village called Usseaux.

1. Usseaux: On Youtube I found the following nice recent drone film:

– Riprese aeree a Usseaux, Val Chisone – aerial footage with DJI Phantom 2…Film / full credit to Alessandro Bonaudo.

2. Forte Fenestrelle: Il Forte di Fenestrelle visto dal drone. A drone film taken from Youtube; From / full credit to Mr. Fabrizzio Prelato.

3. Forte Fenestrelle:  https://youtu.be/rEVUN0nPiyE

3) From the Caribbean to Italia

Anna C - First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet - MCAL
Anna C – First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet – MCAL

My first visit to la Bella Italia was as a kid of 12 years old. Impressive. Many permanent, (trans)formative impressions, July 1962. Breath-taking.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

It was the sabbatical year of my dear dad.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

With my parents, sister and brothers. Crossing the hugh Atlantic ocean in some 12 days. Arriving in busy and bustling Genova. From little native Curacao in the Caribbean to Italy and Europe.

Via La Guaira-Venezuela, Aves islands; Barbados; Pointe-a-Pitre-Guadaloupe; the majestic and vast Atlantic Ocean; Funchal-Madeira-Azores Portugal; Santa Cruz deTenerife Canary Islands, Gibraltar, Barcelona; Monaco, Genova.

Crossing the Atlantic.

One of our 4 transatlantic crossings and voyages. Old, classic style, in the fifties and sixties. Magnificent memories.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

A 2 week transatlantic voyage with the Anna C. The first true passenger ” cruise ” ship in the Italian Costa fleet, Linea ‘C’. The interior designed by renowned Venetian architect Giovanni “Nino” Zoncada. During the voyage we already got introduced and accustomed to the Italian language, friendliness, cuisine, music and flair. Where we learned how to eat spaghetti, as Italians (http://www.italianliners.com/costa-en).

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Italian Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL – ” The pictures of the ‘Fifties show class passengers at ease in the various moments marking the day on board and consolidated by the ancient tradition of the “transatlantic style”: tramping up the gangway, the noisy farewell to those who remain ashore, the exchange of streamers; souvenir photos, first with relatives or close friends before the departure, then, once the elapsed time has brought new bonds of friendship, in pose with other fellow travelers…”.

Our family discovery trip in Europe.

Italia ? Genova, Vespa’s all around. Milano, Venezia, Roma, Porto Fino etc. etc.. So exciting for a 12 year Curacao kid. For the whole united family.

A history with memories that I still have to write. Hopefully soon.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Old Style Italian Transatlantic Voyage in the Sixties – MCAL – ” a passage nearby the Azores with the fascinating view of Mount Saint Michael always circled by a cloud ring. In the middle of the ocean the sky is clean and pure, crossed by quick clouds during the day and studded by bright stars at night. Among the most awaited for events there are the encounters at sea with other liners, above all the fleet mates. In the latter case the captains plan the route to meet each other at short distance while the horns fill the air and flags and people wave to wish bon voyage. Even the visit to the bridge is a thrilling moment: the officers welcome the guests and their endless questions on how to “drive” a giant ship”.
Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCALAna C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

The guests belonging to the upper class will show their familiarity with the open-air games and sports on the same large and immaculate open decks which made famous the Italian liners worldwide. The rest on a steamer chair accompanied by a good book, a sun bath, a match of badminton or shuffle-board, a drink enjoyed at the side of the pool where other guests play and swim together.

At night the chefs astonish eyes, noses and palates of the passengers with gorgeous buffets exposing authentic artworks which kept busy since the afternoon ice and fruit sculptures. Among the complex organisation of the ship personnel, the deck seamen preserve spotless the open decks

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one’s lifetime.” – Mark Twain

2) Geology of Fenestrelle – Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré (under construction)

16. Segovia – España

16. Segovia – España

Contents

1. Introduction
2. Segovia: Outstanding universal value.
3. Roman Aquaduct

4. Restaurante Casa Candido – Cordero lechal asado

1) Introduction

Since primary school, when I began studying the language of Miguel de Cervantes, my attention was attracted by a black-white photo of the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia in the study book. This picture has since then remained in my memory.

Therefore it was a historical opportunity to visit and explore together with my family Segovia. To admire the construction and splendid setting. To touch, feel the granitic building blocks of the aqueduct.

To have dinner at Candido, one of the renowed traditional restaurants of Spain.

To visit the magical old city centre.

These are my own pictures.

El espíritu necesita de tiempo en tiempo aspirar el germen de una nueva vida. Esto lo conseguimos viajando. Paisajes distintos y variados, escenas desconocidas, aire, luz, movimiento, gentes y costumbres diferentes, un mundo de sensaciones. Asi son los frutos de los viajes. Cuando el tiempo ha corrido y con el las emociones que formaban nuestro encanto. Entonces goza el alma en recordar los días, los instantes de nuestros viajes.

Please join. Visit if you have the opportunity. Enjoy.

2) Segovia: Outstanding Universal Value

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/311

Brief synthesis 

The Old Town of Segovia is located in the centre of Spain, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León. The centre is crowded together on the rocky bluff delineated by the confluence of the Eresma and Clamores rivers.Segovia is symbolic of a complex, historical reality. Its neighbourhoods, streets, and houses are laid out in accordance with a social structure in which hierarchy was organized and dominated by belonging to one of the different cultural communities. Moors, Christians, and Jews coexisted for a long period of time in the medieval city and worked together during the 16th century manufacturing boom.  The evidence of this cultural process can be seen in the large number of outstanding monuments in the city, among which, the Roman Aqueduct stands out. Other important monuments can be found in the property: the Alcázar, begun around the 11th century; several Romanesque churches; noble palaces from 15th and 16th centuries; the 16th-century Gothic cathedral, the last to be built in Spain in this style; and the Segovia Mint, the oldest industrial building still existing in Spain.

Segovia - España

Segovia - España

3) The Roman Aqueduct

of Segovia, probably built c. 50 BC, is remarkably well preserved. This impressive construction, with its two tiers of arches, forms part of the magnificent setting of the historic city of Segovia. It is an enormous construction of masonry, 813 m in length, consisting of four straight segments and two superimposed arcades borne by 128 pillars. At the lowest point of the valley, the Aqueduct stands at a height of 28.5 m above ground.

The 221 colossal pillars bear witness to the magnitude of the Aquae Atilianae in the province of Zaragoza while in other parts of Spain, only remnants of the Roman aqueducts of Sevilla, Toledo, and Calahorra have survived. The impressive monuments that survive in Mérida, Tarragona, and Segovia illustrate the political determination, which following the steps of the victorious armies, greatly increased the number of aqueducts which Frontinus described as ‘the most solemn testimony of the Empire.’

The aqueduct runs about 15 km from the mountains into Segovia.  With a 813 meter long raised section running through town.  The tall double arch of granite blocks is impressive enough by modern standards. Especially considering that it was built in the 1st or 2nd century. The granite had to be carried in from the mountains, and it is a dry-laid structure, with no morter holding the blocks together. It has been standing for 1800 or 1900 years. This talking about sustainability in constructions.
Segovia - España

Segovia - España

4) Restaurante Casa Candido

http://www.mesondecandido.es/content/history/

In 1884, such longed-for event finally took place in Segovia. Great efforts were made: Inns, Lodgings, Furnaces, Cheap Restaurants, Wine and Food dispensing Establishments, and Inns were built. Among the millenary stones of the Aqueduct that had been erected by the Romans, this inn, the sole survivor of all those public houses, was open. It was located in an older building constructed with brick and Tuscan order arches and colonnades.

From those hostels that were established along the Roman Aqueduct, this old Inn is the only one that prevails and that still serves its visitors on a daily basis.

Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España

The establishment’s Golden Books are a valuable bibliographic collection. It contains signatures, autographs, and opinions of the inn’s visitors, which include Kings and Queens, Emperors and Empresses, members of different Royal Houses, Heads of State, Politicians, Ambassadors, Nobel Prizes, Writers, Poets, and Artists of all kinds who honoured the place with their presence and left their own memento.

The Gallery of Famous Men and Women contains framed scrolls with the signatures of these prominent visitors.

The Inn enjoys international acclaim and therefore, the greatest service that the Cándido family can offer is to preserve this Inn of Azoguejo as a homage to its ancestors, and as the best service to the HIGHLY NOBLE AND LOYAL CITY OF SEGOVIA.

