10. Lamborghini Urus SUV

10. Lamborghini Urus SUV

Explorer?
Very usefull for offroad geo-fieldtrips.
And G&G exploration sturdy field crews.

As well as for the thrill driving ” La corsa più bella del mondo “. The Mille Miglia route from Brescia to Roma and retour.
Or to conquer the exhilarating narrow S538. With 46 hairpin bends, on the dramatic steep Stelvio pass in the Dolomites, la bella Italia.
We already had these two tremendous thrills. No, not in a Lambo.

Such as also Il Campioníssimo Fausto Coppi did several times. As well as many others, during the Giro d’Italia in spring. Last year’s classic edition nr. 100 won by The Cycling & Flying Dutchman, Tom Dumoulin. Of course, all on their bycicles and with their own body HP’s and turbo’s. Not Lambo’s.

Lamborghini Urus SUV. Delivered from mid-year on.
4.0-litre twin turbo V8; 640bhp/850Nm; 305 kph; 3.6 sec., 0-100 km/h.
Re. www.wheels.ae., pp.28-35.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

9. Lithium: Batteries and Pegmatites

9. Lithium: Batteries and Pegmatites

1. Introduction

Explorer?

Energy generation is shifting from dirty to clean green. Doomsdays for petroleum and coal explorers 🎩.

Every country is supposed to adhere to a Green State Development Strategy (GSDS).

Lithium is a key ingredient in the manufacture of lithium ion batteries, battery storage units, electronic devices.

The inventor of lithium-ion battery (LIB) used for cellular phone and notebook computer is Akira Yoshino (吉野 彰 Yoshino Akira, born 30 January 1948) a Japanese chemist. Fellow of Asahi Kasei Corporation and professor of Meijo University. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akira_Yoshino

https://www.greenbiz.com/article/conversation-lithium-ion-battery-pioneer

Batteries boom enables world to get half of electricity from wind and solar by 2050 (June 19th, 2018, Bloomberg). https://about.bnef.com/blog/batteries-boom-enables-world-get-half-electricity-wind-solar-2050/

Coal to shrink to just 11% of global electricity generation by mid-century, from 38% now, as comparative costs shift heavily in favor of wind, solar and batteries

Solar and wind are set to surge to almost “50 by 50” – 50% of world generation by 2050 – on the back of precipitous reductions in cost, and the advent of cheaper and cheaper batteries that will enable electricity to be stored and discharged to meet shifts in demand and supply.

2. Li geology (petrogenesis, anatexis origin, liquidus): direct relationship with Mass extenction of petroleum explorers.

Understand why Paris Accord 2015 and Li pegmatites of pristine Archaean 3.6-2.7 Ga crust will contribute to mass extinction of the “dirty” explorers population.

They will become jobless, part of the industrial heritage.

Alternatively?

Go Renewable-Green&Hot (RGH).

As a Li rocker-trader, geothermal hot H2O explorationist, windmills entrepreneur.

Keep on rock-ing-rolling-drilling with Satisfaction as https://youtu.be/nrIPxlFzDi0 25 May, London Stadium.
Of course, now off course and in “off-green”. The sustainable color en vogue.

Certainement mes chère madames et monsieurs, oui, oui.

1. Pilbara Minerals Pilgangoora mine in WA will be one of the world’s largest lithium mines. The PIlgangoora Lithium-Tantalum deposit-Geological overview and evolution of discovery. J. S. Holmes-Pilbara Minerals Limited, jholmes@pilbaraminerals.com.au – https://lnkd.in/eEuFZAC

2. Petrogenesis of lithium-rich pegmatites.D.B. Steward,1978 – https://lnkd.in/eBR4xbx

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

8. Por si acaso No regreso…

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

Video, Alma Llanera por Simón Diáz:

https://youtu.be/4bRWvupRaLE

Preface

This blog is dedicated to all Venezuelans, para todos los Venezolanos.

This is our tribute to You and to Venezuela. Thanking you for the splendid time we were allowed to have with you all. Muchísimas graciás de corazón, un gran abrazo para nuestros amigos y familiares etc. etc..

Venezuela is a country very dear to me and my family. Located 60 south of the little rock where I was born, that I could often see with the naked eyes on clear days. It is the country where I began my geology and explorations career. Where I got the unique opportunity to enjoy each and every day. Where I was accepted to be an integral part of the local society and to assimilate with friends, colleagues, people. Everywhere.

Where I could develop my career, know how, expertise. With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas and PDVSA. Where I was so lucky to participate in important petroleum discoveries and thus to contribute to progress of the country.

Where I could study and graduate again, following my first Alma Mater in Leiden, Holland, now at the Universidad Central de Caracas.

Where we happily got married and where my son grew up the first part of his youth.

Such as in our most precious apartment that I was then able to acquire. On the fifth floor, mahogany floor inside, with a 270 degrees panoramic mountain view. A place with 24h/365 days spring climate. In a fully equipped brand new condominium. With marble and granite floors, a large heated swimming pool, tennis and basket ball courts, opulent gardens where to stroll and meet with neighbours, 2 private parking spots, 24h security guards, 6 meter diameter satellite outdoor tv antenna, 2 giant saloons especially for parties and meetings with neighbours.

With the light fog and clouds ascending from the valley of Potrerito and Arte Murano, visiting us every day at around sunset via the balcony. Idyllic.

We literally live in the Clouds, we used to joke.

Area donde nacio y creció también Cecilio Acosta. Humanista y uno de los más polifacéticos escritores y pensadores del siglo XIX. Muy amigo del poeta cubano José Martí, que vio la luz en el pueblo cercano San Diego de los Altos en febrero, 1818. Vivió por esas montañas hasta que tuvo 13 años. Con esos paisajes seguramente se inspiró para escribir su mejor poema: “La casita blanca”. Cual ofrece una descripción idílica de un paisaje rural en endecasílabos de gran musicalidad. En pocas pinceladas dibuja su tierra natal. Las montañas de San Diego en Los Altos, muy similar a como también nosotros nos sentimos en la cercana San Antonio de Los Altos, ahora de antaño:

“Haya no lejos alfombrada loma / Que se alce apenas a la tierra llana, / Y allí subas a ver cada mañana, / Si el alba ríe, o cuando el sol asoma!” (Obras V: 412)”.

Etc. etc. etc.

Simply, part of Paradise.

” Chinito, eres uno de los nuestros, un Venezolano re-encauchado ” my friends soon used to joke amiably to me at work.

It certainly was a moveable feast and incredible feat.

” Solo te acompaño en tus futuros andanzas de explorador petrolero por el mundo, si me prometes que vamos a vivir igual o aún mejor de chévere que aquí, me aseguró muy severamente…

Te lo juro y te lo prometo, mi Amorrrr…susurré. Igual que este 20 de diciembre ante el cura en la iglesia de Prado de Maria “, …anadiendo,

” pero, vamonos pronto. Porque esto aqui se viene p’abajo. Por seguro. Pedro y los 6 otros ya vendieron sus casas y volaron para otros horizontes. Unos se fueron a Australia, otros EEUU, Canada, Espana y Portugal. Acuérdate, camaron que se duerme se lo lleva la corriente. El dolar esta por 33. El sueldo anda casi por el suelo, calculado en dolares. Estaría ganando allí mas con el seguro social, aun si estuviera sin trabajo. El puesto fijo de jefe que me ofrecio esta petrolera paga 15 veces mas que aquí y en moneda fuerte, dólares.

Ademas. Etuve estudiando todos los reportes del FMI en la biblioteca en Intevep. La situacion es muy diferente y mucho mas grave de como lo pintan. Y como dicen el Sr. Presidente dr. Lusinchi y su secretaria dona Blanquita, todos los días en la tele….anno 1989″.

La pude cumplir, woww, G.A.D.

(P.D. Muy, muy,muy lamentablemente, pero mis premoniciones se hicieron realidad. Tal como lo explico muy claramente luego en 1988 y 1999 ex-presidente Carlos Andres Perez en sus celebres entrevistas con Napoleon Bravo y Marcel Granier:

” Avanzamos hacia el caos. Nuestro pueblo vive una inconsciencia inverosimil. Que lo ha llevado a una ceguera insólita. Vamos a hundir al pais en una tragedia que ya no debería volver a vivir jamas, nunca Venezuela. Parece que tenemos que llegar hasta abajo, trepidar sobre el fondo para que volvamos a levantarnos……Una dictadura de Chavez….”.

Y en el profundo y premonitorio análisis psicológico hecho por Gabriel Garcia Marquez en 1999:

El enigma de los dos Chavez. Terminando su brillante articulo con “…Y el otro, un ilusionista, que podia pasar a la historia como un despota mas.”

La suerte de la democracia Venezolana a partir del 1999?

Similar a los sucesos en el thriller de Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Cronologia de una muerte anunciada,

Chronology of a Death Foretold.

Amen.

R.I.P.).

Now it really hurts. Whether from the near distance while swimming in the pristine emerald blue sea of Curacao. Or from the far distance from wherever we are, to read, hear, and see what is happening to this paradisiac place. It is all Gone.

Caracas and Venezuela,

presently…?

Unfortunately, unwillingly and recklessly being forced to mimic:

” Paradise Lost ” of John Milton.

By ideology encapsulated, money driven buccaneers, privateers, devil-red coloured and chamelion-reddened opportunists, contemporary bus drivers, self-proclaimed-generals, Andorra & Panama-bank-account-holders, filibusters.

And whatever with red shirts, spectacles, etc..

The following chapters in it’s history, for sure, though in the very far, far distance… ?

” There is Never Any End to Caracas “ followed by ” Paradise Regained “, also from John Milton.

https://youtu.be/1D1A9BTV8Eo

When I hear, listen, when we dance the following music, ahora definitivamente adictos a la salsa y bachata, we always think within others of Caracas, San Antonio de Los Altos and Ciudad Ojeda, where we lived.

And think of all our dear friends and family with whom fortunately we have continually been in contact with, since 1989 already.

The lyrics of these following songs for sure represents what the each of the some 5 million Venezuelan diaspora emigrants on this globe now feel deep in their own heart and soul.

A feeling that we equally share with You all.

de Celia Cruz

LETRA POR SI ACASO NO REGRESO

Por si acaso no regreso,
yo me llevo tu bandera;
lamentando que mis ojos,
liberada no te vieran.

Porque tuve que marcharme,
todos pueden comprender;
Yo pensé que en cualquer momento
a tu suelo iba a volver.

Pero el tiempo va pasando,
y tu sol sigue llorando.
Las cadenas siguen atando,
pero yo sigo esperando,
y al cielo rezando.

Y siempre me sentí dichosa,
de haber nacido entre tus brazos.
Y anunque ya no esté,
de mi corazón te dejo un pedazo-
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Pronto llegará el momento
que se borre el sufrimiento;
guardaremos los rencores – Dios mío,
y compartiremos todos,
un mismo sentimiento.

Aunque el tiempo haya pasado,
con orgullo y dignidad,
tu nombre lo he llevado;
a todo mundo entero,
le he contado tu verdad.

Pero, tierra ya no sufras,
corazón no te quebrantes;
no hay mal que dure cien años,
ni mi cuerpo que aguante.

Y nunca quize abandonarte,
te llevaba en cada paso;
y quedará mi amor,
para siempre como flor de un regazo –
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Y si no vuelvo a mi tierra,
me muero de dolor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
A esa tierra yo la adoro,
con todo el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Tierra mía, tierra linda,
te quiero con amor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
Tanto tiempo sin verla,
me duele el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
cuando me muera,
que en mi tumba pongan mi bandera.

Si acaso no regreso,
y que me entierren con la música,
de mi tierra querida.

Si acaso no regreso,
si no regreso recuerden,
que la quise con mi vida.

Si acaso no regreso,
ay, me muero de dolor;
me estoy muriendo ya.

Me matará el dolor;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor.

Ay, ya me está matando ese dolor,
me matará el dolor.
Siempre te quise y te querré;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor, me matará el dolor.
me matará el dolor.

Si no regreso a esa tierra,
me duele el corazón.

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

La Vanguardia, 30 Agosto 2018:

” Con los pies llenos de ampollas y el estómago vacío, los caminantes venezolanos recorren más de 200 kilómetros para llegar (de Cúcuta) a Bucaramanga.

Meten en un bolso los recuerdos de toda su vida y se arman de valor para recorrer el vasto territorio colombiano “.

” Himno Nacional: Gloria al bravo pueblo

Mas que nunca ahora se aplica y se debe de hacer, lo que dice el precioso himno nacional. Con texto ya escrito en 1810 por Vicente Salias.

FYI:

Dos compatriotas de mi pequeña isla natal dushi Curacao fueron próceres en la lucha de Simon Bolivar para la Independencia.

Felipe Luis Brión Detrox (Curazao, 6 de julio de 1782 – Curazao, 27 de septiembre de 1821) fue un militar curazoleño-venezolano que luchó en la Guerra de independencia de Venezuela alcanzando el grado de Almirante de las Marinas de Guerra de Venezuela y la Gran Colombia.

Manuel Carlos María Francisco Piar Gómez (Willemstad, Curazao; 28 de abril de 1774Angostura del Orinoco,116 de octubrede 1817) fue un militar venezolano de origen curazoleño, prócer de la Independencia de Venezuela. Y además dentro de los canales de la historia republicana venezolana es reconocido como el Libertador de Guayana y Generalísimo Invicto, por haber disputado 24 batallas y no haber sido derrotado.

Simon Bolivar y sus 2 hermanas vivieron en Curacao, donde fueron cobijados y bien recibidos cuando se tuvieron que escapar de Venezuela.

The Octagon Museum houses the Bolívar exhibit in memory of the Curaçao connection to Simón Bolívar (1783-1830). In 1812 after the first stage of the revolt in Venezuela had failed, Bolívar took refuge on the island of Curaçao. He and his two sisters arrived penniless and had to rely on the generosity of friends on the island. Lawyer and merchant Mordechai Ricardo lodged them in two houses. The two sisters stayed in the octagonal building by the sea, while Bolívar worked an studied in a small house on a hill overlooking the busy harbor of Willemstad.

Alma Llanera, tiene su origen y esta basada sobre una composición del músico Jan Gerard Palm músico de Curacao. Es un “cover” hecho por Pedro Elias Gutiérrez en 1914.The Engelenzang waltz is not only one of the most beautiful but also the oldest known Curaçaon waltz and dates from before 1867. Jan Gerard Palm wrote this waltz dreaming of singing angels visiting him to take away his soul… The second part of Palm’s waltz Mita was reused by Pedro Elias Gutiérrez in 1914 when he composed Alma Llanera. It became one of the most popular joropos from Venezuela.

que el yugo lanzó,
la ley respetando,
la virtud y honor.

¡Abajo cadenas!
gritaba el señor,
y el pobre en su choza
libertad pidió.
A este santo nombre
tembló de pavor
el vil egoísmo
que otra vez triunfó.

Gritemos con brío:
¡Muera la opresión!
Compatriotas fieles,
la fuerza es la unión;

y si el despotismo
levanta la voz,
seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dio.”

“Yo no vi las casas, ni vi las ruinas. Yo sólo vi las llagas de los hombres. Se están derrumbando como las casas, como el país en el que nacimos. No es posible soportar más. A este país se lo han cogido cuatro bárbaros, veinte bárbaros, a punta de lanza y látigo. Se necesita no ser hombre, estar castrado cómo los bueyes, para quedarse callado, resignado y conforme, como si uno estuviera de acuerdo, como si uno fuera cómplice”.

Fragmento de la novela “Casas muertas” escrita por Miguel Otero Silva en 1955, que describía el estado de destrucción de un pueblo golpeado por la epidemias y el éxodo de sus habitantes, el pueblo de Ortiz.

Hoy como si se retrocediéra sesenta y tres años en el tiempo pareciera que asistiéramos a un nuevo capítulo de aquella realidad descrita por Otero Silva. Esta vez a escala nacional.

Por si acaso no regreso – Celia Cruz

https://youtu.be/u548DVdZe9k

Celia Cruz, Cuando salí de Cuba:

https://youtu.be/0__RxpYQGtA

Gloria Estéfan, Mi Tierra:

https://youtu.be/WWAWQmhqWGo

Article: The Tragedy of Venezuela – WSJ.com, Anatoly Kurtmanaev, May 24, 2018:

https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-tragedy-of-venezuela-1527177202

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “

1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills

1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills V.070318

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences – Research in an Age of Info-glut. by Kristin Luker

3. Psychophysiological Responses to Salsa Dance. by  Laura Guidetti et al.

4. Why Is Dancing So Good for Your Brain?

5. Benefits of Salsa Dancing

5.1 Benefits from a Social perspective

5.2 Salsa is a great form of exercise

5.3. Dancing for Emotional Well-being

6. Dance Figures (100+)

Universalsa & La Bodeguita: Latin Dance Academy & Club
Universalsa & La Bodeguita: Latin Dance Academy & Club – Our teachers.
Salsa - MCAL
Salsa – book Cesar Miguel Rondon – MCAL

1) Introduction

Explorer ? Geoscientists ? Communication skills, leadership and competencies ? How to enhance them ? ?

A simple, unconventional, tip.
Just (learn to) dance. For example. Salsa and bachata.

In addition to all the physical and psychological benefits, of dancing in general, it helps you to develop your leadership, communication skills and competencies.

Dancefree - Medellin - MCAL
Dancefree – Medellin – Our teachers Edison, Karina, Keren – MCAL

Why ??

Swift dancing is about efficiently, clearly, timely, gently and graciously communicating. Just as you have to do at work and with colleagues.

To do this the male has to show clear leadership and stewardship for the dance figures that he wants to execute. The female partner has to trust his focus and follow his signs.

It is about creating synergy, between the leader and the follower, both in private and in public, with your dance partner/colleague.

I did not get this, what I consider a ” communication skills ” subject and module earlier at school, university or during my executive MBA and M.Sc. Management.

We ventured to learn dancing salsa and bachata, just for fun ? It was one of our long standing wishes to swirl in a most free way, though based on a grounded dance structure, on the dance floor ? Such as by dancing and swinging on the tones of ” Cali Aji ” from Grupo Niche. And ” Oiga, Mira, Vea”  from Orquesta Guayacan, both classic songs and orchestra from Cali, Colombia.