Segovia - España

Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España

 

5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela

5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela – V140418

Contents

0. Introduction

1. Geology

2. Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana

3. Montagne d’Or – Norgold

4. French Guiana – Montagne d’Or – Columbus Gold Corporation

5. Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana) – Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado (1999).

6. Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints – Jean-Pierre MILESI et. al.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

8. Guyana: Maps major gold deposits

Gold - El Callao - MCAL
Gold – El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

0) Introduction

The first years of my career as a geologist in Venezuela were as a hard-rocker and field mineral exploration consultant.

With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas (Ministry of Energy and Mines, Geological Survey), headquarters El Silencio, Torre Norte, Caracas.

One of my assignments was to assist with exploration in Minerven, Gold Company, in the town El Callao, eastern Venezuela. This area once was the major gold producing area in the world. My task included exploration surveys in the giant gold mine ” Colombia ” and surrounding area. As a ” gold digger “. Exploration? A simple focus. Discover, map and indicate where the quartz veins are with lots of gold.

Gold mine, Colombia - El Callao - MCAL
Gold mine, Colombia – El Callao – MCAL

El Callao https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Callao_Municipality:

El Callao is a most interesting mining town.

Where you can have a golden time. As it is all about gold in this town. From the gold shops on the plaza Bolivar. To the golden morning sun and golden sunset.

Where surprisingly, though deep in the Venezuelan hinterland, on the Early Proterozoic of some 2,2 billions years old, you can hear original Caribbean calypso music.

Where surprisingly you can meet native trigueñita beauties with gold blond hair and sparkling green eyes. A precious human cocktail thanks to the lovesome interaction of fortune seekers from diverse countries that came in rushing for the gold. Vintage, limited editions.

Where you can dance calypso. Till the golden morning sun, in the weekends.(https://youtu.be/XsOH4rtE1lI). 

Many first generation Callao miners came from Trinidad, in the former centuries. The older generations still spoke english when I worked there.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

The gold mine at El Callao, started in 1871, was for a time one of the richest in the world, and the goldfields as a whole saw over a million ounces exported between 1860 and 1883. The gold mining was dominated by immigrants from the British Isles and the British West Indies, giving an appearance of almost creating an English colony on Venezuelan territory.

The Trinidadian immigrants brought the music of Calypso with them, which later became very popular in the city. The folk music is a mixture of Venezuelan and Caribbean genres and is sung in Spanish and/or Caribbean English. It is closely associated with the Carnival festival, a tradition also brought by the West Indian people (https://youtu.be/h1nnL1mmGsg).

In the carnival months, Calypso is performed with competitions, where the winners are crowned Calypso King and Queen. Calypso or as the town’s people call it “Calipso” is one of the most popular cultural tradition that the city is well known for in the rest of the country. Popular instruments used in the performance of the music are the drums, cuatro, maracas, guitar, bandolin, violin and the steel drum.

Since my Minerven assignment I have stayed interested and been keen on gold exploration and genesis, specifically in the Guyana gold and greenstone belt. Extending from Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname to French Guyana. And the twin sister Birimian gold belt in West Africa.

Long before clever petroleum geologists finally realised that the Cretaceous plays on the continental shelf of northern South America were the mirror brothers & sisters of the Jubilee discovery in Ghana, gold ore geologists had already discovered and using this mirror concept for exploration. Which applies for the Guyana – Birimanian goldbeld in the precambrian craton.

El Callao - Venezuela - MCAL
El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

Explorer ? Discoverer ? Gold Digger ?

Venezuela seems to have some 7000 tons of gold reserves, in the subsurface.(https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2062/report.pdf).

Gold subsurface exploration in the main ” Colombia ”  mine is not so much romantic but very hard work.

Visiting and exploring in the small hand-digged “private” gold mines and concessions is even tougher and more dangerous. Many miners die inside their own mines due to accidents (collapses, toxic gases etc.).

On the photo one of such mines that I visited. Where you only get in and, hopefully also out, with a private lift, a simple bucket.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

Explorers, gold diggers?

Do not panic and do not get claustrophobic when descending in these mini-handcrafted mines.

Certainly good luck, God Bless You. Enjoy being in the Subsurface.

It is invaluable to have this field Surface and Subsurface experience and knowledge? As additional help, when sitting most comfortable in an ergonomic chair, in front of the multiple wide screens with the virtual subsurface world in front of you, on your workstation.

Or simply making your interpretation by strolling around with your hands in your pockets in the immersive visionarium or visualisation room.

When trying to figure out, as a digital native, from your desktop on floor 33 in a mid-town skyscraper with a most splendid panoramic city view. How the subsurface should really look like and should behave. According to Homo Sapiens Geologica Softwaretialis.

According all the smart programs which perfectly explain how Mother Earth is obliged to behave and should function.

Enjoy.

El Callao - Small, hand-digged private gold mines - MCAL
El Callao – Small, hand-digged private gold mines – I have been in several of these ” dangerous ” mines – MCAL

Afterward I switched to black gold, petroleum exploration.

Credit for all pictures: published and available on internet.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Geologic Map El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Map El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

1) Geology and gold mineralization of the El Callao District, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

Baxter Peter, 1995: Simposio International del Oro en Venezuela 3 (Pages 143-147)

https://eurekamag.com/research/022/716/022716386.php

The El Callao Mining District located 130 kilometres southeast of Puerto Ordaz has been the most prolific gold mining district in Venezuela and the longest lasting hard rock mining district in the Guayana Shield. Published production is between 124 and 180 tonnes of gold (4 to 5.8 million ounces).

The majority of this production has been from a small number of highgrade underground mines located north and south of the town of El Callao.

Geologic Column - El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Column – El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

Mining has been continuous since 1829 with current production from the Columbia mine at approximately 1.86 tonnes of gold per year (60.000 ounces).

Gold mineralization occurs within metavolcanics and metasediments of the Precambrian Guayana Shield, which underlies most of Bolivar State and extends through the neighbouring countries of Guyana, Surinam and northern Brazil.

There are four major lithological units of Proterozoic age in the area, from the oldest to the youngest the El Callao Formation, the Cicapra Formation, the Yuruari Formation, and the Caballape Formation. These units have been subject to amphibolite to greenschist grade regional metamorphism. Structural trends of foliation, folding, faulting and shearing in the EI Callao District are primarily oriented to the northeast with dips mostly to the southeast.

Choco Gold mine - MCAL
Choco Gold mine – MCAL

The shear hosted gold mineralization consists of quartz veins, quartz stockworks, and massive silicification. Alteration consists of silicification, carbonitization, sericitization, and propylitization. Accessory minerals in the quartz veins include tourmaline, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and scheelite.

Tropical weathering is only moderately developed in the area with laterite generally not deeper than 3 meters and the saprolitic zone typically less than 30 meters.

El Callao Mining Corporation is a junior exploration company, with majority ownership and management by Bema Gold Corporation. The company has been conducting a gold exploration program primarily on the Lo Increible 2 and 4 concessions since September 1993. Other companies active in the area include, Bolivar Gold, Goldfields of South Africa, Minoven, Teck-KinRoss, and Golden Star.

2) Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana – V.220817

serait à l’origine de la première mine d’or industrielle de Guyane. Ici, le site minier aurifere de Yaou, le 17 septembre 2011, à Maripasoula, en Guyane française.
L’opposition au projet de mine d’or industrielle en Guyane grandit – Le Monde.fr avec AFP – Le 22 août 2017 à 10h59

Une pétition lancée par les opposants a reçu près de 166 000 signatures en cinq mois, alors que le gouvernement n’a toujours pas autorisé la construction de la mine.
Le sujet n’en finit pas de soulever les critiques en Guyane. Pour dénoncer le plus grand projet d’extraction d’or jamais proposé en France, l’opposition a lancé une pétition en mars, qui a déjà récolté 165 800 signatures, et est soutenue par 110 organisations nationales et internationales.

« Il y a cent cinquante ans que la Guyane a eu une histoire d’amour avec l’or, mais il faut que cela cesse. Ce ne sont pas les meilleures orientations économiques pour la Guyane », a expliqué à l’Agence France-Presse (AFP) Nora Stephenson, porte-parole du collectif Or de question. Treize chefs coutumiers de Guyane se sont déclarés contre ce projet industriel inédit, évoqué pour 2022. « Au nom de l’économie, vous êtes prêts à écraser une nouvelle génération », a déploré au début d’août Bénédicte Fdjéké, présidente des chefs coutumiers. « Faire des trous partout, dans le sol qui nous nourrit, c’est une mauvaise chose », a aussi jugé Christophe Pierre, leader du collectif Jeunesse autochtone, lors d’une réunion publique à la fin de juillet.