We succeeded…

https://youtu.be/TbefdHhYvN0

https://youtu.be/4KXwgZourtc

“ Bailar es algo que te da vitalidad, que ayuda a expresar emociones, que nutre, que te hace sentir bien y que te eleva “, Sara Martín, famosa bailarina Madrileña de flamenco.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, personalised – prime leather – exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin

With the help of so many excellent end enthusiastic teachers at the salsa schools that now exist in different places on this globe.

Teachers, such as ?

Gilbert, Eva, Annemarie, Farai; Desmond; Edison, Karina, Keren; Navin, Daysi; Cyldra, Vanessa:

Hi all, many Thanks for your classes and patience !

I also discovered that swift dancing intrinsically has to do with clear leadership, stewardship and with following, in a seamless and harmonious way.

Ask your Human Resource department, for a course, for yourself together with your near colleagues ?

To improve communication skills in your group. And to promote teambuilding.

Such as when you have to dance the Cuban ” En Rueda ” salsa figure. Where you must fluently and efficiently communicate and interact fluently with many other colleagues.

” El baile es la poesia hecha con brazos y piernas “.

Enjoy. A bailarrrrr se dijo. Photo:

Salsa, Bachata, Communication skils development
Salsa, Bachata: also Communication skills and Leadership development – SalsaVentura – Our teachers Gilbert, Eva; Annemarie, Farai.

Our ” Graduation Party Salsa dancing “.

SalsaVentura – Teachers Gilbert and Eva.

After many years of daily, weekly hard work, classes, workshops and free dancing. At renowned dance academies in Holland, Dushi Korsou, Colombia etc. etc..

Our teachers - La Bodeguita - MCAL
Our teachers – La Bodeguita – Navin, Daysi – MCAL

2) Salsa Dancing into the Social Sciences – Research in an Age of Info-glut

Kristin Luker is Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt Professor of Law and Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. 

Table of contents:

  • 1. Salsa Dancing? In the Social Sciences?
  • 11. Living Your Life as a Salsa-Dancing Social
First LP with Salsa as title - MCAL
First LP with ” Salsa ” as title – MCAL

 

3) Psychophysiological Responses to Salsa Dance

Laura Guidetti1☯, Cosme Franklim Buzzachera2☯, Gian Pietro Emerenziani1, Marco Meucci3, Francisco Saavedra4, Maria Chiara Gallotta1‡, Carlo Baldari1‡* http://www.felecianastevenson.com/uploads/4/3/6/0/43607421/salsapsycho.pdf

These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, leather and personalised with initials – Mis ” Coca Colo’s ” classics, made exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin.

4) Why Is Dancing So Good for the Brain of an Oil Explorationist ?

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201310/why-is-dancing-so-good-your-brain

Dancers maximize cognitive function and muscle memory through practice.
Dancing improves brain function on a variety of levels. Two recent studies show how different types of practice allow dancers to achieve peak performance by blending cerebral and cognitive thought processes with muscle memory and ‘proprioception’ held in the cerebellum. Through regular aerobic training that incorporates some type of dance at least once a week anyone can maximize his or her brain function.
IMG_3636 - Salsa & Bachata
” Dancing The Dream “. Salsa & Bachata – 2018 – Official photoshoot in La Bodeguita Dance Academy & Club. Sollicited by and as our own contribution to the national health campaign promotion of GGD, Municipal Health Services, The Hague. Photoshoot by www.lodewijkphotography.com

5) Benefits of Salsa Dancing

http://www.dancingfever.co.uk/benefits-of-salsa-dancing/

Salsa dancing is completely inclusive and is suitable for anyone regardless of age, or level of ability. There is also a fantastic range of benefits gained from this dance. Music and dance have been a part of many different cultures for centuries. It has always been a part of celebration, ritual, exercise, communication and pleasure and whether they knew it or not way back when the dancing began, the health benefits were, and still are enormous!

5.1 Benefits from a Social perspective

Latin dance is a great way to develop new social relationships. In Latin America, Salsa dancing is a massive part of the culture and its social life. Within an established class setting, if the group of students are always the same, a natural understanding develops over time. Based on the fact of exercising together people discover an instinctive way to communicate with body language. Dancing is actually a way to express feelings, emotions, personality, thoughts, and is consequently a very direct instrument to develop new friendships. If the group is harmonic, it often happens that people decide to go out together to a Salsa event or other places other than the regular classes. Come along, make new friends and see new places!

Salsa - Salsaventura - 2017
Salsa – Salsaventura – 2017

5.2 Salsa is a great form of exercise

Salsa dancing is a unique form of exercise because it provides the heart-healthy benefits of an aerobic exercise while also allowing you to engage in a social activity.

Salsa Dancing;

– Builds endurance and stamina
– Helps with weight loss (Salsa Dancing on average Burns off 420 + calories per hour).
– Dancing can burn more calories an hour than riding a bike or swimming.
– Relieves stress
– Helps you release toxins
– Greatly increase your overall fitness and general well being
– Can lead to a reduced heart rate over time

Salsa - Salsaventura - 2017
Salsa & Bachata – Fina Dance Art Academy – Curacao – 2016

5.3 Dancing for Emotional Well-being

 ” El baile es la poesia hecha con brazos y piernas “.

Salsa dancing has been found to be a very good anti-stress therapy. Through dance an individual can release tensions, worries, and negative feelings. Dancing is great for overcoming shyness and as you realise that you are able to reproduce steps that seem so hard at the beginning, this becomes a fantastic boost in self-esteem. As a consequence of this, the body relaxes, and movements become lighter and more fluent.

Dancing in general has been found to be especially stimulating to the mind; this has been concluded by the New England Journal of Medicine who in their research found dancing can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia in the elderly.

Within this study, it was found that participants who were over the age of 75 who engaged in reading, dancing and playing musical instruments and board games once a week had a 7 percent lower risk of dementia compared to those who did not. In addition to this it was discovered that the participants who continued in these activities at least 11 days a month had a 63 percent lower risk!

“Dancing may be a triple benefit for the brain. Not only does the physical aspect of dancing increase blood flow to the brain, but also the social aspect of the activity leads to less stress, depression and loneliness. Further, dancing requires memorizing steps and working with a partner, both of which provide mental challenges that are crucial for brain health”. Varghese, J

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, leather, personalised – exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin

6. Dance Figures

Some of the hundred plus figures of Los Angeles and Cuban salsa styles that you may want to master.

  1. Mambo – Basic step
  2. Rumba – Side step
  3. Mambo with Rumba
  4. Right turn
  5. Right turn with open-break
  6. Cross body lead (CBL)
  7. Left turn
  8. Basic, CBL, Right turn
  9. Around the neck
  10. Back to back
  11. Copa + inside
  12. Hand throw during Copa
  13. Wrap behind the back
  14. Basic in the middle
  15. Check
  16. Copa and hook turn
  17. Copa
  18. Double handed right turn
  19. Hand throw
  20. Hook turn in the CBL
  21. Inside turn
  22. Inside, outside
  23. Inside, right
  24. Inside, switch, right
  25. Just as dealing cards
  26. Just let the right go
  27. Left turn and walk
  28. Left, right, right
  29. Outside turn
  30. Outside with one hand wrapped behind
  31. Right arm up, left arm up
  32. Right turn with arm styling
  33. Right turn with hand change
  34. Right, right, right
  35. Slide down on her arm
  36. Titanic
  37. Turn and hug
  38. Two turns for the guys
  39. Walk around her basic
  40. Open and close
  41. The Hammer bridge
  42. Brush into inside turn
  43. Check and pull
  44. Coca Cola
  45. Copa + inside or outside
  46. Double drop and catch
  47. Drop catch rainbow
  48. Elbow hook and and left turn
  49. Fake double inside turn
  50. Fast point
  51. Zapatos a la medida - d’Raso, Medellin
    Zapatos a la medida – d’Raso, Medellin
  52. Hands behind the back
  53. Hook turn and check
  54. In-rotation change hands
  55. Inverse check
  56. Just under the shoulder
  57. Cross Body Turn Plus
  58. Double Right turn R-R and R-L
  59. Mambo together – Butterfly
  60. Mambo together – Shoulder check
  61. Mambo together – SRT lady – SRT gent
  62. Mambo together – SRT lady
  63. Mambo together – Basic Step
  64. Mambo together – Basic Step and CBL
  65. Mambo solo – Suzy Q
  66. Mambo solo – 3 taps
  67. Mambo solo – SLT
  68. Mambo solo – SRT
  69. Mambo solo – Basics
  70. Mambo together – SRT lady – SRT gent
  71. Salsa Solo Cross Pass on 2 and 3
  72. Salsa Solo Marching
  73. Salsa Solo 4 Basic Steps
  74. Salsa Together – Show the World
  75. Salsa Together – Copa – Enchufa 1,5 SLT gent
  76. Salsa Together – Copa – Enchufa – Paperclip
  77. Salsa Together – Copa Parallel
  78. Salsa Together – CBL + DRT R_L
  79. Salsa Together – Double Right turn R-R and R-L
  80. Drop and Catch Paperclip_1
  81. Salsa Solo Suzy Q
  82. Salsa Shine – Half Flair
  83. Salsa Shine – Full Flair
  84. Salsa Together – Cross Body Plus
  85. Lead with inside turn
  86. Cucaracha
  87. Basic with Heel kick
  88. Rotating Basic
  89. Cumbia
  90. Enchufla
  91. Dile que no
  92. Guapeando
  93. Adios con la hermana
  94. Candado
  95. Candado P’arriba
  96. Ronde Kentucky
  97. Se fue, el uno
  98. Se fue, el dos
  99. Exibela
  100. Doce
  101. Zapatos a la medida - d’Raso, Medellin
    Zapatos a la medida – d’Raso, Medellin
  102. Setenta complicado con gancho
  103. Setenta y Nueve
  104. Ochenta y Ocho
  105. Noventa
  106. Cruce
  107. Tornillo
  108. Juana la Cubana
  109. Remolino
  110. Besito
  111. Abrazala
  112. El Salao
  113. Dedo de Lazaro
  114. Pasea arriba y complica
  115. Bebe
  116. La Jenny
  117. Thalia
  118. Niagara
Salsa & Bachata - Fina Dance Art Academy - Curaçao 2016
Salsa & Bachata – Fina Dance Art Academy – Curaçao 2016

Continue reading “1. Salsa Dancing and Development of Communication Skills”

6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

3. Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

4. La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos: Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America.

& History: How African Muslims “Civilized Spain”

https://www.globalresearch.ca/before-columbus-how-africans-brought-civilization-to-america/5407584

1) Introduction

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…”

Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

As a child at primary school, I became interested in Cristobal Colón and his voyages, during the history classes.

l was born and grew up on Curacao. An island in the Caribbean discovered by Alonso de Ojeda, one of the captains of the ships of Cristobal Colon, during his third voyage, in 1499.

Curazao, 1499, Descubrimiento - MCAL
Discovery of Curazao: 1499..descubriendo las islas de Curazao, p. 5. Noticia cronologica de algunos viajes y descubrimientos marítimos hechos por los Espanoles por Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin, 1803, 16 p. – http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000081158&page=1 – MCAL

Additionally, as a child, I was able to make 4 transatlantic crossings in cruise liners with my parents and family. Covering often about the same route. This made Colon’s voyages even more imaginable, appreciable, vivid and intriguing to me. Since I was 6.

My interest has persisted in reading about the travels of Colon. Discovery trips in search of the still unknown.

Also related with the fascinating history of the Caribbean, Middle and South America, soon afterwards brutally conquered and submitted by Spain.

La Conquista.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Estatua Cristóbal Colón – Madrid – my own pic. – MCAL

Columbus sailed from Palos de la Frontera on 3 August, 1492. With three ships, the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María.

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

We have visited the replica’s of his flagship Santa Maria (a “nao”,18 m. length; crew of 52) in different countries. Such as in Venezuela, Caracas, in the Parque del Este. In Barcelona, in the harbour.

And with the well known, famous ” Santa María ” in 1957 we made a transatlantic crossing with my parents, from Lisbon to Curacao. The Portuguese cruise liner, from the Companhia Colonial de Navegacao, in the sixties and seventies. First cruise liner to be hijacked the 9th January 1961 by Henrique Galvao. By a ” terrorist ” we would say in 2017.

Impressive the monument,dedicated to Colón and his crew, in Plaza Colon, Madrid.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – “…cruzaron por primera vez el océano y vieron el alba del Nuevo Mundo…” – Historical explorers and discoverers – my own pic. MCAL

Following are a few pages on the voyages that called my attention. Specific aspects. Such as what happened on the 12th October. This manuscript answers many questions that I had on Colon, his voyages and his life. Such as, what emotions did they have realising that they had discovered a new continent. What was going on, on the other ships and with the mariners?

Many of the original documents related to Colon are now freely available on internet. Such as in the open files of the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. Formerly one had to travel, long and expensive, to Spain, such as to Sevilla and the ” Archivo de las Indias “, to try to get a glimpse of these historic documents. As we indeed did in the past. Now they are available for everyone, just a click away.

Archivo General de las Indias - Sevilla - MCAL
Archivo General de las Indias – Impressive building, the former ” database” of all documents from Latin America, since its discovery .- Sevilla – my own pic. MCAL

I wish to share my own findings with you. Enjoy !

A few quotes of the pages that called my attention:

” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo “.

Nota: me hace pensar en los extranjeros, inmigrantes que hoy en día llegan diariamente en patera, desembarcando en las playas, entre los bañistas. Cargados de ilusiones para su futuro. Parecido a Colón? Los frailes del convento Santa Maria de la Rabida auxiliaron piadosamente a Colon y su hijo. Sin saber que seria el gran descubridor de América.

” …el 20 de Septiembre…Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles…p.16 “.

Nota: ya se percebía la cercanía de tierras.

“…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperación al furor…p. 17”.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?”.

Nota: 12 Octubre 1492, el Descubrimiento de America.

“…Procedió luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – List of the crew that accompanied Colón to America – Such as Juan Romero – my own pic. – MCAL

“…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extra habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo…Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro…tomando a bordo de la Santa María una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de inérprete…p.21 “.

Nota: estaban convencidos de estar en la India.

“…entretanto los celos y la envidia corroían las entrañas de Alonzo Pinzón…desapareció sin que sus compañeros supiesen el rumbo que seguía. Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego darles su nombreregresar el primeroa Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro…p. ?”.

Nota: los celos y la gran falsedád de Alonzo Pinzón.

“… Informados Fernando e Isabél del regreso de Colón, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de España acudió solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entró en la capital de Cataluña como un héroe…p. 26 “.

2) Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000048660

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000048660&page=1 (Manuscrito, 151 paginas)

Viajes Cristóbal Colón - Bartolomé de las Casas - Manuscrito - MCAL
Bartolomé de las Casas – Manuscrito Original de 150 paginas – Incluye los Viajes de Cristóbal Colón – MCAL
Los diarios originales de los cuatro (4) viajes colombinos se han perdido, pero los hechos se han podido reconstruir en parte gracias a otros documentos.
Del primer viaje (I) se conservan dos (2) extractos escritos por fray Bartolomé de las Casas.
Uno (1) de ellos es este que comentamos, que ingresó en la Biblioteca Nacional formando parte de la magnífica biblioteca del duque de Osuna, adquirida por el Estado.
Pero el dominico no utilizó el documento original, que estaba en los archivos reales, ni es seguro que el resumen lo hiciera él mismo; más bien parece que utilizara un texto ya abreviado.
Este resumen vio la luz por primera vez en el volumen I de la Colección de viajes? de Fernández de Navarrete en 1825, y fue ampliamente traducido y reproducido.
El otro extracto (2) está incluido en la Historia de las Indias del propio De las Casas, que también guarda nuestra Biblioteca Nacional, y fue elaborado en base al primer resumen y a la biografía de Colón que escribió su hijo Hernando.
El diario del segundo viaje (II) se ha reconstruido, en la medida de lo posible, mediante las historias del dominico y del hijo de Colón, ya que ambos consultaron el escrito del almirante.
Para el tercer viaje (III), los dos autores utilizaron el diario perdido y la relación que escribió Colón a los reyes, desde La Española, publicada también por Navarrete, tomándola del documento arriba citado, que entonces, según nota del editor, estaba en la biblioteca del duque del Infantado.
Hernando Colón acompañó a su padre en el cuarto viaje (IV), y, aunque era muy joven, no pudo olvidar, al escribir la biografía del almirante, los dramáticos hechos que le tocó vivir. Hernando cuenta en esta obra que su padre envió una carta (7 de julio de 1503) a los Reyes Católicos desde Jamaica. Es la misma que se conservaba impresa en la biblioteca de Juan de Saldierna, hacia 1629, citada por León Pinelo cuando publicó la primera edición de su Epítome. Lorenzo Ramírez de Prado, del Consejo de India tenía un manuscrito de la misma carta que, traducida al italiano, se publicó en Venecia en 1505.
Contenido
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariamente sin el prologo que hizo a los Reyes, que va a la letra y comiença desta manera (h. 1-67).
Historia del viaje que el almirante don Christoval Colon hizo la tercera vez que vino a las Indias quando descubrio la tierra firme, como lo envio a los Reyes desde la Isla Spanyola (h. 67v-76).
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariam…

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL

Colon – Discovery America – MCAL

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” …el 20 de Septiembre..Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles..p.16 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperacion al furor…p. 17 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…. Procedio luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “- MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extranos habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo….Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro….tomando a bordo de la Santa Maria una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de interprete…p.21 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “….entretanto los celos y la envidia corroian las entranas de Alonzo Pinzon…desaparecio sin que sus companeros supiesen el rumbo que seguia….Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego de darles su nombre, regresar el primero a Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro….p.22 ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “… Informados Fernando e Isabel del regreso de Colon, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de Espana acudio solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entro en la capital de Cataluna como un heroe…p. 26 “. – MCAL

3) Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000202198&page=1

Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos - MCAL
Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos – MCAL

4) La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000129231&page=1

Colón - carta jeográfica...P.135 - MCAL

Colón – carta jeográfica…p.135 – MCAL

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos:

http://Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés – V060917

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Hernan Cortes
  3. Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado en 1770.