La raison de leur colère : le projet « Montagne d’or », prévu près de Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, dans l’Ouest guyanais, et détenu à 55 % par le russe Nordgold et à 45 % par le canadien Columbus gold. Il suscite une telle controverse qu’il n’a pas encore été autorisé par le gouvernement français.

Guyana Shield Gold Deposits
Guyana Shield Gold Deposits

Lire aussi : L’or de Guyane, un test politique pour Macron
Ampleur économique hors norme

« Montagne d’or » est « hors normes par ses aspects économiques », souligne une « note d’information » interministérielle de février 2016 obtenue par l’AFP, qui prévient également que les « empreintes spatiale et écologique sont de dimensions inconnues en France ».

Selon cette note, les taxes associées à la production minière représenteraient « 80,6 millions d’euros » et celles à l’importation « 325,5 millions d’euros ».

Les industriels, qui prévoient d’extraire « 6,7 tonnes » d’or par an pendant « douze ans », soit une valeur estimée à plus de 3 milliards d’euros, souhaitent un débat public resserré. « Après consultation des élus locaux, tout le monde est pour un débat qui serait guyanais », a affirmé le représentant des industriels, Rock Lefrançois.

Il a saisi la commission nationale de débat public (CNDP) pour lui demander d’organiser un débat local. Au début de juillet, la CNDP a rejeté la demande en l’état, au motif que les coûts initiaux du projet étaient flous et considérant « l’importance considérable des enjeux sociaux, économiques et environnementaux ». La compagnie minière Montagne d’or a annoncé qu’elle organiserait un débat « au cours du quatrième trimestre » avec « le public directement concerné » par le projet.

Impact écologique inquiétant

Mais les opposants craignent pour les conséquences écologiques du projet industriel. S’il était validé par le gouvernement, les miniers creuseraient en pleine forêt tropicale une fosse grande comme trente-deux Stades de France. Les détracteurs du projet s’alarment de la proximité du site avec des massifs à haute biodiversité, dont la plus vaste réserve biologique intégrale de France.

Ils s’inquiètent aussi des déchets qu’engendrerait l’extraction de l’or. Des millions et des millions de mètres cubes de roche devraient être charriés et traités au cyanure pour extraire les 85 précieuses tonnes d’or que Nordgold pense possible de récupérer en quinze ans.

Le déblai entraînerait la création artificielle et permanente de deux dômes de roches de 100 mètres de haut, ainsi que d’un mont endigué de 70 m de haut renfermant, selon les industriels, « 54 millions de tonnes » de boues issues du processus de traitement de la roche avec le cyanure.

Face aux craintes environnementales dans un territoire caractérisé par des retards structurels, notamment en gestion et prévention des pollutions, Rock Lefrançois précise que des « forages […] surveilleront les eaux souterraines pour voir s’il y a des traces ou des niveaux élevés de certains métaux » libérés par la roche à nu ou par les traitements physico-chimiques pour récupérer l’or. « Les forages resteront sur site pendant cinq ans après la fermeture, ensuite il y aura un suivi environnemental sur trente ans », assure-t-il.

« Le drainage minier acide peut durer des centaines d’années, c’est très difficile à maîtriser et ça coûte cher », rétorque Thibault Saint-Aubin, de l’association Ingénieurs sans frontières systèmes extractifs et environnements, soutien d’Or de question. Pour fonctionner, la mine demandera aussi des investissements publics importants (routes, énergie, port, exonérations), dans un territoire où 15 % des foyers du littoral et 30 % des foyers de l’intérieur n’ont pas accès à l’électricité.

French Guyana - Gold mine - MCAL
French Guyana – Gold mine – MCAL

3)  MONTAGNE D’OR – Norgold

http://www.nordgold.com/operations/development-projects/mondgne/

Guiana Gold Belt - Montagne d'Or - MCAL
Guiana – Birimian Gold Belt – Montagne d’Or – MCAL

Project Background

The 4.8 million ounce of Mineral Resources Montagne d’Or gold deposit is located in north-west French Guiana, 180 kilometers west of the capital, Cayenne, and 80 kilometres south of the department capital, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni. The Project’s base camp can accommodate 65 people.

In mid-March 2017, Nordgold earned-in a 55.01% interest in the Montagne d’Or project by spending a minimum of US$30 million and completing a Bankable Feasibility Study by 13 March 2017.

Nordgold also holds ~9% of Columbus Gold Corp.(“Columbus Gold”, CGT: TSX-V), the Company’s partner in the Montagne d’Or project. In October 2014, Mr. Oleg Pelevin, Director of Strategy and Corporate Development for Nordgold, was appointed to Columbus Gold’s board of directors.

Montagne d’Or official website (French)

Montagne d’Or Presentation 2017

Reserves and Resources

Montagne d’Or is located within the northern greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield in French Guiana. The mineral deposits of the Guiana Gold Belt are very similar to those in other greenstone terrains such as in West Africa. This will enable Nordgold to apply its deep knowledge of West African geology to the Project and other projects in the region. Columbus Gold, with its many years of operational experience in French Guiana and unique local knowledge will serve a strong partner in the advancement of the project.

The current model of gold mineralization is a high sulphidization, volcanogenic type. Significant portions are thought to have been emplaced as replacement style mineralization. Subsequently, the mineralization has been deformed and partly remobilised within structural controls. Gold mineralization is associated with primary sulphide minerals as replacements within pyrite and chalcopyrite.

CATEGORY TONNES (M) GRADE (AU G/T) AU (MOZ)
RESERVES *
Proven and Probable 54.11 1.58 2.75
RESOURCES **
Measured and Indicated 85.1 1.41 3.85
Inferred 20.2 1.5 0.96
Total (M+I+I) 105.3 1.4 4.81

 

  • * Proven and Probable Reserves were estimated using a gold price of US$1,200/oz at varied cut-offs dependent on lithological rock types, economics and estimated metallurgical recovery. Felsic Tuffs have CoG of 0.617 g/t Au, Granodiorites have a CoG of 0.622 g/t Au, Mafics have a CoG of 0.665 g/t Au, Saprolite and Saprock have a CoG of 0.552 g/t Au.
  • ** Mineral Resources estimated within pit shell that is defined by an US$1,300/oz price and CoG of 0.4 g/t Au.

4) French Guiana – MONTAGNE D’OR – Columbus Gold Corporation

http://www.columbusgoldcorp.com/s/MontagnedOr.asp

Montagne d’Or is part of the Paul Isnard project which is comprised of eight mining concessions covering an area of 190 km2 and is accessible via an all season forest road from the town of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, for a distance of 120 kilometres, and by small aircraft to the project’s base camp. Several roads crisscross the mining concessions providing truck access.

At Montagne d’Or, the gold mineralisation is hosted within a 400 metre thick sequence of intercalated felsic and mafic volcanic and subordinate volcaniclastic rocks that strike east-west and dip steeply south.

The near surface gold resources are contained within four (4) closely-spaced stratiform, sub-parallel, east-west-striking and south-dipping sulphide mineralised horizons, which include the principal UFZ (Upper Felsic Zone) and LFZ (Lower Favorable Zone) having average thicknesses of 50 metres and 17.5 metres, respectively.

Gold mineralisation is associated with disseminated and stringer sulphides with occasional semi-massive seams to several centimetres in width, mainly as pyrite, and is accompanied by pervasive alteration, which includes sericite, secondary biotite (retrograded to chlorite) and secondary K-feldspar ± quartz. Only a small portion of the deposit has been subjected to upper level oxidation.

Montagne d’Or occurs within the Guiana Gold Belt which stretches from western Venezuela eastward through Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana and into Brazil. Mineral deposits are typical of those in other greenstone terrains such as in Canada, Australia and West Africa. Many (8) significant gold deposits and prospects have been identified on the Guiana Gold Belt, including Las Cristinas, Choco, Toropoaru, Aurora, Omai, Gros Rosebel, Merian and Camp Caiman.

Numerous other prospects, mostly in Guyana and Surinam are undergoing active exploration.