1) Introduction

Geschiedenis van Amerika, I and II. By Prof. Dr. C. Goslinga, Drs. C. van Noort, H.E. Sjak Shie.

One of my history books on HBS-B, Maria Immaculate Lyceum, Curacao, in the sixties.

Mister Herman Sjak Shie, one of the authors of the textbook was my history teacher. Always very enthusiastic, explaining the historical context. Such as when talking about Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) the conquerer of Mexico.

Mr. Sjak  Shie could present historical subjects in a most interesting way. I can still hear his clear voice and remember the black-white picture of Cortes in the textbook. Even in the afternoon, at the end of the school day, in the hot tropics and without air conditioning.

Amazing, nowadays accessible and available to read, all for free, on your own PC, tablet or smartphone. The original historical manuscript of 553 pages. This edition published 1770 and perfectly legible.

En general es la historia de la Conquista, de guerra y de invasion en Mexico. De como los Espanoles conquistaron y sometieron a fuerza de armamentos, a Mexico y a su poblacion y cultura india.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

These are a few of the pages and pictures that called my attention. Questions that I had assembled since long ago? While scrolling through the digital book, a lot of answers. A digital exploration and discovery voyage, such as:

The original map of La Nueva Espana, with a description of the route of his voyage on land, from coastal Vera Cruz to Mexico.

The Mexican calendar, somewhat different from the European. With 18 month’s in a year. The names of the months’s and the names of the days of each month.

” Quimichoccan: Ratones por todas partes, o por todo el rededor “, p.36.

” esta los vestigios , o los senales de los Pueblos que quemo Cortes …. p.37″.

” se dejo caer por entre los dos Volcanes a Chalco, Cuitláhuac (hoy Tláhuac) e Iztapalapa, Ciudades situadas en la Laguna, y desde esta ultima hizo su primera entrada en Mexico, donde fue recibido de Pa, y con toda magnificencia. p. 39″.

” volvió a Mexico, donde hallo revueltos los humores de los Mexicanos, que ocasionaron la muerte de su Emperador, y Monarca Muteczuma, y obligaron a Hernan Cortes a resolver su salida de noche, que aun se conoce por la noche triste, por las funestas consecuencias y trabajos que padecieron los Espanoles…p.40, 41 “.

‘ Papel en que escribian. ..se hacia de las Pencas de el Maguei. o Pita, que llaman en Espana: las echaban a podrid en Agua, lababan el hilo de ellas, ablandado le estendian para componer su Papel gruesso, que después brunian para pintar en el, p.55″.

‘ Carta de relación embijada a su Sacra Majestad del Emperador nuestro Señor, por el capitán general de la N.Espana.llamado D. Fernando Cortes. En la cual hace relación de las tierras…(2)…de la cual Ciudad, y Provincia es Rey un grandísimo Señor llamado Muteczuma…(4) del dicho Muteczuma, y de sus ritos, y ceremonias, y de como se sirve…p. 85″.

Etc. etc. etc.

Please join and enjoy ???

2) Hernan Cortes

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernán_Cortés)

Hernán Cortés - MCAL
Hernán Cortés – MCAL

This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Cortés de Monroy and the second or maternal family name is Pizarro.

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue a livelihood in the New World. He went to Hispaniola and later to Cuba, where he received an encomienda and, for a short time, became alcalde (magistrate) of the second Spanish town founded on the island. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, an expedition which he partly funded. His enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored.

Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others. He also used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter; she would later give birth to his first son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of being punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died peacefully but embittered, six years later.

Because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it has become difficult to assert anything definitive about his personality and motivations. Early lionizing of the conquistadors did not encourage deep examination of Cortés. Later reconsideration of the conquistadors’ character in the context of modern anti-colonial sentiment also did little to expand understanding of Cortés as an individual. As a result of these historical trends, descriptions of Cortés tend to be simplistic, and either damning or idealizing.

3) Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado 1770.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz

Historia Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz – MCAL

Contenido - Libro Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Contenido – Libro Hernan Cortes – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan - MCAL
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Mexico - MCAL
Mexico – MCAL
Mexico - Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Mexico – Hernan Cortes – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL

 

5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela

5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela – V140418

Contents

0. Introduction

1. Geology

2. Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana

3. Montagne d’Or – Norgold

4. French Guiana – Montagne d’Or – Columbus Gold Corporation

5. Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana) – Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado (1999).

6. Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints – Jean-Pierre MILESI et. al.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

8. Guyana: Maps major gold deposits

Gold - El Callao - MCAL
Gold – El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

0) Introduction

The first years of my career as a geologist in Venezuela were as a hard-rocker and field mineral exploration consultant.

With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas (Ministry of Energy and Mines, Geological Survey), headquarters El Silencio, Torre Norte, Caracas.

One of my assignments was to assist with exploration in Minerven, Gold Company, in the town El Callao, eastern Venezuela. This area once was the major gold producing area in the world. My task included exploration surveys in the giant gold mine ” Colombia ” and surrounding area. As a ” gold digger “. Exploration? A simple focus. Discover, map and indicate where the quartz veins are with lots of gold.

Gold mine, Colombia - El Callao - MCAL
Gold mine, Colombia – El Callao – MCAL

El Callao https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Callao_Municipality:

El Callao is a most interesting mining town.

Where you can have a golden time. As it is all about gold in this town. From the gold shops on the plaza Bolivar. To the golden morning sun and golden sunset.

Where surprisingly, though deep in the Venezuelan hinterland, on the Early Proterozoic of some 2,2 billions years old, you can hear original Caribbean calypso music.

Where surprisingly you can meet native trigueñita beauties with gold blond hair and sparkling green eyes. A precious human cocktail thanks to the lovesome interaction of fortune seekers from diverse countries that came in rushing for the gold. Vintage, limited editions.

Where you can dance calypso. Till the golden morning sun, in the weekends.(https://youtu.be/XsOH4rtE1lI). 

Many first generation Callao miners came from Trinidad, in the former centuries. The older generations still spoke english when I worked there.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

The gold mine at El Callao, started in 1871, was for a time one of the richest in the world, and the goldfields as a whole saw over a million ounces exported between 1860 and 1883. The gold mining was dominated by immigrants from the British Isles and the British West Indies, giving an appearance of almost creating an English colony on Venezuelan territory.

The Trinidadian immigrants brought the music of Calypso with them, which later became very popular in the city. The folk music is a mixture of Venezuelan and Caribbean genres and is sung in Spanish and/or Caribbean English. It is closely associated with the Carnival festival, a tradition also brought by the West Indian people (https://youtu.be/h1nnL1mmGsg).

In the carnival months, Calypso is performed with competitions, where the winners are crowned Calypso King and Queen. Calypso or as the town’s people call it “Calipso” is one of the most popular cultural tradition that the city is well known for in the rest of the country. Popular instruments used in the performance of the music are the drums, cuatro, maracas, guitar, bandolin, violin and the steel drum.

Since my Minerven assignment I have stayed interested and been keen on gold exploration and genesis, specifically in the Guyana gold and greenstone belt. Extending from Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname to French Guyana. And the twin sister Birimian gold belt in West Africa.

Long before clever petroleum geologists finally realised that the Cretaceous plays on the continental shelf of northern South America were the mirror brothers & sisters of the Jubilee discovery in Ghana, gold ore geologists had already discovered and using this mirror concept for exploration. Which applies for the Guyana – Birimanian goldbeld in the precambrian craton.

El Callao - Venezuela - MCAL
El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

Explorer ? Discoverer ? Gold Digger ?

Venezuela seems to have some 7000 tons of gold reserves, in the subsurface.(https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2062/report.pdf).

Gold subsurface exploration in the main ” Colombia ”  mine is not so much romantic but very hard work.

Visiting and exploring in the small hand-digged “private” gold mines and concessions is even tougher and more dangerous. Many miners die inside their own mines due to accidents (collapses, toxic gases etc.).

On the photo one of such mines that I visited. Where you only get in and, hopefully also out, with a private lift, a simple bucket.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

Explorers, gold diggers?

Do not panic and do not get claustrophobic when descending in these mini-handcrafted mines.

Certainly good luck, God Bless You. Enjoy being in the Subsurface.

It is invaluable to have this field Surface and Subsurface experience and knowledge? As additional help, when sitting most comfortable in an ergonomic chair, in front of the multiple wide screens with the virtual subsurface world in front of you, on your workstation.

Or simply making your interpretation by strolling around with your hands in your pockets in the immersive visionarium or visualisation room.

When trying to figure out, as a digital native, from your desktop on floor 33 in a mid-town skyscraper with a most splendid panoramic city view. How the subsurface should really look like and should behave. According to Homo Sapiens Geologica Softwaretialis.

According all the smart programs which perfectly explain how Mother Earth is obliged to behave and should function.

Enjoy.

El Callao - Small, hand-digged private gold mines - MCAL
El Callao – Small, hand-digged private gold mines – I have been in several of these ” dangerous ” mines – MCAL

Afterward I switched to black gold, petroleum exploration.