Guyana - Africa Gold Areas
Guyana – Africa Gold Areas

5) Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana)

http://emg.geoscienceworld.org/content/8/1-2/117

Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado
Published on April 1999, First Published on April 01, 1999 – ArticleInfo & Metrics – GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological Institute.
Abstract

Paleoproterozoic gold is found in two (2) different volcano-sedimentary sequences and intrusive bodies separated by 600 km within the Guiana Shield.

The 2148 Ma St-Elie granite intruded volcanic-arc sequences of the Paramaca Group.

The 2096 Ma Omai stock penetrated back-arc/island-arc sequences of the Barama-Mazaruni Group.

Positive epsilon Nd values suggest that both suites lack Archean crustal contaminants, which is consistent with an origin in an oceanic arc setting.

4.1 The St-Elie deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented chiefly by pyrrhotite and pyrite. Biotite, calcite, and chlorite are the main gangue minerals. The alteration haloes at St-Elie feature a strong potassic zone, which is absent at Omai.

The ore-controlling structures are ductile and the vein emplacement is related mainly to contemporaneous, high-angle ductile shear zones.

The St-Elie deposit formed at temperatures >350 degrees C. The stable isotopes values are compatible with a magmatic or metamorphic source.

4.2 The Omai deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented mainly by pyrite. Ankerite, scheelite, albite, and chlorite are common gangue minerals.

The vein emplacement is syn-to post-deformation and it is related mainly to brittle shear zones with low-angle, stockwork networks and breccia zones.

The Omai deposit formed in a temperature range between 250 degrees C and 170 degrees C, much lower than the St-Elie deposit. The stable isotope values are compatible with mixing between deep-seated fluids of metamorphic or magmatic origin with surface-derived fluids.

These differences between St-Elie and Omai are interpreted in terms of their depth of formation. Alteration patterns, structural elements, and paragenetic assemblages indicate that the gold at St-Elie was most probably emplaced at a mesozonal depth, whereas the Omai setting yields evidence for epizonal conditions.

6) Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309669698_Gold_deposits_gold-bearing_tourmalinites_gold-bearing_conglomerates_and_mesothermal_lodes_markers_of_the_geological_evolution_of_French_Guiana_geology_metallogeny_and_stable-isotope_constraints

Jean-Pierre MILESI (1), Catherine LEROUGE (1) Claude DELOR (1), Patrick LEDRU (1) Mario BILLA (1), Alain COCHERIE (1) Emmanuel EGAL (1), Anne-Marie FOUILLAC (1) Didier LAHONDÈRE (1) Jean-Louis LASSERRE (2) Alain MAROT (1), Bruno MARTEL-JANTIN (1) Philippe ROSSI (1), Monique TEGYEY (1) Hervé THÉVENIAUT (2) Denis THIÉBLEMONT (1)

Les minéralisations aurifères (tourmalinites, conglomérats et gîtes mésothermaux) marqueurs de l’évolution géologique de la Guyane

Olivier VANDERHAEGHE

Géologie de la France, 2003, n° 2-3-4, 257-290, 12 fig., 7 tabl.
Mots clés : Minéralisations aurifères, Conglomérats, Tourmalinites, Gîtes mésothermaux, Guyane. Key words: Gold deposits, Conglomerates, Tourmalinites, Mesothermal lodes, French Guiana.

Abstract

In French Guiana, three (3) types of Proterozoic gold deposits can be recognized (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal ore deposits).

And used as metallogenic markers in the two-stage (2) geodynamic evolution proposed by Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) and updated at the Guiana Shield scale by Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b this volume).

During the first stage of crustal growth by calc-alkalic and TTG magmatic accretion, an early (pre-D1 deformation) stock of gold and disseminated sulphides associated with regional tourmalinization accumulated in the Paramaca volcaniclastic sequences in subaquatic conditions (example of the stratiform/stratabound Dorlin deposit). These gold-bearing tourmalinites were locally modified under upper–middle crust conditions during emplacement of discordant mesothermal quartz veins.

During the second stage of crustal recycling and tectonic accretion, a wide variety of syntectonic ore deposits including gold-bearing conglomerate and gold mesothermal types were emplaced during all increments of D2 transcurrent deformation, which was responsible for the progressive deformation of the North Guiana Trough, from its creation through to its burial and final exhumation:

The gold-bearing conglomerate type of ore deposit, hosted by the Upper Detrital Unit in the North Guiana Trough, presents several facies markers of the progressive burial of the deposits, e.g.

(i) gold-oxide “paleoplacer” of “Banket” type,

(ii) debris-flow type with syndiagenetic and/or epigenetic deposits,

(iii) epigenetic disseminated- sulphide facies, and

(iv) epigenetic mesothermal quartz stockworks.

Overall, it formed under low to medium-grade metamorphic conditions with, however, relicts of an earlier hydrothermal event as indicated by preserved hydrothermal pebbles in polygenic conglomerates.

The gold mesothermal type of ore deposit (dominant Au- Fe-Cu type associated with brittle-ductile faults and rare Au- As mesothermal deposits), hosted by the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Paramaca Series and also by late-D2 small granite stocks, is always associated with major fault zones.

Overall, it formed under low-grade metamorphic conditions. It is characterized by hydrothermal chlorite+ muscovite+albite+carbonates±biotite alteration. Muscovite +chlorite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally

(1) Brgm, 3, avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, France.
(2) Brgm Guyane, Domaine de Suzini, Route de Montabo, BP 522, 97333 Cayenne cedex 2, France. (3) CNRS-Univ. Poincaré, Nancy, France.

GÉOLOGIE DE LA FRANCE, N° 2-3-4, 2003 – GEOLOGY OF FRANCE AND SURROUNDING AREAS, N° 2-3-4, 2003

257

GOLD DEPOSITS AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF FRENCH GUIANA

Altered metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, whereas albite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally altered granites.

Hydrothermal fluids have a variety of origins. Stable-iso- tope (C, H, O) data indicate a dominant participation of external fluids, near seawater, in the Dorlin subaquatic stratiform/stratabound deposit, whereas metamorphic fluids become dominant in ore deposits formed at deeper levels, such as gold-bearing conglomerates and mesothermal deposits. Sulphur isotopes, trace elements, and sulphide min- eralogy show a consistent magmatic component, represented by magmatic fluids or by leaching of magmatic rocks.

Résumé

En Guyane, trois (3) types de minéralisations d’or d’âge protérozoïque ont été distingués (tourmalinites aurifères, conglomérats aurifères et or orogénique mésothermal) et utilisés comme marqueurs métallogéniques dans le scénario en deux stades d’évolution géodynamique proposée par Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) et mis à jour, à l’échelle du bouclier guyanais, par Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b ce volume).

Durant le premier stade de croissance crustale par accré- tion magmatique calco-alcaline et TTG, un premier dépôt de sulfures disséminés et d’or (pré-déformation D1), associé à une tourmalinisation régionale se met en place dans les séquences volcanoclastiques du Paramaca en conditions sub- aquatiques (cas du gîte stratiforme/”stratabound” de Dorlin). Ces tourmalinites aurifères ont été ensuite portées dans les conditions de la croûte supérieure à moyenne et localement remaniées par des veines de quartz mésothermales.

Pendant le deuxième stade de recyclage crustal et d’accrétion tectonique, une grande variété de minéralisations syntectoniques comprenant des conglomérats aurifères et des minéralisations mésothermales aurifères se sont mises en place durant tous les incréments de la déformation D2 transcurrente, responsable d’une déformation progressive du Sillon Nord Guyanais, depuis son initiation jusqu’à son enfouissement et son exhumation finale :

– les conglomérats aurifères, portés par l’unité Détritique Supérieure du Sillon Nord Guyanais, comprennent plusieurs faciès, marquant l’enfouissement progressif des dépôts, i.e. (i) « paléoplacers » à or-oxydes de type « Banket », (ii) coulées de débris à minéralisations syn-diagénétiques et/ou épigéné- tiques, (iii) faciès de sulfures disséminés épigénétiques, jus- qu’aux (iv) stockwerks de quartz épigénétiques mésothermaux. Ils se sont formés sous un métamorphisme de degré faible à moyen, préservant des reliques d’un événement hydrothermal précoce, comme l’indique la présence de galets hydrothermaux dans les conglomérats polygéniques ;

– les minéralisations aurifères orogéniques mésother- males (à Au-Fe-Cu dominant associé à des failles ductiles

– fragiles et à Au – As plus rare), encaissées par les séries volcaniques et sédimentaires métamorphisées du Paramaca et par de petits stocks de granite tardi-D2, sont toujours associées à des zones de failles majeures. Elles se sont généralement formées dans des conditions métamor- phiques de bas degré et sont caractérisées par une altéra- tion hydrothermale à chlorite + muscovite + albite + carbonates ± biotite. Muscovite + chlorite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants volcaniques et sédi- mentaires, tandis que albite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants granitiques.