Credit for all pictures: published and available on internet.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Geologic Map El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Map El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

1) Geology and gold mineralization of the El Callao District, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

Baxter Peter, 1995: Simposio International del Oro en Venezuela 3 (Pages 143-147)

https://eurekamag.com/research/022/716/022716386.php

The El Callao Mining District located 130 kilometres southeast of Puerto Ordaz has been the most prolific gold mining district in Venezuela and the longest lasting hard rock mining district in the Guayana Shield. Published production is between 124 and 180 tonnes of gold (4 to 5.8 million ounces).

The majority of this production has been from a small number of highgrade underground mines located north and south of the town of El Callao.

Geologic Column - El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Column – El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

Mining has been continuous since 1829 with current production from the Columbia mine at approximately 1.86 tonnes of gold per year (60.000 ounces).

Gold mineralization occurs within metavolcanics and metasediments of the Precambrian Guayana Shield, which underlies most of Bolivar State and extends through the neighbouring countries of Guyana, Surinam and northern Brazil.

There are four major lithological units of Proterozoic age in the area, from the oldest to the youngest the El Callao Formation, the Cicapra Formation, the Yuruari Formation, and the Caballape Formation. These units have been subject to amphibolite to greenschist grade regional metamorphism. Structural trends of foliation, folding, faulting and shearing in the EI Callao District are primarily oriented to the northeast with dips mostly to the southeast.

Choco Gold mine - MCAL
Choco Gold mine – MCAL

The shear hosted gold mineralization consists of quartz veins, quartz stockworks, and massive silicification. Alteration consists of silicification, carbonitization, sericitization, and propylitization. Accessory minerals in the quartz veins include tourmaline, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and scheelite.

Tropical weathering is only moderately developed in the area with laterite generally not deeper than 3 meters and the saprolitic zone typically less than 30 meters.

El Callao Mining Corporation is a junior exploration company, with majority ownership and management by Bema Gold Corporation. The company has been conducting a gold exploration program primarily on the Lo Increible 2 and 4 concessions since September 1993. Other companies active in the area include, Bolivar Gold, Goldfields of South Africa, Minoven, Teck-KinRoss, and Golden Star.

2) Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana – V.220817

serait à l’origine de la première mine d’or industrielle de Guyane. Ici, le site minier aurifere de Yaou, le 17 septembre 2011, à Maripasoula, en Guyane française.
L’opposition au projet de mine d’or industrielle en Guyane grandit – Le Monde.fr avec AFP – Le 22 août 2017 à 10h59

Une pétition lancée par les opposants a reçu près de 166 000 signatures en cinq mois, alors que le gouvernement n’a toujours pas autorisé la construction de la mine.
Le sujet n’en finit pas de soulever les critiques en Guyane. Pour dénoncer le plus grand projet d’extraction d’or jamais proposé en France, l’opposition a lancé une pétition en mars, qui a déjà récolté 165 800 signatures, et est soutenue par 110 organisations nationales et internationales.

« Il y a cent cinquante ans que la Guyane a eu une histoire d’amour avec l’or, mais il faut que cela cesse. Ce ne sont pas les meilleures orientations économiques pour la Guyane », a expliqué à l’Agence France-Presse (AFP) Nora Stephenson, porte-parole du collectif Or de question. Treize chefs coutumiers de Guyane se sont déclarés contre ce projet industriel inédit, évoqué pour 2022. « Au nom de l’économie, vous êtes prêts à écraser une nouvelle génération », a déploré au début d’août Bénédicte Fdjéké, présidente des chefs coutumiers. « Faire des trous partout, dans le sol qui nous nourrit, c’est une mauvaise chose », a aussi jugé Christophe Pierre, leader du collectif Jeunesse autochtone, lors d’une réunion publique à la fin de juillet.

La raison de leur colère : le projet « Montagne d’or », prévu près de Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, dans l’Ouest guyanais, et détenu à 55 % par le russe Nordgold et à 45 % par le canadien Columbus gold. Il suscite une telle controverse qu’il n’a pas encore été autorisé par le gouvernement français.

Guyana Shield Gold Deposits
Guyana Shield Gold Deposits

Lire aussi : L’or de Guyane, un test politique pour Macron
Ampleur économique hors norme

« Montagne d’or » est « hors normes par ses aspects économiques », souligne une « note d’information » interministérielle de février 2016 obtenue par l’AFP, qui prévient également que les « empreintes spatiale et écologique sont de dimensions inconnues en France ».

Selon cette note, les taxes associées à la production minière représenteraient « 80,6 millions d’euros » et celles à l’importation « 325,5 millions d’euros ».

Les industriels, qui prévoient d’extraire « 6,7 tonnes » d’or par an pendant « douze ans », soit une valeur estimée à plus de 3 milliards d’euros, souhaitent un débat public resserré. « Après consultation des élus locaux, tout le monde est pour un débat qui serait guyanais », a affirmé le représentant des industriels, Rock Lefrançois.

Il a saisi la commission nationale de débat public (CNDP) pour lui demander d’organiser un débat local. Au début de juillet, la CNDP a rejeté la demande en l’état, au motif que les coûts initiaux du projet étaient flous et considérant « l’importance considérable des enjeux sociaux, économiques et environnementaux ». La compagnie minière Montagne d’or a annoncé qu’elle organiserait un débat « au cours du quatrième trimestre » avec « le public directement concerné » par le projet.

Impact écologique inquiétant

Mais les opposants craignent pour les conséquences écologiques du projet industriel. S’il était validé par le gouvernement, les miniers creuseraient en pleine forêt tropicale une fosse grande comme trente-deux Stades de France. Les détracteurs du projet s’alarment de la proximité du site avec des massifs à haute biodiversité, dont la plus vaste réserve biologique intégrale de France.

Ils s’inquiètent aussi des déchets qu’engendrerait l’extraction de l’or. Des millions et des millions de mètres cubes de roche devraient être charriés et traités au cyanure pour extraire les 85 précieuses tonnes d’or que Nordgold pense possible de récupérer en quinze ans.

Le déblai entraînerait la création artificielle et permanente de deux dômes de roches de 100 mètres de haut, ainsi que d’un mont endigué de 70 m de haut renfermant, selon les industriels, « 54 millions de tonnes » de boues issues du processus de traitement de la roche avec le cyanure.

Face aux craintes environnementales dans un territoire caractérisé par des retards structurels, notamment en gestion et prévention des pollutions, Rock Lefrançois précise que des « forages […] surveilleront les eaux souterraines pour voir s’il y a des traces ou des niveaux élevés de certains métaux » libérés par la roche à nu ou par les traitements physico-chimiques pour récupérer l’or. « Les forages resteront sur site pendant cinq ans après la fermeture, ensuite il y aura un suivi environnemental sur trente ans », assure-t-il.

« Le drainage minier acide peut durer des centaines d’années, c’est très difficile à maîtriser et ça coûte cher », rétorque Thibault Saint-Aubin, de l’association Ingénieurs sans frontières systèmes extractifs et environnements, soutien d’Or de question. Pour fonctionner, la mine demandera aussi des investissements publics importants (routes, énergie, port, exonérations), dans un territoire où 15 % des foyers du littoral et 30 % des foyers de l’intérieur n’ont pas accès à l’électricité.

French Guyana - Gold mine - MCAL
French Guyana – Gold mine – MCAL

3)  MONTAGNE D’OR – Norgold

http://www.nordgold.com/operations/development-projects/mondgne/

Guiana Gold Belt - Montagne d'Or - MCAL
Guiana – Birimian Gold Belt – Montagne d’Or – MCAL

Project Background

The 4.8 million ounce of Mineral Resources Montagne d’Or gold deposit is located in north-west French Guiana, 180 kilometers west of the capital, Cayenne, and 80 kilometres south of the department capital, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni. The Project’s base camp can accommodate 65 people.

In mid-March 2017, Nordgold earned-in a 55.01% interest in the Montagne d’Or project by spending a minimum of US$30 million and completing a Bankable Feasibility Study by 13 March 2017.

Nordgold also holds ~9% of Columbus Gold Corp.(“Columbus Gold”, CGT: TSX-V), the Company’s partner in the Montagne d’Or project. In October 2014, Mr. Oleg Pelevin, Director of Strategy and Corporate Development for Nordgold, was appointed to Columbus Gold’s board of directors.

Montagne d’Or official website (French)

Montagne d’Or Presentation 2017

Reserves and Resources

Montagne d’Or is located within the northern greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield in French Guiana. The mineral deposits of the Guiana Gold Belt are very similar to those in other greenstone terrains such as in West Africa. This will enable Nordgold to apply its deep knowledge of West African geology to the Project and other projects in the region. Columbus Gold, with its many years of operational experience in French Guiana and unique local knowledge will serve a strong partner in the advancement of the project.

The current model of gold mineralization is a high sulphidization, volcanogenic type. Significant portions are thought to have been emplaced as replacement style mineralization. Subsequently, the mineralization has been deformed and partly remobilised within structural controls. Gold mineralization is associated with primary sulphide minerals as replacements within pyrite and chalcopyrite.

CATEGORY TONNES (M) GRADE (AU G/T) AU (MOZ)
RESERVES *
Proven and Probable 54.11 1.58 2.75
RESOURCES **
Measured and Indicated 85.1 1.41 3.85
Inferred 20.2 1.5 0.96
Total (M+I+I) 105.3 1.4 4.81

 

  • * Proven and Probable Reserves were estimated using a gold price of US$1,200/oz at varied cut-offs dependent on lithological rock types, economics and estimated metallurgical recovery. Felsic Tuffs have CoG of 0.617 g/t Au, Granodiorites have a CoG of 0.622 g/t Au, Mafics have a CoG of 0.665 g/t Au, Saprolite and Saprock have a CoG of 0.552 g/t Au.
  • ** Mineral Resources estimated within pit shell that is defined by an US$1,300/oz price and CoG of 0.4 g/t Au.

4) French Guiana – MONTAGNE D’OR – Columbus Gold Corporation

http://www.columbusgoldcorp.com/s/MontagnedOr.asp

Montagne d’Or is part of the Paul Isnard project which is comprised of eight mining concessions covering an area of 190 km2 and is accessible via an all season forest road from the town of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, for a distance of 120 kilometres, and by small aircraft to the project’s base camp. Several roads crisscross the mining concessions providing truck access.

At Montagne d’Or, the gold mineralisation is hosted within a 400 metre thick sequence of intercalated felsic and mafic volcanic and subordinate volcaniclastic rocks that strike east-west and dip steeply south.

The near surface gold resources are contained within four (4) closely-spaced stratiform, sub-parallel, east-west-striking and south-dipping sulphide mineralised horizons, which include the principal UFZ (Upper Felsic Zone) and LFZ (Lower Favorable Zone) having average thicknesses of 50 metres and 17.5 metres, respectively.

Gold mineralisation is associated with disseminated and stringer sulphides with occasional semi-massive seams to several centimetres in width, mainly as pyrite, and is accompanied by pervasive alteration, which includes sericite, secondary biotite (retrograded to chlorite) and secondary K-feldspar ± quartz. Only a small portion of the deposit has been subjected to upper level oxidation.

Montagne d’Or occurs within the Guiana Gold Belt which stretches from western Venezuela eastward through Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana and into Brazil. Mineral deposits are typical of those in other greenstone terrains such as in Canada, Australia and West Africa. Many (8) significant gold deposits and prospects have been identified on the Guiana Gold Belt, including Las Cristinas, Choco, Toropoaru, Aurora, Omai, Gros Rosebel, Merian and Camp Caiman.

Numerous other prospects, mostly in Guyana and Surinam are undergoing active exploration.

Guyana - Africa Gold Areas
Guyana – Africa Gold Areas

5) Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana)

http://emg.geoscienceworld.org/content/8/1-2/117

Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado
Published on April 1999, First Published on April 01, 1999 – ArticleInfo & Metrics – GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological Institute.
Abstract

Paleoproterozoic gold is found in two (2) different volcano-sedimentary sequences and intrusive bodies separated by 600 km within the Guiana Shield.

The 2148 Ma St-Elie granite intruded volcanic-arc sequences of the Paramaca Group.

The 2096 Ma Omai stock penetrated back-arc/island-arc sequences of the Barama-Mazaruni Group.

Positive epsilon Nd values suggest that both suites lack Archean crustal contaminants, which is consistent with an origin in an oceanic arc setting.

4.1 The St-Elie deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented chiefly by pyrrhotite and pyrite. Biotite, calcite, and chlorite are the main gangue minerals. The alteration haloes at St-Elie feature a strong potassic zone, which is absent at Omai.

The ore-controlling structures are ductile and the vein emplacement is related mainly to contemporaneous, high-angle ductile shear zones.

The St-Elie deposit formed at temperatures >350 degrees C. The stable isotopes values are compatible with a magmatic or metamorphic source.

4.2 The Omai deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented mainly by pyrite. Ankerite, scheelite, albite, and chlorite are common gangue minerals.

The vein emplacement is syn-to post-deformation and it is related mainly to brittle shear zones with low-angle, stockwork networks and breccia zones.

The Omai deposit formed in a temperature range between 250 degrees C and 170 degrees C, much lower than the St-Elie deposit. The stable isotope values are compatible with mixing between deep-seated fluids of metamorphic or magmatic origin with surface-derived fluids.

These differences between St-Elie and Omai are interpreted in terms of their depth of formation. Alteration patterns, structural elements, and paragenetic assemblages indicate that the gold at St-Elie was most probably emplaced at a mesozonal depth, whereas the Omai setting yields evidence for epizonal conditions.

6) Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309669698_Gold_deposits_gold-bearing_tourmalinites_gold-bearing_conglomerates_and_mesothermal_lodes_markers_of_the_geological_evolution_of_French_Guiana_geology_metallogeny_and_stable-isotope_constraints

Jean-Pierre MILESI (1), Catherine LEROUGE (1) Claude DELOR (1), Patrick LEDRU (1) Mario BILLA (1), Alain COCHERIE (1) Emmanuel EGAL (1), Anne-Marie FOUILLAC (1) Didier LAHONDÈRE (1) Jean-Louis LASSERRE (2) Alain MAROT (1), Bruno MARTEL-JANTIN (1) Philippe ROSSI (1), Monique TEGYEY (1) Hervé THÉVENIAUT (2) Denis THIÉBLEMONT (1)

Les minéralisations aurifères (tourmalinites, conglomérats et gîtes mésothermaux) marqueurs de l’évolution géologique de la Guyane

Olivier VANDERHAEGHE

Géologie de la France, 2003, n° 2-3-4, 257-290, 12 fig., 7 tabl.
Mots clés : Minéralisations aurifères, Conglomérats, Tourmalinites, Gîtes mésothermaux, Guyane. Key words: Gold deposits, Conglomerates, Tourmalinites, Mesothermal lodes, French Guiana.

Abstract

In French Guiana, three (3) types of Proterozoic gold deposits can be recognized (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal ore deposits).

And used as metallogenic markers in the two-stage (2) geodynamic evolution proposed by Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) and updated at the Guiana Shield scale by Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b this volume).

During the first stage of crustal growth by calc-alkalic and TTG magmatic accretion, an early (pre-D1 deformation) stock of gold and disseminated sulphides associated with regional tourmalinization accumulated in the Paramaca volcaniclastic sequences in subaquatic conditions (example of the stratiform/stratabound Dorlin deposit). These gold-bearing tourmalinites were locally modified under upper–middle crust conditions during emplacement of discordant mesothermal quartz veins.

During the second stage of crustal recycling and tectonic accretion, a wide variety of syntectonic ore deposits including gold-bearing conglomerate and gold mesothermal types were emplaced during all increments of D2 transcurrent deformation, which was responsible for the progressive deformation of the North Guiana Trough, from its creation through to its burial and final exhumation:

The gold-bearing conglomerate type of ore deposit, hosted by the Upper Detrital Unit in the North Guiana Trough, presents several facies markers of the progressive burial of the deposits, e.g.

(i) gold-oxide “paleoplacer” of “Banket” type,

(ii) debris-flow type with syndiagenetic and/or epigenetic deposits,

(iii) epigenetic disseminated- sulphide facies, and

(iv) epigenetic mesothermal quartz stockworks.

Overall, it formed under low to medium-grade metamorphic conditions with, however, relicts of an earlier hydrothermal event as indicated by preserved hydrothermal pebbles in polygenic conglomerates.

The gold mesothermal type of ore deposit (dominant Au- Fe-Cu type associated with brittle-ductile faults and rare Au- As mesothermal deposits), hosted by the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Paramaca Series and also by late-D2 small granite stocks, is always associated with major fault zones.

Overall, it formed under low-grade metamorphic conditions. It is characterized by hydrothermal chlorite+ muscovite+albite+carbonates±biotite alteration. Muscovite +chlorite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally

(1) Brgm, 3, avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, France.
(2) Brgm Guyane, Domaine de Suzini, Route de Montabo, BP 522, 97333 Cayenne cedex 2, France. (3) CNRS-Univ. Poincaré, Nancy, France.

GÉOLOGIE DE LA FRANCE, N° 2-3-4, 2003 – GEOLOGY OF FRANCE AND SURROUNDING AREAS, N° 2-3-4, 2003

257

GOLD DEPOSITS AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF FRENCH GUIANA

Altered metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, whereas albite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally altered granites.

Hydrothermal fluids have a variety of origins. Stable-iso- tope (C, H, O) data indicate a dominant participation of external fluids, near seawater, in the Dorlin subaquatic stratiform/stratabound deposit, whereas metamorphic fluids become dominant in ore deposits formed at deeper levels, such as gold-bearing conglomerates and mesothermal deposits. Sulphur isotopes, trace elements, and sulphide min- eralogy show a consistent magmatic component, represented by magmatic fluids or by leaching of magmatic rocks.

Résumé

En Guyane, trois (3) types de minéralisations d’or d’âge protérozoïque ont été distingués (tourmalinites aurifères, conglomérats aurifères et or orogénique mésothermal) et utilisés comme marqueurs métallogéniques dans le scénario en deux stades d’évolution géodynamique proposée par Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) et mis à jour, à l’échelle du bouclier guyanais, par Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b ce volume).

Durant le premier stade de croissance crustale par accré- tion magmatique calco-alcaline et TTG, un premier dépôt de sulfures disséminés et d’or (pré-déformation D1), associé à une tourmalinisation régionale se met en place dans les séquences volcanoclastiques du Paramaca en conditions sub- aquatiques (cas du gîte stratiforme/”stratabound” de Dorlin). Ces tourmalinites aurifères ont été ensuite portées dans les conditions de la croûte supérieure à moyenne et localement remaniées par des veines de quartz mésothermales.

Pendant le deuxième stade de recyclage crustal et d’accrétion tectonique, une grande variété de minéralisations syntectoniques comprenant des conglomérats aurifères et des minéralisations mésothermales aurifères se sont mises en place durant tous les incréments de la déformation D2 transcurrente, responsable d’une déformation progressive du Sillon Nord Guyanais, depuis son initiation jusqu’à son enfouissement et son exhumation finale :

– les conglomérats aurifères, portés par l’unité Détritique Supérieure du Sillon Nord Guyanais, comprennent plusieurs faciès, marquant l’enfouissement progressif des dépôts, i.e. (i) « paléoplacers » à or-oxydes de type « Banket », (ii) coulées de débris à minéralisations syn-diagénétiques et/ou épigéné- tiques, (iii) faciès de sulfures disséminés épigénétiques, jus- qu’aux (iv) stockwerks de quartz épigénétiques mésothermaux. Ils se sont formés sous un métamorphisme de degré faible à moyen, préservant des reliques d’un événement hydrothermal précoce, comme l’indique la présence de galets hydrothermaux dans les conglomérats polygéniques ;

– les minéralisations aurifères orogéniques mésother- males (à Au-Fe-Cu dominant associé à des failles ductiles

– fragiles et à Au – As plus rare), encaissées par les séries volcaniques et sédimentaires métamorphisées du Paramaca et par de petits stocks de granite tardi-D2, sont toujours associées à des zones de failles majeures. Elles se sont généralement formées dans des conditions métamor- phiques de bas degré et sont caractérisées par une altéra- tion hydrothermale à chlorite + muscovite + albite + carbonates ± biotite. Muscovite + chlorite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants volcaniques et sédi- mentaires, tandis que albite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants granitiques.

Les fluides hydrothermaux ont plusieurs origines. Les isotopes du soufre, les éléments en trace et la minéralogie des sulfures provenant des différents types de gisements indiquent une composante magmatique constante, issue soit de l’extraction des fluides magmatiques au cours de la mise en place des magmas et de leur cristallisation, soit du lessivage de roches magmatiques riches en sulfures. Les isotopes stables (C, H, O) indiquent une participation dominante de fluides externes. Dans le cas du gisement aurifère de Dorlin de type stratiforme/”stratabound” et mis en place dans des conditions sub-aquatiques, les fluides externes ont une composition proche de l’eau de mer. Dans le cas des minéralisations formées à plus grande profondeur, comme les conglomérats (pro parte) et les gîtes mésothermaux aurifères, les fluides hydrothermaux ont une signature métamorphique. Ce sont des fluides d’origine indéterminée (magmatique, marine, météorique ?), équilibrés avec les roches encaissantes dans les conditions du métamorphisme régional.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

The Guyana Gold Board (GBB) has started the groundwork for the implementation of minted gold coins and ingots, allowing persons to make certified purchases similar to what can be obtained in the United States and other countries.

Chairman of the Board, Gabriel Lall, told Kaieteur News that the senior managers are working closely with both local and foreign companies to design and be ready to deliver for approval various designs for consideration and the associated cost for production.     

“We are expecting some progress reports within the next several weeks,” Lall stated.

He revealed that the board is pursuing local input in the designs and would later rely on overseas companies for the production since Guyana doesn’t have the capabilities to undertake the minting of the coins.

“We want to enshrine in the design, national attributes. We want local fingerprints on this at the initial stages in terms of design and appearance,” Lall stated.

He said further discussions will surround quality control between Guyana and the overseas company which will undergo the minting process.

“We plan to deal with reputable overseas organizations. We can do our own testing in terms of quality control, but we have been using several reputable companies for years,” Lall noted.

He said the Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman, has given the board a mandate to utilize gold-minted coins as a revenue earning for the board. According to Lall, the Management team of the Gold Board has been moving to get something tangible to deliver.

Guyana has previously issued commemorative gold coins, which were released by the Bank of Guyana. Businesses and individuals tend to hold or invest in gold through gold coins, gold bars, and gold bullion. These items can then be traded.

Minister Trotman stated that Government envisions that the Gold Board will move away from just burning gold and shipping it overseas.

“This year, we will be moving to producing commemorative coins and ingots so that people can come and buy gold as Guyanese.

If I am a citizen of Canada or visitor to Canada or the U.S, I can go and buy gold and it comes with a certificate and a number. I believe that is where we are heading. I am happy that the board is responding to this,” Trotman stated.

4. Free Online University Courses

A Massive List of Free Online University Course Providers From Around The World.

Free Online University Courses - MCAL
Free Online University Courses – MCAL

TO WHOM IT MAY BE OF USE AND INTEREST

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free online courses available for anyone to enroll. MOOCs provide an affordable and flexible way to learn new skills, advance your career and deliver quality educational experiences at scale.

http://mooc.org

https://www.class-central.com

It’s been more than five years since online education got a massive boost when three free online courses, taught by Stanford professors, launched in October 2011. Each of these courses has had over 100,000 students.
Professors launched three online course websites: Coursera, edX, and Udacity. And the media started calling the courses provided by these websites “MOOCs”: Massive Open Online Courses.
Since then, more than 700 universities around the world have launched free online courses.
By the end of 2016, around 58 million students had signed up for at least one MOOC.
Many countries around the world — like India, Mexico, Thailand, and Italy — have launched their own country-specific MOOC platforms.
At Class Central we try to catalog as many MOOCs as possible. So far, we’ve cataloged over 7,000 of them. But due to limited resources (and sometimes language barriers), we cannot index every one of them.
I’ve made this list of 33 MOOC providers from all over the world. This list has been adapted with permission from Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential, by Barbara Oakley, Tarcher-Perigee, April 2017. And I’ve also expanded upon the list, and included a few extra regional MOOC providers.
Our focus has mostly been on course providers that partner with universities and offer free online courses. So if you know of any MOOC providers that we missed, let me know in the comments below.

Enjoy!

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

3. ‘ Nou koest, nou kalm ‘ – Proefschrift Dr. Margo Groenewoud – 15 juni 2017 – Universiteit Leiden

Promotie van dr. Margo Groenewoud. Doctor, Universiteit Leiden, 15 juni 2017, 15:00 – 15:45 p.m.
‘ Nou koest, nou kalm ‘. De ontwikkeling van de Curaçaose samenleving, 1915-1973: van koloniaal en kerkelijk gezag naar zelfbestuur en burgerschap.

My comments on my LinkedIn post:
Explorer? Yiu di Korsou ? Discover? Historia di dushi Korsou, di bo apreciado Baranca den laman. Dr. Margo Groenewoud: ‘ Nou koest, nou kalm ‘. De ontwikkeling van de Curaçaose samenleving, 1915 – 1973: van koloniaal en kerkelijk gezag naar zelfbestuur en burgerschap.
Lovende woorden van promotor prof. dr. G.J. Oostindie. Interessante discussies met de 5 leden van de promotiecommissie
Vijf interessante hoofdstukken geserveerd in 226 paginas waar een, nog niet eerder wetenschappelijk goed gedocumenteerde, periode van 58 jaar geanalyseerd en beschreven wordt. Tevens 74 paginas met Noten (764) en Literatuur vermeldingen(176).

Mijn eigen foto’s Openbare verdediging van het proefschrift, 15 juni 2017; Senaatskamer Academiegebouw, Universiteit Leiden – Rapenburg 73, Leiden, Hulanda.

Promotie dr. M. Groenewoud - Foto MCAL - 1
Promotie dr. M. Groenewoud – Foto MCAL – 1

Promotie dr. M. Groenewoud - Foto MCAL - 2,3,4
Promotie dr. M. Groenewoud – Foto MCAL – 2,3,4

Promotie dr M. Groenewoud - Foto's MCAL, 6-10
Promotie dr M. Groenewoud – Foto’s MCAL, 6-10

Dr. Groenewoud - Stellingen - MCAL
Dr. Groenewoud – Stellingen – MCAL

2. Suriname – Verandering der Surinaamsche insecten, 1975

Switi Sranankondre en Srananman ?

Srananman, wie eegie sanie. Verandering der Surinaamsche insecten. Van Maria Sibylla Merian, 1705.

Wan ogri moi buku abra Sranankondre. Kfalek moi, srefsrefi: kapelka nanga woron, fu Van Vredenburg broko pranasi, Carameca- kriki, liba Sranan (1705).

Yu musu lesi, mi e taigi yu, srefscrefi.

Tan bun ala sma nanga alla famiri na switi Sranankondre.