Les fluides hydrothermaux ont plusieurs origines. Les isotopes du soufre, les éléments en trace et la minéralogie des sulfures provenant des différents types de gisements indiquent une composante magmatique constante, issue soit de l’extraction des fluides magmatiques au cours de la mise en place des magmas et de leur cristallisation, soit du lessivage de roches magmatiques riches en sulfures. Les isotopes stables (C, H, O) indiquent une participation dominante de fluides externes. Dans le cas du gisement aurifère de Dorlin de type stratiforme/”stratabound” et mis en place dans des conditions sub-aquatiques, les fluides externes ont une composition proche de l’eau de mer. Dans le cas des minéralisations formées à plus grande profondeur, comme les conglomérats (pro parte) et les gîtes mésothermaux aurifères, les fluides hydrothermaux ont une signature métamorphique. Ce sont des fluides d’origine indéterminée (magmatique, marine, météorique ?), équilibrés avec les roches encaissantes dans les conditions du métamorphisme régional.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

The Guyana Gold Board (GBB) has started the groundwork for the implementation of minted gold coins and ingots, allowing persons to make certified purchases similar to what can be obtained in the United States and other countries.

Chairman of the Board, Gabriel Lall, told Kaieteur News that the senior managers are working closely with both local and foreign companies to design and be ready to deliver for approval various designs for consideration and the associated cost for production.     

“We are expecting some progress reports within the next several weeks,” Lall stated.

He revealed that the board is pursuing local input in the designs and would later rely on overseas companies for the production since Guyana doesn’t have the capabilities to undertake the minting of the coins.

“We want to enshrine in the design, national attributes. We want local fingerprints on this at the initial stages in terms of design and appearance,” Lall stated.

He said further discussions will surround quality control between Guyana and the overseas company which will undergo the minting process.

“We plan to deal with reputable overseas organizations. We can do our own testing in terms of quality control, but we have been using several reputable companies for years,” Lall noted.

He said the Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman, has given the board a mandate to utilize gold-minted coins as a revenue earning for the board. According to Lall, the Management team of the Gold Board has been moving to get something tangible to deliver.

Guyana has previously issued commemorative gold coins, which were released by the Bank of Guyana. Businesses and individuals tend to hold or invest in gold through gold coins, gold bars, and gold bullion. These items can then be traded.

Minister Trotman stated that Government envisions that the Gold Board will move away from just burning gold and shipping it overseas.

“This year, we will be moving to producing commemorative coins and ingots so that people can come and buy gold as Guyanese.

If I am a citizen of Canada or visitor to Canada or the U.S, I can go and buy gold and it comes with a certificate and a number. I believe that is where we are heading. I am happy that the board is responding to this,” Trotman stated.

15. Bella Italia, Dolce Vita, Goethe, Bellíssima Geologia at Limone sul Garda

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15. Bella Italia, Dolce Vita, Goethe, Bellissima Geology at Limone sul Garda – V.180817

15.0 Introduction:

This is a short story on one of our discovery trips, with my dear family, that I wish to share with you, using my own pics.

It is about travelling around Lago di Garda, history, literature and about the superb geology and tectonics of this region.

Enjoy and please visit if you have the opportunity.

> J.W. Goethe, September 13, 1786:<

” This morning at three o’clock I set sail from Torbole with two oarsmen.

The wind was favorable at first, so we made good use of our sails. The morning was stupendous yet overcast, and it was tranquil at dawn. We sailed before Limone with beautiful, lush terraced gardens of lemon trees.

The garden had rows of square white pillars evenly spaced and arranged in tiers up along the hillside. Large wooden beams sat on top of these pillars and were used to cover the plants in winter. Our slow progress made it possible to observe and contemplate such delightful things.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – west flank – MCAL

Once we passed Malcesine, the wind completely changed direction and blew northward as usual “.

The words uttered by J. W. Goethe’s Mignon seem written for the landscape of Limone: Knowest thou where the lemon blossom grows, In foliage dark the orange golden glows, A gentle breeze blows from the azure sky, Still stands the myrtle, and the laurel, high? ”

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Contents

15.0 Introduction

15.1 Limone sul Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

15.5 Geology – Sovracorrimento di Tremosina

15.6 Geology – Assetto Strutturale – Inquadramento geologic

15.7 Geology – Linea di Ballino

15.8 Geology – Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic)

15.9 Geology – Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

15.1 Limone sul Garda

is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy (northern Italy), on the shore of Lago di Garda.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Despite the presence of famous cultivations of lemons (the meaning of the city’s name in Italian), the town’s name is probably derived from the ancient lemos (elm) or limes (Latin: boundary, referring to the communes of Brescia and the Bishopric of Trento). In 1863-1905 the denomination was Limone San Giovanni.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Until the 1940s the city was reachable only by lake or through the mountains, with the road to Riva del Garda being built only 1932, but today Limone is one of the most renowned tourist resorts in the area.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

> Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limone_sul_Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

Ci sono luoghi e luoghi e pare proprio che questo, quanto a longevità, non abbia rivali in Italia. Parliamo di Limone sul Garda il paese dove fioriscono i limoni, un luogo speciale che già al solo nome evoca un senso di pace interiore.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Alcuni abitanti del borgo sono stati propriamente analizzati per capire quale sia quel “qualcosa in più” che rende più longevi e sembra che quel qualcosa sia stato trovato. Si tratta infatti di un’apolipoproteina identificata in alcuni abitanti del borgo, atta a tenere a bada malattie come l’infarto o l’arteriosclerosi. Ma non è solo questo.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Reference: http://siviaggia.it/notizie/limone-sul-garda-e-il-paese-piu-longevo-d-italia/159404/

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

con il suo classico stile italiano, ottima gastronomia e la sua atmosfera unica.Limone sul Garda è la meta ideale non solo per gli amanti del riposo, ma anche per coloro che vogliono esplorare la zona con escursioni o tour in bicicletta. Il Sentiero del Sole, come le altre diverse passeggiate tra gli ulivi, sul Monte Carone o sul Monte Preàls, sono un must durante il soggiorno a Limone. Alcune gite sono praticabili anche in mountain bike ed in e-bike.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

Oggi Limone è uno dei pilastri del turismo del Lago di Garda Bresciano. Il paesino venne costruito intorno al pittoresco porto e esercita la tipica atmosfera di un paese di pescatori. I bei palazzi e gli stretti vicoletti del centro storico che si inerpicano sui ripidi pendii del Dosso dei Roveri, incantarono famose personalità come Goethe, Lawrence e Ibsen.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Dalla chiesa di San Rocco (XVI secolo), situata proprio sopra il paese, si può godere di una fantastica vista del Lago di Garda. Altri luoghi d’interesse sono la Chiesa di San Benedetto con i suoi quattro altari in marmo e il pittoresco porto di Limone.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

La vegetazione è tipicamente mediterranea, con oleandri, palme e ulivi. Le famose limonaie, situate sulle terrazze alle pendici della Cima della Mughera, sono il simbolo della località.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Riva del Garda – MCAL

Poco più a nord rispetto a Limone si possono visitare le rovine delle prime serre, costruite intorno al 17° secolo.

http://www.lago-di-garda.org/limone-lago-di-garda.asp

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – background east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

Reference: http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/80_Riva_del_Garda.pdf

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Limone sul Garda is located on the exhumed sediments of what used to be a Jurassic graben which was later inverted by Alpine compressional tectonic forces (25-6 my), in the Neogene epoch. These sediments are mainly of Sinemurian age (199-191 my).

Jurassic Graben - Lago de Garda - MCAL
Jurassic Graben – Lago de Garda – MCAL

The graben was a result of the first phase of breakup of Pangea. Pangaea or Pangea (means Whole Mother Earth in ancient Greek) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 200 million years ago, in this specific area of Lago di Garda (wiki/pangea).

West Lago di Garda - Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat - Arrow=Neogene inversion - MCAL
West Lago di Garda – Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat – Arrow=Neogene inversion – MCAL

Along the western border of the lake (right. on the picture), basinal deep water Jurassic deposits are present with thinly bedded cherty limestones (Medolo Formation), radiolarites (Upper Jurassic) and Calpionella limestones (Maiolica Lombarda Formation, Lower Cretaceous).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL

Limone sul Garda – MCAL – In particolare fu l’ultima glaciazione, quella di Wurm avvenuta tra gli 80 mila e i 10 mila anni fa, a “regalarci” i laghi glaciali prealpini di cui oggi possiamo godere gli spendidi paesaggi:
lago di Garda.

15.5 Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina

The spectacular west flank of Lago di Garda is represented by a major thrust body, the so-called Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina. As described in the following article.

” .Sintesi strutturale del sovrascorrimento di Tremosine-Tignale-Costa (Alpi Bresciane) by Pini, Gian Andrea, 1989. Rivisti RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA.

Il sovrascorrimento di Tremosine—Tignale—Costa è una grande struttura regionale nota da quasi un secolo, con vari approfondimenti successivi.

L’accavallamento, partendo dalla zona a N dl Limone, si sviluppa nei territori di Tremosine e di Tignale e continua a Sud bordeggiando le pendici orientali dei Monte Pizzoccolo e Pizzo Castello di Gaino, sino a raggiungere la Val Sabbia a N di Salò.

In queste sue parti più meridionali, l’accavallamento assume una caratteristica meno unitaria disperdendosi in più strutture, anche plicative (vedi a E a S del Colle di San Bartolomeo).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – Nappe – west flank Garda – MCAL

L’unitarietà di questa struttura è stata riconosciuta, pur con differenze nella cartografia, gia in altri lavori a scala regionale (v. CASSINIS e CASTELLARIN, 1961) e in carte geologiche di dettaglio (v. AA.VV., 1972).

Fatto nuovo dei rilevamenti e delle analisi strutturali da noi effettuate ê il riconoscimento di una distribuzione bimodale delle direzioni delle meso e macrostrutture presenti nelle successioni giurassico-cretaciche-eoceniche alla base dei sovrascorrimento:

Infatti sia le direzioni degli accavallamenti-faglie inverse che gli assi delle pieghe risultano distribuiti in direzioni N70-60° e N20-40°, in accordo con le recenti sintesi regionali “.

Lago di Garda - Geologic Map - MCAL
Lago di Garda Area – Geologic Map – MCAL

http://www.vialattea.net/esperti/php/risposta.php?num=7332

http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/80_Riva_del_Garda.pdf

15.6 –  I – ASSETTO STRUTTURALE (p.15,16)

II – INQUADRAMENTO GEOLOGICO

La zona del Foglio Riva è ubicata in un settore centrale delle Alpi meridionali. Le Alpi meridionali rappresentano la fascia strutturale della catena localizzata a S del Lineamento Periadriatico (o Insubrico) (fig. 2).

Si tratta della catena “Africa vergente”, dominata cioè da pronunciata vergenza verso S opposta a quella della catena “Europa-vergente”, presente a N del Lineamento (Catena Nordalpina).

Nel Foglio Riva mancano del tutto gli affioramenti del basamento cristallino e metamorfico e delle sue coperture tardo paleozoiche. Nelle aree del Foglio Riva l’inversione strutturale compressiva è essenzialmente riferibile all’evoluzione post-collisionale delle Alpi.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – left, Monte Baldo – MCAL

Solo a partire dal Miocene inferiore in poi le succes- sioni dei vari comparti del Foglio vengono deformate e incorporate all’interno dei sistemi strutturali compressivi, raggiungendo nel Neogene (Messiniano e Pliocene) l’assetto strutturale attuale.

Va anche ricordato che le successioni strati- grafiche marine più recenti, affioranti nelle aree del Foglio si spingono fino alla base del Miocene (formazione del M. Brione) e che le deformazioni successive al Miocene inferiore non possono essere controllate su scala locale sulla base dei depositi sintettonici a causa della loro assenza, determinata dal sollevamento e dall’erosione dei rilievi orografici in formazione.

Nel settore centrale delle Alpi Meridionali possono essere individuati tre principali assetti strutturali corrispondenti ad altrettante aree (fig. 2).

1) La zona orientale (Dolomiti occidentali – M.ti Lessini), a E del Fiume Adige. Nelle aree centro settentrionali di tale zona, l’evoluzione tettonica e magmatica post-ercinica, tardo-paleozoica, mesozoica e cenozoica è stata intensa- mente condizionata dalle imponenti manifestazioni magmatiche intrusive ed effusive del Permiano inferiore e quelle, di minore estensione e volumi, del Triassico medio che in gran parte risultano sovrapposte alle prime nelle Dolomiti occidentali.

Tali manifestazioni sono spiegabili come espressione della tettonica disgiuntiva embrionale probabilmente connessa allo smembramento iniziale della Pangea (VEEVER, 1989). Esse preannunciano con molto anticipo il rifting continentale vero e proprio, norico-liassico, della Tetide alpina.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – left is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

Nella parte meridionale di tale zona, un contributo non trascurabile è stato determinato anche dalle manifestazioni vulcaniche del Paleogene (basalti e loro differenziati) che hanno interessato il Veneto sud-occidentale (M.ti Lessini, Euganei) estendendosi anche al Trentino occidentale (zone ad E del F. Sarca).

Tutte queste manifestazioni contribuirono a creare un vasto nucleo di crosta sudalpina assai più rigida di quelle circostanti, intensificando la resistenza alle deformazioni tettoniche in questo comparto (CASTELLARIN & VAI, 1986; CASTELLARIN et alii, 1988).

Va inoltre osservato che questo nucleo a comportamento più rigido è anche quello, apparen- temente, più profondamente incuneato entro l’edificio nordalpino lungo il Lineamento Periadriatico (tra la Linea delle Giudicarie N e la Linea della Val Pusteria).

Riva del Garda - MCAL

Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.7 Linea di Ballino

The rather straight and steep and touristically spectacular western border of Lago di Garda, as seen on my pictures of the lake/mountain, is defined by two structural elements.

A major thrust, the Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina on which Limone sul Garda is located.

And by a macro-tectonic element, called Linea di Ballino, that runs parallel to the thrust.

This Linea di Ballino extends in SSW-NNE direction and has a length of more than 200 km.

” La Linea di Ballino, documentata come faglia sinsedimentaria liassica negli anni ‘70 e ‘80, si estende con continuità e, più o meno, con il medesimo orientamento e caratteri, anche verso Nord, fino in prossimità della Linea delle Giudicarie Nord (vedi Fogli Tione e Malè). Essa prosegue anche verso sud di Riva del Garda (p. 12).”

The rocks exposed in along the lake area represent sediments of the Late Triassic – Lower Jurassic rifting. They are mainly of Early Jurassic age (201-174 my). To the west the older sediments of Hettangian age (201 – 199 my) outcrop. Along the west coast of Lago di Garda itself, including Limone sul Garda, the rocks are of Sinemurian age (199-191 my). The area to the east of the lake consists of younger sediments of Toarcian age (183-174 my).

From west to east the rocks get younger and they move upwards in age, through the Early Jurassic.

15.8 ” Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic),

espressione del rifting continentale che precede la nascita della Tetide alpina, sono rappresentative della complessa zona di contrapposizione tra le successioni della Piattaforma di Trento e quelle del Bacino Lombardo (p.8) ” .

Figure: Upper Triassic (Norian) – Lower Jurassic (Lias) rifting. And its structural compression and inversion in Neogene.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda – right is West border – MCAL

Riva del Garda – west flank Lago di Garda

Sediments are:

1.5. – UNITÀ NORICO – RETICHE (p.29).

Calcare di Zorzino, Argillite di Riva di Solto, Calcare di Zu (rampa carbonatica (sub)tidale, margine di piattaforma, deposito di transporto in masa).

1.6. – UNITÀ DI PIATTAFORMA DELL’INTERVALO RETICO – AALENIANO (p.32). Unita costituisce un litosoma carbonatico di piattaforma uniforme nelle litologie e tipico della sponda occidentale del Garda e dei rilievi Bresciano.

1.7. – GRUPPO DEI CALCARI GRIGI E PIATTAFORMA TOARCIANA – AALENIANA (p.34).

Costituisce un’unità sintettonica di piattaforma carbonatica tra le più classiche del Lias sudalpino. Essa si è sviluppata sotto il controllo della tettonica estensionale del rifting norico liassico.

 

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL
Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Limone to Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.9 Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti

http://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?var=true&type=pdf&pid=egh-001:1990:83::930

ABSTRACT

Along the tectonic alignment Ballino-Garda a wide. N-S trending belt between the Po plain and the Tonale Line was affected by extensional tectonics linked to Liassic intracontinental rifting which disintegrated the area of the Southern Alps. i.e. the future southern continental margin of the western Tethys. The structural architecture of this belt is determined by normal master faults (very probably listric and/or domino systems) presently trending in a N-S and NNE-SSW direction and by nearly E-W trending fault systems which can be interpreted as kinematic links (transfer faults) between the different segments of the listric (or domino) major system.

Extensional tectonics prograded from W to E during the Liassic as documented by the drowning age of the peritidal carbonate shelf in the different sectors: Early Liassic (?Hettangian-Early Sinemurian) in the western parts of the belt (Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta and Sebino-Val Trompia areas); mainly Middle Liassic (?Late Sinemurian- Pliensbachian) between the western side of Lake Garda and the hills of Botticino (Brescia); mostly Late Liassic in the easternmost part of the belt. This last event marks the greatest eastward progradation of the Liassic rifting in this area.

The Liassic rifting displays a marked irregularity: to the North of Riva del Garda there is no intermediate block that was foundered around the beginning of the Middle Liassic.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

The Liassic evolution of the Ballino Line is strongly different N and S of Riva. To the N this structure is the principal divide between the basinal Lombardian and Venetian platform domains, whilst to the S, the line did not produce a major fault scarp in the Early Liassic and there was one continuous carbonate platform from the eastern Venetian area (Calcari Grigi Formation, lower member) to the Lombardian sector (Corna Formation).

The most characteristic, complete and thick basinal Liassic successions form syntectonic sedimentary prisms which are equivalent in geometry and stratigraphie patterns in the Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta zone and in the Sebino- Val Trompia area. They are not continuous in N-S direction, but are offset along E-W trending faults. This offset runs along a major E-W trending fault system (Vies-Trat. Lenzumo and Dosso del Vento Lines) and presumably has a western prolongation in the Val Trompia Line. These discontinuities are interpreted as parts of a transfer fault system which was the Liassic kinematic link between the two segments of the belt.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Visit, enjoy, ciaooo !

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.

 

14. Tauromaquia y Fotografia

14. Tauromaquia y Fotografía – V.270817

Contenido

1. Introducción

1.1 Bull fighting

1.2 Tauromaquia

1.3 Dolor del Toro durante la lidia

1.4 Referencias literatura

2. Fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano

3. Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas, Madrid

4. Plaza de Toros de Almadén – Corrida Goyesca

5. Hotel Plaza de Toros de Almadén

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

1) Introducción

1.1 Bull fighting and tauromaquia is detested by many people, for many valid reasons.

If you belong to this group please stop reading this post, as you would not like the contents. Sorry about that and thank you in advance.

In a major part of Spain and also elsewhere, bull fighting and running the bulls, still has a lot of followers and fans.

Toros - Los Romero - MCAL
Los Romero, dinastía taurómaca – 1686-1839 – Ronda – MCAL

1.2 Tauromaquia es un termino que dentro del Diccionario de la Real Academia Española consta como ” el arte de lidiar toros ” (2001, p.1455).

La lidia como la conocemos en la actualidad nace en el siglo XVIII, cuando se abandona el toreo a caballo para realizarlo a pie (Todo Sobre España, 2009), siendo éste el punto de partida para la “fiesta brava”.

Bien sabido es que las corridas de toros acarrean consigo años de tradición y cultura que se ven reflejados en el fortalecimiento de las relaciones humanas (Sabios del Toreo, s.f./2009) y en la creación de obras artísticas de toda índole (López, 2007; Molina, 1998).

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

One of the most notorious fans in the past was Ernest Hemingway. Such as in the Fiestas de San Fermin, 6-14th July in Pamplona.

Hemingway - Toros - MCAL
Hemingway – Toros – MCAL

These are my own pictures on bull fighting. Made in different parts of Spain and South América.

Solo las 3 foto’s blanco-negro son del famoso fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano:

La cogida por el toro ” Islero” de Miura que causo la muerte de Manolete en Linares, 29 agosto1947; ” Que disgusto que se va a llevar mi madre ” fueron las ultimas palabras de Manolete, antes de morir.

 

Toros - MCAL
My textbook on Toros – MCAL

1.3 Dolor del toro durante la lidia

Juan Carlos Illera, Director del Departamento de Fisiología animal de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, realizó un estudio con el objetivo de investigar, por una parte, los mecanismos de respuesta al estrés en el toro de lidia, y por otra parte, si la respuesta neuroendocrina modifica el umbral de dolor de estos animales.

Para esto, se han utilizado180 toros y 120 toros lidiados todos ellos en la Plaza Monumental de las Ventas de Madrid.

“Hemos llegado a comprobar analizando los medidores del estrés como son la hormona adenohipofisaria (ACTH-hormona adrenocoricotropa) y las hormonas adrenales.

Tanto de la corteza (cortisol) como de la médula (epinefrina y norepinefrina) que, el toro presenta, durante la lidia, menor liberación de ACTH y cortisol que durante el transporte.

Lo que significa que el animal tiene una mejor respuesta al estrés. Por supuesto que el toro tiene estrés, pero con estos análisis hemos podido demostrar que éste, es significativamente más elevado, por ejemplo en el momento de salir al ruedo que durante o al completar su lidia”.

Otra parte del estudio fue intentar conocer el umbral del dolor mediante la medición de betaendorfinas en toros y novillos.

“La betaendorfina es un opiáceo endógeno y la hormona encargada de bloquear los receptores de dolor (nocireceptores) en el sitio donde éste se está produciendo, hasta que llega un momento que deja de sentirse dolor”.

1.4 Referencias literatura
Just a few references on bull fighting. There are websites and libraries full with books on tauromaquia.

A. http://www.rtve.es/noticias/20141104/fotografo-taurino-francisco-cano-canito-premio-nacional-  tauromaquia/1042226.shtml

B. http://www.abc.es/cultura/toros/20150828/abci-manolete-antes-morir-disgusto-201508271730.html

C. http://www.malagahoy.es/toros/documental-metraje-fotografo-taurino-Canito_0_653334686.html

D. https://www.casadellibro.com/libro-mitos-de-cano-canos-legends/9788493570101/1616938

E. http://www.tauroweb.es/plazas-de-toros.php?plaza_id=57

F. http://tauromaquiarte.weebly.com/origen-e-historia.html

2) El fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano “Canito”

(Alicante, 1912) ha sido galardonado por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte con el Premio Nacional de Tauromaquia 2014 al considerar el jurado que su trabajo es “una antología gráfica de todos los hitos y manifestaciones” de la Fiesta.

Francisco Cano - Fotógrafo Taurino - MCAL
Francisco Cano – Fotógrafo Taurino – MCAL

Cano: una vida de fotografía taurina

El galardonado vivió durante la Guerra Civil en Madrid en casa de su amigo Gonzalo Guerra Banderas, quien le introdujo en el mundo de la fotografía.

Poco a poco, le fueron encargando reportajes grandes maestros de la época como Domingo Ortega, Pepe Luis Vázquez o Luis Miguel Dominguín Aunque toda su vida fue freelance, el premiado ha sido colaborador habitual de publicaciones como ABC, El Ruedo, Aplausos Marca.Mantuvo una estrecha relación con la familia Dominguín, especialmente con Luis Miguel, al que acompañó a Linares (Jaén) el 29 de agosto de 1947, en el que el fotógrafo logró el mayor éxito profesional de su carrera, al ser el único reportero que hizo un reportaje gráfico de la cogida y la muerte de Manolete. Las imágenes que tomó Cano aquella tarde y la madrugada siguiente dieron la vuelta al mundo.

Manolete - toro Islero de Miura - plaza toros Linares - MCAL
Manolete – toro Islero de Miura – plaza toros Linares – MCAL

Su fotografía de Manolete ya amortajado con el crucifijo entre las manos fue una de las imágenes que tuvo mayor repercusión en la prensa de la época y generó un gran impacto en España.

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Francisco Cano – Tauromaquía – MCAL

El jurado del Premio Nacional de Tauromaquia ha estado compuesto, además, por Luis Alberto de Cuenca, Juan Diego Vicente Hernández, María Teresa Cobaleda, Ignacio Lloret, María del Mar Mayoral, Antonio Petit Caro, Pío García-Escudero, Beatriz Badorrey y José Rodríguez Sanz-Pastor, y el torero Paco Ojeda, premiado en la anterior edición.

Córdoba - Manolete - Casa Natal
Córdoba – Manolete – Casa Natal – My own picture

Artículo: El último día de Manolete.

https://elpais.com/elpais/2018/08/27/actualidad/1535376595_474975.html

3) Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas (Las Ventas) – Madrid

Is a famous bullring located in Madrid, Spain. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Ventas)

Tauromaquia - Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

Situated in the Guindalera quarter of the district of Salamanca, it was inaugurated on June 17, 1931. It has a seating capacity of 25,000.

This bullring was designed by the architect José Espeliú in the Neo-Mudéjar (Moorish) style with ceramic incrustations. The seats are situated in ten “tendidos”. The price of the seats depends upon how close they are to the arena and whether they are in the sun or the shade (the latter being more expensive).

The bullfighting season starts in March and ends in October; bullfights are held every day during the San Isidro Fiesta, and every Sunday or holiday during the season. Bullfights start at 6 or 7pm and last for two to three hours.

“Las Ventas” is located in the east of Madrid.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

The Plaza de Toros of Las Ventas is considered the most important bullring in the world, the Mecca of bullfighting,  the arena where all matadors want to succeed.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

It is also the most demanding audience in the world, and few bullfighters reach the absolute triumph, the exit through the Puerta Grande of Madrid: less than 100 bullfighters since it opened in 1931.

Tauromaquia - Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

Las Ventas is a seasonal bullring, in which bullfights begin at the end of March and end in October, normally on Sundays.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

The most important bullfighting festival of the world is the Feria de San Isidro, patron of the city of Madrid, which takes place in May, with about 30 festivities.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

For more information on times and prices of bullfights, please visit the website www.las-ventas.comg

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

4) Plaza de Toros en Almadén

La vida de los toreros observado y vivido antes, durante y después de la corrida de toros. A unique experience behind the scenes.

Corrida de Toros Goyesca - Almadén - MCAL
Corrida de Toros Goyesca – Almadén – MCAL

Patrimonio de la Humanidad desde 2012

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL

Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La Plaza de Toros de Almadén es una de las más antiguas, data del siglo XVIII (año 1755 aprox.), tras la Plaza de Toros de las Virtudes, en Santa Cruz de Mudela.

La construcción de la Plaza de Toros de Almadén está íntimamente vinculada a la del Real Hospital de Mineros de San Rafael.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCALPlaza de Toros – Almadén – Goyesca – MCAL

Es una construcción de planta hexagonal, con veinticuatro viviendas de dos plantas en su exterior, y portadas y balcones de rejería, por lo que forma un conjunto urbano verdaderamente original.

A principios de agosto de 1752, el superintendente de las minas, que por aquel entonces era D. Francisco Javier De Villegas, ante las frecuentes epidemias y la alta mortandad de la población y de los forzados que trabajaban en las minas, propuso la fundación del Real Hospital de Mineros de San Rafael.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – Puesto: Tendido 1, bajo, Barrera – MCAL

Otra curiosidad de la plaza de Almadén es la de contar con toques específicos de clarín, incluido el toque de muerte, hoy día en desuso.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – Capa para la Lidia –  MCAL

 

 

 

 

 

Por la plaza de Almadén pasaron, entre otros muchos, Curro Guillén, Juan León, “Paquiro”, “Cuchares”, “Lagartijo”, “Costillares” y Rafael Bejarano. Cuentan que se cantaba en Córdoba una coplilla, en referencia a estos últimos, que decía:

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

Arrogante Costillares,
Anda vete al Almadén
Para ver matar bien toros
Al famoso “cordobés”

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

Las antiguas viviendas se sitúan en dos plantas rodeando el coso, que está formado a su vez por dos galerías en altura, la inferior construida en arquería encalada y la superior por pies derechos, zapatas y tirantes de madera. Finalizada su rehabilitación en el año 2003, hoy día se celebran importantes festejos taurinos y alberga también el Museo Taurino, sala de exposiciones, Oficina de Turismo, restaurante y hotel.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Goyesca – Salida por la Puerta Grande – MCAL
  • Dirección: Pza. Waldo Ferrer, s/n
Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La corrida goyesca (de Ronda o de cualquier otra ciudad) está compuesta por matadores de toros, banderilleros y picadores, todos ellos vestidos con trajes goyescos, una vestimenta surgida en el Madrid del siglo XVIII y utilizada hasta el siglo XIX por su burguesía para, posteriormente, extenderse su uso al resto de España.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL

Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La primera corrida goyesca de Ronda se celebró con el II Centenario del nacimiento del torero Pedro Romero en el año 1954 y por influjo de Cayetano Ordóñez en la plaza de toros de Ronda, propiedad de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Ronda. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrida_goyesca_de_Ronda

Almadén - España - MCAL
Almadén – España – MCAL

5) Hotel Plaza de Toros Hotel in Almadén

(http://www.hotelplazadetoros.com/index.php?idioma=in)

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – Plaza Toros visto desde el pasillo – MCAL

Historic and Artistic Monument since 1979, has recently been declared UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the local mining heritage. Both recognitions serve to demonstrate the uniqueness and Historic- Cultural Importance of this monument, that reopens its doors renewed as a magnificent 4 Star Hotel with any luxury and comfort you could imagine.

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – MCAL

“El Trapío” Restaurant, the perfect counterpart for our Hotel, is located on the ground floor of the Bullring, with superb views of the hexagonal arena from its outdoor terrace, arranged among the seats of the bullring proper.

In our restaurant you will be able to taste a luscious cuisine, in which tradition and modernity come together with such mastery that it has become a gastronomic benchmark in the region.

La cena es realmente tanto excelente como abundante. Recomiendo por ejemplo probar el Rabo de Toro de Lidia.

El trato tanto en el restaurante como en el hotel son sobresalientes.

El gerente del hotel hasta nos reservó los mejores sitios para la corrida. Inmediatamente detrás de los toreros y de su equipo de trabajo. Donde se suelen y se permiten ubicar solo a los mas allegados de los torereos. De tal forma pudimos tener la experiencia única de ver y de vivir detrás de las escenas lo que involucra la vida de un torero. Antes, durante y después de la corrida. Durante la cual 2 cortaron orejas y salieron sobre los hombros, por la puerta grande.

Una experiencia única.

Si tienen la oportunidad alójese en este histórico hotel. Único también porque los maestros Toreros se hospedan aquí mismo. Así tuvimos la espléndida oportunidad de verlos, hablarlos y observarlos con su protocolo y costumbres particulares antes de la corrida.

La vida de un torero vivido muy de cerca.

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – Corrida Goyesca -Salida por la Puerta Grande – MCAL

 

 

 

 

13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid

Metro - Poesía Subterránea - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacionál – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – V.160817

Explorer? Discover – Madrid,  My own pictures.

L.S.,

Since I discovered this website, below attached, I have been able to consult a lot of historical manuscripts and documents that previously were unable to see or access. And that I always longed to consult. Such as the original Diary of Christopher Columbus (Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolome de las, 1474-1566. My blog Nr.6, Chapter Various). And many other manuscripts that could only be seen by visiting El Archivo de Las Indias in Sevilla.

Enjoy !

The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain’s highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

The library’s collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, and 30,000 manuscripts.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

La Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (BDH) es el portal de la BNE a través del cual se pueden consultar de forma libre y gratuita las obras digitalizadas por la Biblioteca.

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

Los materiales disponibles incluyen libros impresos entre los siglos XV y XIX, manuscritos, dibujos, grabados, folletos, carteles, fotografías, mapas, atlas y grabaciones sonoras. Además, con la colaboración del Departamento de Música y Audiovisuales, se ha llevado a cabo una digitalización masiva de partituras.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

Desde la BDH se accede a la aplicación de Hemeroteca Digital. Permite la consulta de 900 publicaciones de prensa. La Hemeroteca, da acceso a la colección digital de prensa histórica española que alberga la Biblioteca.

Visit, Explore, Discover & Enjoy !

http://www.bne.es/es/Inicio/

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic