13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid

Metro - Poesía Subterránea - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacionál – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – V.160817

Explorer? Discover – Madrid,  My own pictures.

L.S.,

Since I discovered this website, below attached, I have been able to consult a lot of historical manuscripts and documents that previously were unable to see or access. And that I always longed to consult. Such as the original Diary of Christopher Columbus (Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolome de las, 1474-1566. My blog Nr.6, Chapter Various). And many other manuscripts that could only be seen by visiting El Archivo de Las Indias in Sevilla.

Enjoy !

The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain’s highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

The library’s collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, and 30,000 manuscripts.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

La Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (BDH) es el portal de la BNE a través del cual se pueden consultar de forma libre y gratuita las obras digitalizadas por la Biblioteca.

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

Los materiales disponibles incluyen libros impresos entre los siglos XV y XIX, manuscritos, dibujos, grabados, folletos, carteles, fotografías, mapas, atlas y grabaciones sonoras. Además, con la colaboración del Departamento de Música y Audiovisuales, se ha llevado a cabo una digitalización masiva de partituras.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

Desde la BDH se accede a la aplicación de Hemeroteca Digital. Permite la consulta de 900 publicaciones de prensa. La Hemeroteca, da acceso a la colección digital de prensa histórica española que alberga la Biblioteca.

Visit, Explore, Discover & Enjoy !

http://www.bne.es/es/Inicio/

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

12. Capas Seseña – Madrid

 

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Capas Seseña – Madrid – MCAL

12. Capas Seseña – Madrid – V.160817

Explorer ? Capas Seseña. https://lnkd.in/ggB_2Ja – My own pic. – Madrid –

https://www.sesena.com/es/

http://www.sightseeing-madrid.com/spanish-cape-capas-sesena.php

Capas Seseña, founded 1901, Calle de la Cruz 23, is the only shop in the world that sells only capes, made on premises.

La sastrería de capas más antigua del mundo. Cortando y cosiendo a mano en su taller.

Amazing, awesome.

Capas Seseña - Madrid
Capas Seseña – Madrid

King Juan Carlos, Valle Inclán, Pío Barroja, Ernest Hemingway, Gary Cooper, Federico Fellini, Marcello Mastroianni, Plácido Domingo, Hillary Clinton, Carolina Herrera, Jeff Bezos, Mar Cal etc. etc. etc. are and/or were customers.

Picasso left instructions to be buried in his Capas Seseña cape.

Special lightweight wool from Béjar, Salamanca.

Which one??

Tantos, para cada gusto uno. E.g.

Damas: Capa Paloma Negra.

Capa clásica de lana merino con esclavina.

Caballeros: Capa Pablo Claveles. Capa clásica de lana merino bordada.

Enjoy, they are timeless.

Mientras que la vida es una (1) no mas.

Capas Seseña 2 - Madrid
Capas Seseña 2 – Madrid

www.sesena.com

11. Metro Madrid & Poesia Subterránea

Metro - Poesía Subterránea - Madrid - MCAL
Metro – Poesía Subterránea – Madrid – MCAL

11. Metro Madrid & Poesia – Subterranea V.160817

Explorer? Poesía Subterránea & Besos 🖤 https://lnkd.in/ggB_2Ja

Metro Madrid – Mis propias foto’s.

Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL

” T de Tren (Subterráneo)

Madrid no tiene tranvía

ni tampoco tiene mar,

pero hay un tren y una vía

debajo de la ciudad.

Si no llueve no te mojas,

y si llueve, ! que sé yo !

Madrid no tiene tranvía,

pero sí, un Metro veloz.”

Poema de Víctor Soría, 6 marzo 2012

Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL
Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL
Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL

10. Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

5. Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

3. Post on LInkedIn. By Mr. Ashley Church, Social and Economic Commentator – august 7, 2017

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See Menu-Chapter <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1.Introduction

Being multi-lingual and multi-cultural can generate a lot of special advantages. For your personal life, career, for doing business etc..

It allows you to connect and to communicate in a genuine way with many people and cultures on this globe.

To swiftly cross boundaries (lingual, cultural, mental, geographical) that so often constrain and divide us.

These musings are based and inspired by my own history as a ” native multi-lingual-cultural global citizen “.

It represents my personal point of view. Based on what I have experienced as a varied, interesting and privileged language and life experience.

I wish to share this story with you, hope its serves you.

Enjoy !

Multi-lingual - MCAL
Multi-lingual – MCAL

Background and Why?

I was lucky to grow up in a fully multi-cultural-lingual society, on a small island and hard rock in the emerald blue Caribbean sea.

An island of just 444 square kilometres with 150.563 inhabitants representing many different nationalities, in all the colors of the rainbow,  that fully communicate with each other and that live and dance carnival, salsa and bachata most peacefully together.

A small Paradise.

With 37 awesome beaches.

Such as on my/our favourite spot since many decades (http://piratebaycuracao.com/nl/) .

Where you can enjoy unforgettable sunsets.

While eating a fresh catch-of-the-day piska korá or red snapper. Drinking a few Heineken beers, a bottle of ron Diplomático. Getting additional inspiration with Despacito of Luis Fonsi & Daddy Yankee, swinging salsa, bachata and reggae music on the background.

Dushi Korsow - Sunset - Bachata fish restaurant - MCAL
Dushi Korsow – Sunset – Bachata fish restaurant – MCAL

Discovered by Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda. September 7th, 1499. ” Isla de los Gigantes “.

As part of the third voyage of Christophorus Columbus, beginning 30th May in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain. When Columbus officially discovered the South American continent. The 31th July 1498, Trinidad and a few days later Paria, Venezuela.

The New World, Las Indias, discovered ” In Nomine Domini Nostri Ihesu Christi ” in 1492, according to Columbus’ diary. Fortunately incorporated in the iconic ” Historia de Indias ” from Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. The original manuscript is safeguarded in la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid.

At the dawn, stepping out of the dark Late Middle Ages and entering the bright sunny Early Renaissance, in 1499.

Then for many renowed scientists and clever people, this globe was still flat.

Flat as my favourite Dutch sweet pancake in restaurant Oudt Leyden, 110 years old, in my Alma Mater Leiden, Holland.

Flat as my favourite Vera Pizza and the Mastunicola, most delicious pizza’s in ” Antica Pizzeria Port’Alba “. The oldest pizzeria in Napoli nella bella Italia and the world’s first pizzeria, 187 years young.

Curaçao, Dushi Korsow in Papiamento, my native island (https://youtu.be/jd-n0aT9RV0.).

Curaçao - Historical map - MCAL
Curaçao – Historical map – MCAL

During my childhood and as a teenager, already before leaving for university studies abroad, most of us on Korsow would daily speak and fluently communicate in many languages across the cultures.

Many ???

Up to seven (7).

Dutch, Sranan Tongo, Papiamento at and around home.

Spanish, English, already compulsory on primary school.

French, German on secondary / high school.

Seven (7).

Those friends that studied at the ” Gymnasium ” included Old Greek and Latin.

Nine (9) for some.

Multi-lingual - MCAL6
Multi-lingual – MCAL6

In the Netherlands I added la preziosa lingua Italiana from Dante Alighieri.

La lingua Italiana ?

La Lingua Italiana insegnati agli Straineri, A. Rincari – C. Brighenti, 288 pages. As self-obliged preparation in Alma Mater Leiden for my 6 months fieldwork nella Bella Italia.

Guyana - Guidelines for applying for an E&P license 2 - MCAL
Lingua Italiana – MCAL

Dovè?

Parco naturale Rocciavre – Orsiera, Rifugio Selleries, 2023 metri (www.rifugioselleries.it).

Per chiacchiarare tutti gli giorni.

Con Madama Lida, Giácomo, Lida, Lida Jr. (ciao Bella, dove siete, a Roma?), Marisa, Silvana, Giovanna, Tonino, pastore famiglia Agu, Giovanni, Mario, Blengino  etc. etc.. (Carissimi amici, ci vediamo fra poco, su Selleries…ciao). Anche per godere dalla Dolce Vita, con Barbera, Barolo e Dolcetto d’Alba.

Portuguese, (…well, boy, you never know, you may need it as a global geologist……). Both languages by self study in the language lab of the Languages Department of the University.

Russian, Русского Языка?

Private classes from Ирина and Галина during 2y, for my work. In addition classes at the university.

For projects in Russia, Moscow, Siberia, Caucasus area (…Dagestan..) and Yamal Peninsula.

Учебник Русского Языка 1,2 - Головоломки 1,2 - По Пути - Словаръ - Марсел Чин-А-Лин
Учебник Русского Языка 1,2 – Головоломки 1,2 – По Пути – Словаръ – Марсел Чин-А-Лин

Practical also to correctly order caviar in the restaurants.

To buy the Russian Siberian silver and red fox fur hats.

To search for Cien Años de Soledad, the translated version in Russian in Дом Кпига, the only gigantic library in town, in Москва or Moscow.

To buy a pizza, in the first Pizza Hut.

Red & Silver Fox Fur Hat - Shawl - Moscow - Siberia - MCAL
Red & Silver Fox Fur Hat – Shawl – from Moscow – Siberia – MCAL

Seven (7) months before Michael Gorbachov left office as President of the Soviet Union. When the СССР or USSR still existed. Though, communism on the brink to capitalism by perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness).

Seventy four (74) years after the October revolution?

Negotiating and signing the first contracts between capitalists and communists. With Herbert Hunt, co-owner and the BOED of Dallas-based Placid Oil. First entrans, Siberia and Moscow, May 1991.

South African ?

Resembles Dutch and is easy to understand for a Dutchman, e.g. while in Cape Town. This as 90 % of the words are of Dutch origin (…such as apartheid…).

I have greatly benefitted from my multiple language toolkit.

To make it a bit more interesting and sustainable ?

I ventured to combine it with my profession, multiple (4) petroleum exploration related university postgrad disciplines.

Braincrafting my signature multiple-energy-work-toolkit.

In my elusive quest and endeavour to become a global Explorer.

Why ??

It enabled me to communicate, to interact in an personal way, to make genuine friends, on their specific frequency, in their own language.

To do business with many different people, to feel at home and to integrate in many diverse countries on this globe.

Above all it gave me Freedom.

Freedom to talk, write and communicate with my own mouth, hand and brains with many different people, cultures and countries.

Freedom to think, read and feel in other languages and cultures.

Freedom to become an explorer. To discover new things wherever I was and every day. I did it my way.

Freedom and ability to feel and to be at home, to have great fun, to be happy together with many others in the different places where I have been on Earth.

This in addition to my native Paradise Curacao.

Freedom?

” Freedom’s just another word for nothin’ left to lose.
Nothin’, ain’t worth nothin’ but it’s free “.

It also seems to protect against dementia ??

Multi-lingual - MCAL
My 101y dearest & lovely Mom – Multi-5-Languages – Have never met Dr. Dementia – Casino – Up to recently: Daily 19 – 23 p.m. – Tan bun – Ajoo – Cheers – Gezondheid – MCAL

And it saves you from being a narrow, self-confined ” lingual and cultural autist ” ?

Similar to the Blue-and-Yellow Macaw or Ara Ararauna?

Locked-up in a cage.

With a tiny future of 2 cubic metres, 2 metres high. Depressed eyes. Exclaiming only his 3 learned phrases, day after day, year after year.

Like waiting in Death Row, in Folsom Prison. Ill-fated, cursed and imprisoned just because of his really precious colors.

Formerly, a free man, flying and living a most happy life with his partner, such as in Arapahu, deep in the Amazon jungle.

Now confined and sentenced to speak only 3 sentences.

In this contemporary world with a new species denominated ” global citizins “.

Multi-lingual - MCAL
Multi-lingual – MCAL

Very special for me is to be able to read, understand, feel, taste, smell and palpate the nuances, in its original language, for example of:

Cien Años de Soledad of Gabriél García Marquez, Español.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream of Shakespeare, English.

Les Fleurs du mal of Charles Baudelaire, langue Française

Il Paradiso of Dante Alighieri, Italiano.

Os Lusíadas of Luís Vaz de Camões, Português.

Hé Patu of Ellis Juliana, Papiamento.

Ala poewema foe Trefossa, Sranan Tongo.

Perestroika of Gorbachov, Русского Языка.

Etc. etc. etc.

Multi-lingual - MCAL7
Multi-lingual – MCAL7

Benefits of being multilingual and multicultural ?

Re: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160811-the-amazing-benefits-of-being-bilingual

> I have greatly benefitted from my own language tool kit.

> It enabled me to communicate, to interact in an authentic way, to make genuine friends in their own language, to do business with many different people. To gain cross-cultural understanding. To integrate, to feel at home and to be happy in many countries on this globe.

> It adds a special dimension to your communication with people and with friends.

> Each language gives you a whole new lifestyle, a whole new shade of meaning.

” To have another language is to possess a second soul.” Charlemagne (742/7 – 814), King of the Franks.

> Speaking a different language, whether it’s your grandparents’ tongue or high-school Spanish, fundamentally changes the structure of your brain.

> Put a bunch of these malleable minds together in a company, and you create the potential for some truly original thinking.(https://qz.com/927660/people-who-speak-multiple-languages-make-the-best-employees-for-one-big-reason/)

> Observations of multi-language work teams show that mixed-language groups have a propensity to find innovative solutions for practical problems. This is because they use a range of communication strategies in flexible and dynamic ways.

> Please see, Linguanomics: What is the Market Potential of Multilingualism ? by Gabrielle Hogan-Brun – http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/linguanomics-9781474238298/

It also protects and delays against dementia.

My dear 100y Mom - MCAL
My dear 101y Mom – Multi-5-lingual – MCAL

>> I can therefore certainly fully recommend, get multi-lingual and multi-cultural.

( http://www.multilingualliving.com/2010/10/18/9-ways-to-keep-language-learning-going/ )

>>> It makes life much more varied and interesting.

Multi-lingual - MCAL2
Multi-lingual – MCAL2

2) Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

2.1 Why the world’s peoples speak different languages ?

From Wikipedia:

The Tower of Babel is a Near Eastern account recorded in the Book of Genesis. It is meant to explain why the world’s peoples speak different languages.[1][2][3][4]

According to the story, a united humanity in the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating eastward, comes to the land of Shinar. There they agree to build a city and a tower tall enough to reach heaven. God, observing their city and tower, confounds their speech so that they can no longer understand each other, and scatters them around the world.

Some modern scholars have associated the Tower of Babel with known structures, notably the Etemenanki, a ziggurat dedicated to the Mesopotamian god Marduk by Nabopolassar, the king of Babylonia circa 610 BCE.[5][6] The Great Ziggurat of Babylon was 91 metres (300 ft) in height. Alexander the Great ordered it to be demolished circa 331 BCE in preparation for a reconstruction that his death forestalled.[7][8] A Sumerian story with some similar elements is told in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.[9]

2.2 The amazing benefits of being bilingual

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160811-the-amazing-benefits-of-being-bilingual

Multi-lingual - MCAL3
Multi-lingual – MCAL3

Just a few quotes of this extensive article, that explains the advantage of knowing different languages. In many aspects it resembles my own experience.

> Around the world, more than half of people – estimates vary from 60 to 75 per cent – speak at least two languages.

> Many countries have more than one official national language – South Africa has 11. People are increasingly expected to speak, read and write at least one of a handful of “super” languages, such as English, Chinese, Hindi, Spanish or Arabic, as well.

> To be monolingual, as many native English speakers are, is to be in the minority, and perhaps to be missing out.

> Multilingualism has been shown to have many social, psychological and lifestyle advantages. Moreover, researchers are finding a swathe of health benefits from speaking more than one language, including faster stroke recovery and delayed onset of dementia.

> What will happen if the current rich diversity of languages disappears and most of us end up speaking only one?The first words ever uttered may have been as far back as 250,000 years ago, once our ancestors stood up on two legs and freed the ribcage from weight-bearing tasks, allowing fine nerve control of breathing and pitch to develop.

> And when humans had got one language, it wouldn’t have been long before we had many. Language evolution can be compared to biological evolution, but whereas genetic change is driven by environmental pressures, languages change and develop through social pressures. Over time, different groups of early humans would have found themselves speaking different languages. Then, in order to communicate with other groups – for trade, travel and so on – it would have been necessary for some members of a family or band to speak other tongues.

> Research in the last decade by neurologists, psychologists and linguists, using the latest brain-imaging tools, is revealing a swathe of cognitive benefits for bilinguals. It’s all to do with how our ever-flexible minds learn to multitask.

> Bilingual children did better than monolinguals in both verbal and non-verbal intelligence tests.

> Psycholinguistics pioneer, Susan Ervin-Tripp concluded (1960) that human thought takes place within language mindsets, and that bilinguals have different mindsets for each language – an extraordinary idea but one that has been borne out in subsequent studies, and many bilinguals say they feel like a different person when they speak their other language.

Mental muscles: In fact, says cognitive neuropsychologist Jubin Abutalebi, at the University of San Raffaele in Milan, it is possible to distinguish bilingual people from monolinguals simply by looking at scans of their brains. “Bilingual people have significantly more grey matter than monolinguals in their anterior cingulate cortex, and that is because they are using it so much more often,” he says. The ACC is like a cognitive muscle, he adds: the more you use it, the stronger, bigger and more flexible it gets.

My 100y Mom - Multi (5) Languages - Still Going Super Strong - MCAL
My dearest and loving 101y Mom – Multi (5) Languages – Mental Muscles Going Super Strong Since 1917 – Gracias a Dios – MCAL

> But perhaps the most exciting benefit of bilingualism occurs in ageing, when executive function typically declines: bilingualism seems to protect against dementia.bilingualism should be encouraged”.

> As for the financial benefits, one estimate puts the value of knowing a second language at up to $128,000 over 40 years.It is never too late to learn another tongue, and it can be very rewarding.

> Alex Rawlings is a British professional polyglot who speaks 15 languages:

“ Each language gives you a whole new lifestyle, a whole new shade of meaning,” he says. “ It’s addictive! ”

2.3 The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual – from www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2012/

Today, more of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual than monolingual.

In addition to facilitating cross-cultural communication, this trend also positively affects cognitive abilities. Researchers have shown that the bilingual brain can have better attention and task-switching capacities than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another.

In addition, bilingualism has positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum: Bilingual children as young as seven months can better adjust to environmental changes, while bilingual seniors can experience less cognitive decline.

Being bilingual can have tangible practical benefits.

The improvements in cognitive and sensory processing driven by bilingual experience may help a bilingual person to better process information in the environment, leading to a clearer signal for learning.

This kind of improved attention to detail may help explain why bilingual adults learn a third language better than monolingual adults learn a second language.

Multi-lingual - MCAL4
Multi-lingual – MCAL4

Conclusion

The cognitive and neurological benefits of bilingualism extend from early childhood to old age as the brain more efficiently processes information and staves off cognitive decline.

What’s more, the attention and aging benefits discussed above aren’t exclusive to people who were raised bilingual; they are also seen in people who learn a second language later in life.25, 28

The enriched cognitive control that comes along with bilingual experience represents just one of the advantages that bilingual people enjoy. Despite certain linguistic limitations that have been observed in bilinguals (e.g., increased naming difficulty7), bilingualism has been associated with improved metalinguistic awareness (the ability to recognize language as a system that can be manipulated and explored), as well as with better memory, visual-spatial skills, and even creativity.29

Furthermore, beyond these cognitive and neurological advantages, there are also valuable social benefits that come from being bilingual, among them the ability to explore a culture through its native tongue or talk to someone with whom you might otherwise never be able to communicate.

The cognitive, neural, and social advantages observed in bilingual people highlight the need to consider how bilingualism shapes the activity and the architecture of the brain, and ultimately how language is represented in the human mind, especially since the majority of speakers in the world experience life through more than one language.

> References (3):

European Commission Special Eurobarometer. (2006). Europeans and their languages. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf3.

Associated Press. (2001). Some facts about the world’s 6,800 tongues. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://articles.cnn.com/2001-06-19/us/language.glance_1_languages-origin-tongues?_s=PM:US11. Abutalebi, J., Pasquale, A. D. R., Green, D. W., Hernandez, M., Scifo, P., Keim, R., Cappa, S. F., & Costa, A. (2011).

Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring. Cerebral Cortex  doi:10.1093/cercor/ bhr287

This subject relates for example to attached post and interesting opinion on Linkein by Mr. Ashley Church.

Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizin - New Breed - MCAL
Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizin – New Breed of citizin’s – MCAL

3) Post on Linkedin by Mr. Ashley Church, Social and Economic Commentator – august 7, 2017

There’s a 16th Century quote attributed to Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, which goes something like this: “I speak Latin to God, Italian to musicians, Spanish to women, French at the Court, German to my servants and English to my horses”.

While the quote is almost certainly wrong – the principle behind this version of it is sound – suggesting, as it does, that back then the German and English languages were ‘unworthy’ and beneath the ‘nobel’ classes.

Br Exiting & Exited to become bi-Lingual - BBC - MCAL
Br-Exiting & Excited to become bi-Lingual – BBC – MCAL

How times have changed.

English is now, indisputably, the international language and the means by which vast numbers of us communicate. It’s either spoken as a native tongue – or used as the intermediary language between two other languages.

There are probably a range of cumulative reasons for this – particularly, the influence of the British Empire which exerted influence over at least a quarter of the worlds population for over 300 years – and more recently, the rise of the US at a time which coincided with mass communication and the worldwide cultural influence of ‘Hollywood’.

Whatever the reason, it’s a phenomenon which is leading us inexorably, to a day when we will all speak the same language – either directly, or with the aid of technology…..

9. Geología – Día del Apóstol Santiago y Patria Gallega – 25 Julio

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL

9. Geología – Día del Apóstol Santiago y Patria Gallega – 25 Julio – V.010817

Santiago de Compostela.

Contenido (12):

1. Introduccion

2. Día del Apóstol Santiago y Día de la Patria Gallega – 25 Julio 2017

3. Día del Apóstol Santiago y día grande de Galicia

4. ¿Desde cuándo Santiago Apóstol es patrón de España?

5 ¿Desde cuándo se celebra el Día de Galicia cada 25 de julio?

6. Parador de Santiago de Compostela – 5 Stars – GL

7. Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) is located in Galicia, situated in the far north-west of Spain.

8. La rocas de Santiago de Compostela:

9. Geology of Galicia

10. Investigadores de Madrid y Salamanca lideran un proyecto nacional centrado en el puzle geológico gallego

11. Un canto a Galicia – Cancion – Julio Iglesias, iconic song

12. Musica de Tuna – Pasa la Tuna rondando – Video sobre la historia de la Tuna

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1) Introduccion

Marvellous Old Town, unique Parador Nacional hotel, superb sea food, wine, música de las tunas españolas y portugueses en Plaza Obradoiro, peregrinos, splendid Gondwana and Laurussia geology and rocks, a swirling cocktail in this post.

” Un canto a Galicia “. Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido. España.

History, architecture, a culinary experience, music, Spanish fiestas, geology, during the last week of July.

Explore, discover, dream away.

One of the trips with my dear family. With mainly my own pictures (not – photo shopped).

Previously I had twice visited Santiago de Compostela.

The first time as a primary school kid with my parents and the whole family at the end of the fifties. On our way from the Netherlands, back home to the Caribbean.

To our little paradise island, discovered in 1499 by Alonso de Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci. As part of the third trip of Christophorus Columbus (1498-1500) to America. When the world for most people was still flat, like a wet sub-sea Dutch polder or a delicious pizza dalla bella Napoli.

During the sabbatical year of my dear dad in Europe.. Exploring and crossing the Old Continent by bus and train. The trip during which I most probably became infected and incubated by the exploration virus, that has happily accompanied me since then. Such as from Amsterdam, via within others Paris, Lourdes, Irun, Barcelona, Madrid, Toledo, Salamanca. Further south to Fatima and the harbour of Lisbon. Homeward bound on the cruise liner Santa Maria, among the largest and most luxurious Portuguese-flag liners at the time. An exciting and interesting story. Similar to Chistophoro Columbus, crossing the wide Atlantic.

Soon afterwards, on 23 January 1961 the Santa Maria became (in)famous as the first cruise liner to be hijacked, by Portuguese and Spanish political rebels. Aiming to force political change in Portugal. The chief architect and leader was Henrique Galvao. A Portuguese military officer, writer and politician exiled in Caracas, Venezuela since 1959. The hijacking ended when, after the US naval intervention, the ship arrived in Recife, Brazil, where the rebels were given political asylum.

An iconic hijacking history.

Henrique Galvão wrote his account of the hijacking as A Minha Cruzada Pró-Portugal. Santa Maria (São Paulo, Livraria Martins, 1961), translated as Santa Maria: my crusade for Portugal (Cleveland OH, World Publishing/London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1961).

Eric C. de Brabander has written a novel related with the hijacking. After 50 years he discovers that he is the son of one of the hijackers. Lost since long and living in Brazil. Vieira, owner of a supermarket in Curacao. A historical novel ” De supermarket van Vieira” (2013, ISBN10: 9062658415).

The story of the hijacking was told in the 2010 Portuguese feature film Assalto ao Santa Maria.

Ourselves we followed this hijacking ” live ” and with much attention, knowing and having been for 2 weeks on this ship. It was breaking news then, in the newspapers, on my own Panasonic transistor radio and on the black & white tv at home.

The second time I visited Santiago was in 1976. With Wim Litjens, now barrister-at-law, then brown cafe buddy and one of my 15 housemates from historical student house Huize Maupertuus in Hogewoerd 76, Leiden. When we crossed and explored Europe, from Leiden southwards to Coimbra in Portugal. Visiting within others Paris, Bordeaux, Cataluna, Costa Brava, Blanes, Barcelona, la Rioja, Leon, Salamanca, Ciudad Rodrigo, Galicia, Asturias, Belmont de Miranda, Pais Vasco etc. etc. etc.

A voyage in my 2CV Citroen.

On the return trip, from Bilbao back home, crossing the Pyrenees with only one (1) cylinder, as de second one was damaged. At 60 km. per hour.

Please join, enjoy !

And certainly visit, if you have the opportunity.

2) Día del Apóstol Santiago y Día de la Patria Gallega – 25 Julio 2017

Esta es una fecha muy importante para la ciudad, ya que reúne el tema religioso y el político, porque este día se conmemoran dos hechos muy importantes.

Generalmente se celebra en el Ayuntamiento de la ciudad y en las plazas públicas, donde se realizan actos, espectáculos, conciertos, obras que representan estos hechos.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 5
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 5

La celebración comienza el 24 por la noche como víspera del día de la fiesta, en la plaza principal de la ciudad, la Plaza del Obradoiro se desarrolla una gran ceremonia con fuegos artificiales y productos pirotécnicos. Algo realmente imperdible. Así comienza la quincena dedicada a estas celebraciones.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 17
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 17

Es el día 25 cuando se realizan las ofrendas al Apóstol Santiago, es una escena muy emotiva ver como miles de seguidores llegan a la Catedral a dejar su homenaje.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 2
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 2

3) Día del Apóstol Santiago y día grande de Galicia

El 25 de julio todos los años se celebra el Día de Galicia y la Festividad del Apóstol Santiago, una celebración que tiene lugar en múltiples localidades españolas y puntos de todo el mundo.

Sin embargo, desde el final de la Dictadura en España, el Día del Apóstol no es festivo en todo el país, sino únicamente en las comunidades autónomas que así lo deciden cada año al configurar su calendario de fiestas, con la excepción de Galicia, que celebra su día grande, por lo que es festivo todos los años.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 4
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 4

El Apóstol Santiago es una de las figuras más importantes de santoral cristiano y leyenda en torno a la que surge el fenómeno de la peregrinación del Camino de Santiago hace más de mil años en el norte de la Península.

Tras el supuesto descubrimiento del sepulcro donde descansaban sus restos, alrededor del año 813, numerosos cristianos del norte de la geografía comenzaron a peregrinar a lo que hoy es Santiago de Compostelapara mostrar su devoción.

Esta costumbre se convirtió en tradición, expandiéndose el fenómeno del Camino de Santiago a toda Europa, por lo que la ciudad santa se convirtió en uno de los centros de peregrinación más importantes de la cristiandad, junto a Roma y Jerusalén.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 6
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 6

La importancia del Camino, la figura de Santiago Apóstol y la propia ciudad como centro de peregrinación hicieron que en el año 1122 el papa Calixto II decidiera implantar el Año Santo Compostelano, celebrándose cada año en el que el 25 de julio cayera en domingo.

En cada Año Santo o Xacobeo (se celebra 14 veces cada siglo) se otorgan indulgencias a todos aquellos peregrinos que en Santiago de Compostela cumplan los requisitos de visitar la catedral, recibir los sacramentos y rezar una oración.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 7
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 7

4)¿Desde cuándo Santiago Apóstol es patrón de España?

Pese a que desde el siglo IX los reyes de la reconquista reconocían a Santiago Apóstol como su patrón, no fue hasta el siglo XVII cuando el patronato de España le fue concedido al santo.

Fue por obra del papa Urbano VIII, quien parece que por presiones del clero compostelano en 1630 decidió, bajo el reinado de Felipe IV, que el apóstol Santiago el Mayor fuera reconocido oficialmente como único patrón de España (que desde 1627 compartía con Santa Teresa de Jesús). Esta decisión se hizo conjuntamente con el reconocimiento por parte de la Iglesia de que sus restos estaban enterrados en Compostela y estableciendo además que la festividad de Santiago Apóstol se celebrara cada 25 de julio.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 8
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL 8

Desde 1646, por obra de Felipe IV, está institucionalizado el Voto de Santiago, que siguiendo la tradición de los reyes cristianos del norte de la Península en los tiempos de la Reconquista, daba una ofrenda por parte de los reyes, príncipes y del arzobispo de Compostela a la Iglesia de Santiago cada 25 de julio. Esta ofrenda sigue teniendo lugar a día de hoy, aunque de forma simbólica, en la celebración de la misa en el Día del Apóstol.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 9
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL 9

5) ¿Desde cuándo se celebra el Día de Galicia cada 25 de julio?

La celebración del Día de Galicia, Día Nacional de Galicia o Día da Patria Galega cada 25 de julio, coincidiendo con el Día del Apóstol, es una iniciativa que surge en una reunión de Irmandades da Fala en 1919, una agrupación cultural y política gallega de carácter nacionalista, que determina que esta festividad se celebre cada año a partir de 1920. Durante la dictadura franquista, se prohibe la celebración, que pasa a la clandestinidad y a celebrarse por los emigrantes gallegos en el extranjero; no es hasta 1979, por decreto de la Xunta de Galicia, cuando se establece como fiesta oficial de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 10
Santiago de Compostela – my own pic. MCAL 10

6) Parador de Santiago de Compostela – 5 Stars – GL

We stayed in one of the most luxurious and beautiful hotels in the Paradores chain, located in Santiago de Compostela.
In this city, the destination of millions of pilgrims, rays of sunlight illuminate the building façades in summer and the rain creates a magical ambiance that overtakes the cobbled streets in winter.
The Parador de Santiago, known as the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, is a blend of history, art and tradition, the dream of pilgrims and emblem of Santiago.
It is located on Obradoiro Square near the cathedral, creating an area of spectacular beauty in one of the most visited provincial capitals in the world.
A stay at this Parador means a visit to a truly unique and exclusive location.
Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 11
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 11

The hotel was built as a royal hospital in 1499 to accommodate pilgrims traveling to Santiago.

Today, it continues to invite visitors to enjoy a city that is as universal as it is fascinating. Inside this Parador Museum, considered the oldest hotel in the world, you will discover four beautiful cloisters, elegant rooms, spectacular guest rooms and a luxurious dining room that offers fish and meat prepared in the Galician style, along with classic apple filloas (a type of crêpe) and crème brûlée.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 12
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL 12

Santiago is a magical city of almost indescribable beauty, where you will not only look, but you will also feel.

In addition to the cathedral and the spectacular Obradoiro and Quintana squares, other sights include Santa María A Real do Sar Collegiate Church.

Together with the cathedral, this is the church that has preserved the largest part of its original Romanesque stonework and it has an interior with lovely proportions.

There is also the Renaissance Colegio de Fonseca (Fonseca School) and the magnificent San Martiño Pinario Monastery. These are just some of the places well worth visiting in the city’s fine historic district.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 12
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 12

The charm and the hustle and bustle of Abastos Market in the morning; the beautifully maintained Alameda Park, which boasts spectacular views of the old quarter; the church, convent and park of San Domingos de Bonaval, home to the Pantheon of Illustrious Galicians; and the green spaces around the capital, extending all the way to the sea, just half an hour away, will guide you through this city brimming with history and beauty.

It marks the end of the Camino (Way of St. James) and the start of a one-of-a-kind experience we invite you to enjoy in exceptional accommodations, the Parador de Santiago.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 13
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 13

7) Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) is located in Galicia, situated in the far north-west of Spain.

In the beginning of the 9th century, a hermit called Pelagius saw a mysterious light shining over a Roman tomb forgotten in the middle of a forest. Very soon, the incredible news spread all over the Christian world: the tomb of St. James the Greater, the beloved apostle of Jesus Christ, had been discovered in a far site near the finis terrae, the end of the known Earth, in the northwest of Iberian Peninsula.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL
Geologic map Santiago de Compostela – info.igme.es, hoja 94, 4-7 – MCAL

A few years later, this site became a famous pilgrimage town, one of the most important of Christianity. Pilgrims came from all over Europe following the Camino de Santiago to reach the city born around the Holy Tomb, exercising a great influence on the surrounding area.

This is evidenced in the small towns, churches, hospitals, and monasteries that were built near the Camino to attend to the thousands of pilgrims who came to visit the tomb. This influence in the local architecture and art was especially strong and long-lasting in the north-west of Spain, but the fame and the reputation of the sanctuary of Santiago de Compostela went well beyond; Galicia was even known in the Nordic sagas as Jakobsland.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 14
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 14

This famous pilgrimage site also became a symbol in the Spanish Christians’ struggle against Islam. Destroyed by the Muslims at the end of the 10th century, it was completely rebuilt in the following century.

The Old Town of Santiago de Compostela, together with the outlying Santa Maria de Conxo Monastery, constitutes an extraordinary ensemble of distinguished monuments. The squares and narrow streets of the Old Town contain Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and Neoclassicist buildings.

This town is not only a harmonious and very well preserved historical city, but also a place deeply imbued with faith. The cathedral, considered as a masterpiece of Romanesque architecture, keeps the remarkable Pórtico de la Gloria, a jewel of the medieval sculpture. However, the authentic symbol of the city is the Baroque western façade of the cathedral, which forms one of the sides of the square of Obradoiro, one of the world´s most beautiful urban areas.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 16
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 16

The phenomenon of pilgrimage is not only a relevant historical fact, but also a continuous movement thanks to the celebration of the Holy Years.

Criterion (i): Around its cathedral, which is a world renowned masterpiece of Romanesque art, Santiago de Compostela conserves a valuable historic centre, known as one of Christianity´s greatest holy cities. All European cultural and artistic currents, from the Middle Ages to the present day, left extraordinary works of art in Santiago de Compostela.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 17
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL 17

Criterion (ii): During both the Romanesque and Baroque periods, the sanctuary of Santiago de Compostela exerted a decisive influence on the development of architecture and art, not only in Galicia, but also in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.

Criterion (vi): Santiago de Compostela is associated with one of the major themes of medieval history. From the shores of the North and Baltic Seas, thousands of pilgrims carrying the symbol of the scallop and the pilgrim’s staff walked, for centuries, to the Galician sanctuary along the paths of Santiago de Compostela, veritable roads of the Faith.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 16
Santiago de Compostela – pic. MCAL 16

Integrity

The property encompasses 108 ha, with a 217 ha buffer zone. Santiago de Compostela shows a remarkable state of conservation, largely due to conservation policies that have preserved the integrity of monuments and buildings that form the civil and religious architectural ensemble.

Elements from the Middle Ages are integrated with those from the Renaissance, as well as the constructions from the 17th and 18th centuries into a high-quality urban fabric. The Old Town is a liveable and lively place where inhabitants and business coexist with tourism.

The urban development has respected natural spaces where the green Galician fields join the historical city. In this respect, the property integrates the urban ensemble, historical oakwoods and open green spaces.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 18
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 18

Authenticity

Throughout its history, Santiago de Compostela has received different influences, and the Old Town has integrated these different styles and currents with local traditions. The result of this mixture is a city where the original Galician architecture, with its typical wooden galleries and traditional materials, like stone, wood, or iron, combines with great monuments that constitute a splendid tour across the history of European and universal art.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 19
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 19

Protection and management requirements

The conservation of Santiago de Compostela is the responsibility of the Consortium of Santiago de Compostela, created in 1991 and integrated by the national, regional, and local public administrations, as well as the archbishopric and the University.

From its creation, the Consortium has carried out important works of restoration of monuments and public spaces, and has subsidized and implemented rehabilitation projects, both for housing and business premises in order to preserve the traditional activities of the historical centre. It also supports conservation actions carried out by the Town Hall of the city and the autonomous government of Galicia.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 20
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 20

The regulatory framework that allows for conservation and management action is prescribed in the Special Plan for the Protection and Rehabilitation of the City of Santiago de Compostela.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 21
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 21

In terms of management challenges, Santiago de Compostela is facing the pressures of mass tourism, which produces overcrowding around the cathedral and provokes changes in traditional commercial activities.

Actions have been undertaken towards diversifying the touristic offer and diverting visitor flows to the suburbs of the city, such as with the construction of the City of the Culture of Galicia, a modern complex constructed by the Regional Government on Mount Gaias, in the proximity of the historical centre of Santiago de Compostela. In the future, adaptive changes will need to be foreseen in the Special Plan for the Protection and Rehabilitation of the City of Santiago de Compostela to preserve the traditional commercial activities in the Old Town, and to support the policies of conservation of buildings and monuments, as well as the recovery of degraded spaces.

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL 22
Santiago de Compostela – MCAL 22

8) La rocas de Santiago de Compostela:

Santiago de Compostela - piedras - MCAL2
Santiago de Compostela – piedras – MCAL2

Sobre las diferentes rocas igneas y metamorficas utilizadas en los edificios, casas y plazas se ha publicado un interesante trabajo titulado ” As Pedras de Compostela ” de Ma. Concepcion Gonzalez Adan y Pedro Cantineras Garcia. Fue editado para celebrar el dia de la Geologia , titulado Geolodia en Espana.

Los Geolodías quieren divulgar de la Geología y de la profesión del geólogo desde la Sociedad Geológica de España y consisten en un conjunto de excursiones gratuitas, guiadas por geólogos y abiertas a todo tipo de público, sean cuales sean sus conocimientos de Geología.

En la zona vieja de Santiago, no mas observando las rocas utilizadas para la construcción de las iglesias, casa y calles, se percibe la historia geológica de Galicia. Puesto que todas las piedras para la construcción provienen de canteras de los alrededores.

La mayor parte proviene del llamado Complejo de Ordenes, de edad Precambrico – Ordovicico, y de los granitos Varisticos, los cuales rodean a Santiago de Compostela.

Santiago de Compostela - piedras - MCAL1
Santiago de Compostela – piedras – MCAL1

Re: http://www.sociedadgeologica.es/archivos_pdf/gdia13_corua_trip.pdf

9) Geology of Galicia:

La geología de Galicia integra dos continentes y un antiguo océano

Inserted note Marcel Chin-A-Lien:

Leiden University, the Netherlands.

During some 25 years (1955 – 1980) geology students from my Leiden Alma Mater (of of my 4) have done research in Galicia.

Resulting in numerous master and Ph.D. theses on the geology of Galicia. Much of this information was used for the official geologic map of Galicia.

Reference, for example: De Leidse Geoloog – Lustrumuitgave 1933 – 2008 – Veldwerk ! (Anniversary XV edition, 2008, Leidse Geologische Vereniging, LGV).

Geology NW Spain - MCAL
Geology NW Spain – MCAL

10) Investigadores de Madrid y Salamanca lideran un proyecto nacional centrado en el puzle geológico gallego. –

by R.Romar in www.lavozdegalicia.es/noticia/sociedad/2010/07/12/geologia-galicia-integra-dos-continentes

Santiago de Compostela - MCAL
Geologic map Santiago de Compostela – info.igme.es, hoja 94, 4-7 – MCAL

Hace 410 millones Galicia no existía como tal. El basamento de roca que daría lugar a su creación estaba repartido en los dos grandes continentes que en la época formaban parte de la tierra: Laurasia, en el norte, y Gondwana, en el sur. Y, en el medio, el océano Reico. Todo este espacio se fundió luego en un único macrocontinente: Pangea. Y en este gigantesco puzle que logró ensamblarse, Galicia es una de las piezas claves para estudiar la formación del supercontinente y, por extensión, la historia geológica de la Tierra

Este es uno de los objetivos del proyecto Consolider, uno de los programas estrella financiados por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, coordinado por las universidades de Salamanca y Complutense de Madrid. La iniciativa se enmarca, además, en el International Geological Correlation Program de la Unesco.

«Galicia es el mejor laboratorio natural para estudiar el ensamblado de Pangea», asegura Ricardo Arenas, uno de los directores del proyecto y catedrático de Petrología en la Universidad Complutense.

«El proyecto trata de reconstruir la historia paleozoica de Galicia (hace entre 300 y 400 millones de años) e integrarla en la historia geológica de la Tierra», apunta José Ramón Martínez Catalán, el otro responsable de la investigación y geólogo de la Universidad de Salamanca.

El proyecto, iniciado hace tres años, ya ha arrojado interesantes conclusiones que se han expuesto en publicaciones y congresos internacionales. Ahora se sabe que lo que hoy en día es Galicia es una representación de tres mundos que aún se conservan en su geología: la comunidad alberga piezas de Laurasia, un gran continente que estaba integrado por Norteamérica, Báltica (Escandinavia) y parte de Rusia; del enorme continente del sur llamado Gondwana y del océano Reico. «Partes de Galicia formaban parte de tres mundos diferentes», constata Ricardo Arenas. «Es la pieza fundamental para reconstruir el puzle», asegura José Ramón Martínez Catalán.

Geology Iberia - Galicia - Gondwana - MCAL
Geology Iberia – Galicia – Gondwana – MCAL

Cartografía digital

Partes de Ordes y el cabo Ortegal son el legado del océano Reico, que se cerró en la colisión y parte de él cabalgó sobre Galicia. A Coruña y parte del complejo de Ordes eran de Laurasia y la zona sur y oriental de Gondwana.

Pero el trabajo desarrollado hasta ahora no solo aporta conocimientos sobre el pasado geológico de Galicia, en particular, y del mundo en general, sino que también ha sido utilizado por el Instituto Geológico Minero para perfeccionar la cartografía digital de la comunidad.

Geology - W-E x-section NW Spain
Geology – W-E x-section NW Spain

11) Un canto a Galicia – Cancion – Julio Iglesias, iconic song. https://youtu.be/7pB0fKhimBI

Eu queroche tanto,
e ainda non o sabes…
Eu queroche tanto,
terra do meu pai.

Quero as tuas ribeiras
que me fan lembrare
os teus ollos tristes
que me fan chorare.

Un canto a Galicia, hey,
terra do meu pai.
Un canto a Galicia, hey,
miña terra nai.

Teño morriña, hey,
teño saudade,
porque estou lonxe
de eses teus lares.

Eu queroche tanto,
e ainda non o sabes…
Eu queroche tanto,
terra do meu pai.

Quero as tuas ribeiras
que me fan lembrare
os teus ollos tristes
que me fan chorare.

Un canto a Galicia, hey,
terra do meu pai.
Un canto a Galicia, hey,
miña terra nai.

Teño morriña, hey,
teño saudade,
porque estou lonxe
de eses teus lares.

Teño morriña,
teño saudade,
porque estou lonxe
de eses teus lares…

De eses teus lares…
De esos teus lares…

¡Teño morriña!
¡Teño saudade!

Un canto a Galicia, hey,
terra do meu pai.
Un canto a Galicia, hey,
miña terra nai.

12) Musica de Tuna – Pasa la Tuna Rondando 

12.1) Musica de Tuna. – Re: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuna_(music)

In Santiago de Compostela one can see and hear the music of many so-called tuna groups. A tuna is a group of university students in traditional university dress who play traditional instruments and sing serenades. This creates a a festive and happy mood wherever they act. The tradition originated in Spain and Portugal in the 13th century as a means of students to earn money or food. Nowadays students don’t belong to a “tuna” for money nor food, but seeking to keep a tradition alive, for fun, to travel a lot and to meet new people from other universities. A senior member of a tuna is a “tunante”, but is usually known simply as a “tuno”. The newbies are known as “caloiros”.

The name TUNA may come from French roi de Thunes,[1] “king of Tunis“, a title used by leaders of vagabonds. But there is also a legend of a real King of Tunis, known for his love to music and party that usually liked to walk around the streets at night playing and singing. That explains why the term roi de Thunes was applied.

In the old times (medieval days) the Sopistas would use their musical talents to entertain people in exchange for a coin and a bowl of soup (sopa, in Portuguese and Spanish, hence the name sopistas). They would also play their music under the windows of the ladies they wished to court.

From its origins to the present day, from and through of the Tunas have continued the cultivation of popular instruments such as the bandurria, lute, guitar and tambourine, instruments which are named in the Spanish book Libro del Buen Amor by Juan Ruiz (c. 1283 – c. 1350).[2]

For these occupations, they took their guitars and bandurrias and sang popular songs. The tunos or sopistas also showed abilities for music, and in courting ladies that they had been wooing to.[3] The sopistas were poor students that with their music, friendly personality and craftiness scoured for cheap eats for a few coins in the eating-houses, convents, streets and squares.[4]

Expansion even into the Netherlands (edit)

In 1964, in Eindhoven, a number of students at the Eindhoven University of Technology came up with a new hazing prank: they had some incoming freshmen learn some Spanish songs and serenade a society lady in Eindhoven (possibly the lady in question was Mrs. Tromp, wife of the then-director of Philips). The serenading group was a hit and in 1964 the students founded Tuna Ciudad de Luz (Tuna of the City of Light, in reference to the importance of Philips Lighting to Eindhoven).[5][6] Starting in 1965 Tuna Ciudad de Luz was invited to Madrid regularly for certamina by several Spanish tunas; in order to return the favor, Ciudad de Luz started inviting the Spanish tunas to Eindhoven in 1986 (their 1986 certamen was the first ever held outside Spain).[6]

Since then the tuna tradition has spread to several other universities in the Netherlands. There are currently five tunas in the Netherlands: Tuna Ciudad de Luz in Eindhoven, Tuna de la Ciudad Jarrera in Tilburg, Tuna Universitaria de Maastricht in Maastricht, Cuarentuna de Holanda (former students of Ciudad de Luz) and Tuna Veterana de La Haya (former student in The Hague). There are also two tunas for female students: La Tuniña in Eindhoven and Tuna Femenina Universitaria de Leiden in Leiden.

12.2) Pasa la Tuna Rondando – Re: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfCgUuSZyAc

Un precioso documental sobre esta tradición universitaria española. Con la preciosa voz del solista de las Islas Canarias. Tradición también en Portugal, America Latina y expandida hasta a Holanda, en el 1964.

Nosotros mismos tuvimos la oportunidad de disfrutar de las canciones de Tunas en ocasiones y entornos muy diversos y donde nos encanta estar.

Siempre muy placentero, alegre, nostálgico y a veces picaro su música. Toca y alegra al alma.

Como en la Plaza Obradoiro de Santiago de Compostela, a medianoche.

Plaza Mayor de Salamanca.

Madrid, en la Plaza Mayor, Las Cuevas de Luis Candelas (*.) 

( https://es-la.facebook.com/public/Las-Cuevas-De-Luis-Candelas-Las-Cuevas).

Corren los primeros años del 1800, cuando nace Luis Candelas Cagigal. Un mozuelo que va creciendo con fama, labrándose la profesión de bandolero. Con chaquetilla azul turquesa, pantalón de Mahón y faja de Corinto, Candelas se convierte en un personaje célebre robando establecimientos y saltando diligencias.

Tras sus robos acude al Arco de Cuchilleros. Uno de los lugares más típicos del antiguo Madrid, enclavado en la herreriana Plaza Mayor – donde se encuentran hoy en día “Las Cuevas de Luis Candelas” -, que en el siglo XIX era sitio concurrido por lo más castizo de la época y chicoleo de majas y chisperos.

Es precisamente allí, bajo el Arco de Cuchilleros y en sus cuevas, donde Luis Candelas – conocido así por sus amigos, y Don Luis Álvarez de Cobos para los que lo eran menos – se escondía con su “cuadrilla” y preparaba sus golpes, porque disponían de muchas salidas al exterior que despistaban a sus perseguidores…

Tras su matrimonio con Manuela Sánchez en la Iglesia de San Cayetano, marcha a Zamora donde reside algún tiempo hasta que decide su vuelta a Madrid. En 1837 lo atrapan y hecha pública su sentencia, le condenan a muerte a garrote vil. Su ficha rezaba así: “ Luis Candelas Cagigal, de 28 años, casado, natural de Madrid, con domicilio en Cuchilleros, 1 , ladrón profesional, estatura regular, pelo negro, sin redecilla, ojos al pelo, boca grande y mandíbula prominente, bien formado y recio ”.

La condena se lleva a efecto en presencia del pueblo y en las afueras de las puertas de Toledo de Madrid. Sus últimas palabras fueron éstas:
SÉ FELIZ, PATRIA MÍA

En La Taberna Real, cual en el siglo 16 formaba parte de la cocina del Palacio Real, situado en la Plaza Isabel II, frente al Teatro Real (.)

(https://www.facebook.com/TabernaReal/).

En Bogota, en el restaurante del Hotel Tequendama, un dia en diciembre, acercandose a las Navidades (Tuna Navarra, https://www.facebook.com/tuna.navarra.bogota/).

 

8. Tour de Géologie avec Tour de France

8. Grand Tour de Géologie during the Tour de France. V.300518

Tour de France - Stage 12 - July 19, 2019 - Bourg to Alpe d'Huez
Tour de France – Stage 12 – July 19, 2018 –  Bourg to Alpe d’Huez
Tour de France - July 19, 2017 - MCAL
Tour de France – July 19, 2017 – MCAL

The Tour de France is one of the most spectacular cycling tours on the world.

As a geologist for me the cyclists also cycle cross-sections through the geological landscape. I always study the geological background of the different stages. Together with the nowadays superb and continuous tv shots from the helicopter the Tour represents indeed also a geological excursion.

This article refers specifically to the area of 2 stages in the mountains, the Alps. One of this year (stage 12), located close to 2 others of last year, 2017. They appeal very much to me. As I happen to know the area. It is located close to the area where I did 2 full summers fieldwork for my thesis (long ago). Just across the border. In Italy, Piemonte, Cotton Alps.

Please join me on a dynamic geological cycling tour in the French Alps. Enjoy !

Contents (13)

1.  July 19, 20th, 2017.
Tour de France (men) & Tour La Course (women, July 20, 21; Annemiek van Vleuten, NL).

2. Foto: Mont Genèvre, Briançon – Ophiolite sequence – June 1974 – MCAL : Standing on the Upper Mantle, Ophiolite Sequence.

3. Géologie du Massif du Grand Galibier

4. Tour etappe – La Mure > Serre Chevalier – July 19, 2017

5. Geology: a brief overview of the history of the Alps.

Panorama Geologique du Massif du Grand Galibier

6. Tectonic framework of the Alps – Carte tectonique des Alpes

7. Etude géologique des massifs du Grand Galibier et des Cerces (zone Brianconnaise, Hautes-Alpes et Savoie).

8. Tour de France 2017

9. Geological notes (3) related with the photo “Mont Genevre, Briancon, France, 1974. Standing on the Upper Mantle, Ophiolite’s”.

10) Plastic Deformation of Gabbros in a Slow-spreading Mesozoic Ridge: Example of the Montgenèvre Ophiolite, Western Alps: R. Caby.

11) The Montgenevre ophiolite (Hautes Alpes, France): Meta—morphism and trace-element geochemistry of the volcanic sequence; Adrian D. Lewis and John D. Smewing – 1980

12) W-Alpine neotectonics and brittle deformation – Christian Sue

13) Les Alpes – Aux origines de leur Formation. – Video

 

1). July 19, 20th, 2017.
Tour de France (men) & Tour La Course (women, July 20, 21; Annemiek van Vleuten, NL).

Le Massif du Grand Galibier.
Awesome, impressive scenery, nature and mountains.

From La Mure to Serre Chevalier and from Briançon to Col d’Izoard.
Firework from the cyclists. A brutal 9% climb the last 10, a heroic struggle after already 173 km of exhausting work.

Simultaneously, Grand Tour de Géologie du Massif du Grand Galibier:
Exiting very dynamic, tectonic, compression-related, overthrusts, transcurrent faults and prime geological firework in the beautiful Alps.

Cycling across seven (7) different major thrusts and nappes. Brutal Alpine tectonic fire- and muscle work. Wowwww.

The Grand Galibier located on the Nappe Brianconnaise. Overriding and superposed on the Nappe Sub-Brianconnaise. With giant thrust faults that define both the Colle du Galibier and the Col du Lautaret.

The 167 cyclists left will unfortunately not have time to admire the outcrops and realise the dimension of the unique tectonic framework that they are crossing.

Where they could evidence, with geological eyes, the internal deformation inside the colliding European margin.

Related with westward motion of Apulia and thus witness the insight of true collision.

True collision that already began 31-34 million years ago (Lower Oligocene). Marking a major tectonic rearrangement of the Alpine chain.

With a NW displacement of some 10-15 km and temperatures of circa 280 degrees Celcius.

As nicely related, in their own cryptic language, by contemporary voyagers Mr. Phengite and Mrs. Chlorite – Phengite.

Mr. Phengite, born and since his childhood, happily grown-up without stress, though syn-kinematically under high pressure in shear zones. As told in his own cryptic language called 40Ar/39Ar dating. Mr. Phengite of the greater mica family, resembling muscovite but with some magnesium. Similar to the phengites in the Ovardites of Forte Fenestrelle, Val Chisone, in my thesis research area.

Mrs. Chlorite – Phengite relating her thrilling 10-15 km voyage in her enigmatic Thermobarometry language.

All with special thanks to the hard and continual work of the Crustal Penninic Thrust Front since 34 million years ago. Still thrusting and moving over the decollement horizon. As the Apulia tectonic plate moves westwards, continuously reshaping and sculpturing Mother Earth. Faithfully accompanied by her new-born sculpted mountains and earthquakes while converging with the European plate.

You are invited to have a look at the interesting geologic maps and cross-sections. The 4-D dynamic world of the geoscientist and the unique geo-thrill related with the prime Tour thrillers of today and tomorrow.

Enjoy ! Venez partager s.v.p. !

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

2) Mont Genèvre, Briançon – Ophiolite sequence – June 1974 – MCAL : Standing on the Upper Mantle, Ophiolite Sequence.

Mont Genèvre, Briançon - Ophiolite sequence - June 1974 - MCAL
Mont Genèvre, Briançon – Ophiolite sequence – June 1974 – MCAL : Standing on the Upper Mantle, Ophiolite Sequence.

3). Géologie du Massif du Grand Galibier

Géologie Massif du Galibier - MCAL
Géologie du Massif du Grand Galibier – MCAL

4) Tour etappe – La Mure > Serre Chevalier – July 19, 2017

Tour etappe - La Mure > Serre Chevalier - July 19, 2017 - MCAL
Tour etappe – La Mure > Serre Chevalier – July 19, 2017 – MCAL

5) Geology: a brief overview of the history of the Alps.

Panorama Geologique du Massif du Grand Galibier

Galibier - MCAL
Panorama Geologique du Massif du Grand Galibier – MCAL

6) Tectonic framework of the Alps – Carte tectonique des Alpes

Alps - Tectonic map - MCAL
Tectonic framework of the Alps – Carte tectonique des Alpes – MCAL

7) Etude géologique des massifs du Grand Galibier et des Cerces (zone Brianconnaise, Hautes-Alpes et Savoie).

Si vous êtes intéressez s.v.p. consulter la publication classic écrit par Bernard Tissot (PDF gratuite en Internet).

Géologie Galibier - MCAL
Géologie Galibier – MCAL

8) Tour de France 2017

Tour de France of 1989 is surely the greatest ever. A race that saw Greg LeMond overturn a 50-second deficit to Laurent Fignon on the final stage on the Champs Élysées to snatch the title by a mere eight seconds. After three weeks and more than 3200 kilometres in the saddle, this remains the smallest margin of victory in the Tour’s 100+ year history.

As a geologist and explorationist for me the Tour de France simultaneously represents a fascinating Tour de Geologie and Tour de Vin.
While the brave cyclists, such as Froome, Uran, Bardet, Landa, de Gendt, Quintana, Mollema, Ten Dam and the whole peloton cross the French countryside and mountains, they also cycle cross-sections through the geologic history, my geological maps, the maps and vineyards of the famous wine districts of France, that I avidly consult during the different stages.

On your own, whether belly-shaped, flat, or curved panoramic Oled TV with cinema sound system at home, by watching the Tour de France, you also experience the intensity and thrill of the Tour de France for example during its most challenging climbs. From the dizzying heights of the 2,715-metre ascent of Col de la Bonette to the historic Great St Bernard Pass.
On Col du Galibier, not far away from my own 6 month fieldwork area in the Italian Cottian Alps, with its incredibly tortuous 15 percent gradient climb.

A tough gradient that also my brand new Citroën 2CV  Deux Chevaux, Fourgonnette model (only 16 hp, 425 cc) and its driver had to experience and conquer back in 1973. Obtaining a maximum speed uphill of only some 15 kilometres in gear one. With the big load of pieces of la Bella Italia. Rock samples for my thesis. Just to mention the garnet schists, augen gneisses, grafite- and cloritoid micashists, cargneules, marbles, schistes lustres, prasinites and ovardites of Forte Fenestrelle, serpentinites and ofi-calcites. All first subducted, later obductic and now exhumed Palaeozoic basement to Jurassic metamorphosed rocks.

And Alpe d’Huez’s famous hairpins, where legendary cyclists such as Fausto Coppi and Marco Pantani once showed off their physical strength and stamina, and blasted home with unbelievable acceleration and will-power.

An extra exciting dimension to the emotions of the Tour and cyclists:
Tour de France, Tour de Geologie, Tour de Vin; Bycicles, Geology, Viticulture, Three-in-One.

Dimanche, 23 juillet 2017. Dernière étape de 103 kilomètres entre Montgeron dans l”Essonne et les Champs-Élysées.
Une étape promise aux sprinteurs Greipel, Boasson Hagen, Bouhanni, et Matthews ? Dylan Groenewegen, le jeune Néerlandais de 24 ans, champion de son pays dans 2016, maintenant aussi pour la premiere fois dans la Grande boucle. Vainqueur.

Champs-Élysées, 19:20 p.m.:

Froome, Uran, Bardet.

(on Uran, FYI see: http://www.noticiasrcn.com/videos/sencillamente-rigo)

9. Geological notes (3) related with the photo ” Mont Genevre, Briancon, France, 1974 “:
” Standing on the Upper Mantle, Ophiolites “.

Leiden geologists, f.l.t.r. Arie Schaap, Andre van der Meulen, Marcel Chin-A-Lien, Ray Bergval (R.I.P.). Not visible, taking the pic, Wilbert Hocks.

(Personal note for my very dear ” Ophiolitic & High Pressure-Low Temperature Metamorphic ” friends, wherever you are, Australia, South America, Sranankondre, NL:

Caríssimi amici ciaoo a tutti, Manneee, see you soon, voor een paar pilsjes en bitterballen in Pardoeza of Barrera, cheers, de ballueee, doei, take care).

Our visit to the well-known Mont Genèvre Ophiolite sequence, Briancon, France was part of our fieldwork, mainly in the Italian Cottian Alps. Where we studied within others the ophiolite and upper mantle rocks there exposed, such as in Val Chisone and Parco naturale Orsiera-Rocciavre .

10) Plastic Deformation of Gabbros in a Slow-spreading Mesozoic Ridge: Example of the Montgenèvre Ophiolite, Western Alps: R. Caby.

Published in: Mantle and Lower Crust Exposed in Oceanic Ridges and Ophiolites, pp 123-145.

Gabbros of the Montgenèvre ophiolite (external Piémont zone, western Alps), with the mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of an oceanic ridge, show evidence of pervasive high-temperature deformation before the intrusion of basalt dikes.

This deformation is incipient in the layered troctolites immediately above a locally preserved paleo-Moho, and increases in intensity upward in the overlying olivine-poor gabbros producing an anastomosing system of mylonitic shear zones and several steep ultramylonite belts.

The mylonites and ultramylonites developed by solid-state shearing of the gabbros at temperatures in excess of 800–850°C, allowing recrystallization of augite subgrains in the wings of ductilely deformed magmatic diopside-salite clasts followed by crystallization of brown amphiboles.

On the basis of textural relationships it is proposed that synkinematic partial melting within the sheared gabbros, at temperatures of 850° C or higher, generated augite- and pargasite-bearing leucodioritic magmas which evolved in narrow magmatic conduits and percolated through tectonites and actively deforming mylonite zones, to form cross-cutting veins in adjacent less deformed gabbros.

The complex geometry of the structures and their kinematics, when restored to a stage before the onset of pre-Alpine and Alpine brittle tectonics, suggest that this tectono-metamorphic evolution started after rapid solidification of the gabbros. It is proposed that the gabbroic mass was pushed away from a spreading center due to the activity of extensional and transform shear zones, in response to spreading through continuous domal uplift of the underlying mantle peridotites from which, at deeper levels, new basaltic melt was extracted to produce off-axis basaltic volcanism.

The “magmatic” Moho became thereby transformed into a “tectonic” moho, followed by uplift of peridotites to the ocean floor where they became overlain by ultramafic-derived sediments such as to form a “sedimentary” Moho.

The scarce geochronological data suggest a long time span, of about 50–60 Ma, between magmatic crystallization of gabbros and diorites (212± 8 Ma) and the deposition of the oceanic cover (165–160 Ma), suggesting a slow-spreading paleoridge in the relatively narrow (<1000 km) Piemonte-Ligurian branch of the Tethys ocean.

11) The Montgenevre ophiolite (Hautes Alpes, France): Meta—morphism and trace-element geochemistry of the volcanic sequence; Adrian D. Lewis and John D. Smewing – 1980 – www.researchgate.net/publication/229399557_The_Montgenevre_ophiolite_Hautes_Alpes_France
Abstract
The Montgenevre ophiolite near Briançon in the French Alps consists of pillow lavas, pegmatitic and flaser gabbros and serpentinite in tectonic contact.
These rocks have been metamorphosed under prehnite—pumpellyite to greenschist facies conditions during two stages, an early sub-sea-floor metamorphism prior to emplacement followed by the Alpine metamorphism.
The pillow lavas can be divided into two groups, the Chenaillet Sequence showing moderate differentiation, and the Grand Charvia Sequence with a more restricted composition.
Forty-seven samples of the volcanic rocks have been analysed for Ti, Zr and Y by X-ray fluorescence, and eleven for rare-earth elements (REE) and Th, Ta, Hf and Sc by instrumental neutron activation (INAA).
Although the original stratigraphic relationship of the lavas has been obscured by emplacement tectonics, geochemical modelling suggests that they can all be related by up to 60% fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene.
Their chemical composition and phenocryst assemblages are similar to modern ocean-floor basalts.
12)  W-Alpine neotectonics and brittle deformation – Christian Sue – csue@univ-fcomte.fr. , Audrey Bertrand
Aims of the field trip

The briançonnais area, South-East of the Pelvoux massif, is carved by a dense fault network, which corresponds to the last tectonic event in the alpine history.

Indeed, this fault network postdates all the alpine compression-related structures such as nappe piles, folds, schistosities and cleavages related to the different compressional phases. The late fault system is made of normal faults, which locally bear witness of transcurrent reactivation. They can be observed at every scale (kilometric to centimetric) in the field.

In terms of paleostress this extension is radial to the belt close to the Crustal Penninic Front and multidirectional in the eastern part of the internal zones. The paleostress field of the strike-slip phase is coherent with the extensional one and compatible with dextral shear along longitudinal faults.

The current tectonics has also been analyzed using seismotectonics, which allowed the recognition of several active faults. The ongoing tectonics is coherent with the observed brittle deformation. Indeed, the fault network observed on the field controls the present-day seismicity.

During this 2-days field trip we will follow the longitudinal fault system along the Durance Valley, and southward up to the High-Ubaye area. The first day will concern the role of the Penninic Front in the late alpine brittle extension, and its relationship with the High-Durance fault. The second day will be dedicated to neotectonic observations along the Serennes Fault system.

13). Les Alpes – Aux origines de leur Formation.

 

 

7. Tour de France – Tour de Géologie – Tour du Vin

Tour de France 2017 - route - MCAL - 2
Tour de France 2017 – route – MCAL – 2

Tour de France - Cover - MCAL - 1
Tour de France – Cover – MCAL – 1

Champagne Area

Follow or cycle the trail of bubbles. Across this epic wine region. Where you can drink champagne in many of the magnificent champagne bars around.

Madame de Pompadour stated that champagne is the only drink that enhances a woman’s beauty.

Champagne is first of all and foremost a real wine. It is a proper vignoble with a lot of diversity. What makes it so interesting is that there are as many different champagnes as winemakers. Champagnes are really rooted in a landscape upon which both man and nature have bestowed an epic tranquility.

The Montagne the Reims is one of the 3 key champagne zones. It is a gentle plateau where vines roll in waves up to woodland across the top.

There are about 16,000 champagne grape growers, and 4,300 make their own wines. Therefore there are so many different tastes and related stories behind.

Further to the south you find the gentle chardonnay slopes of the Cote des Blancs.

To the east the Marne river is the area with vine slopes of independent producers. They have been working with pinot meaner since Dom Perignon in the 17th century. Perignon is indicated to be the inventor of champagne. He also promoted it with pioneering blending, with corkage and thicker bottles that did not explode.

In both Reims and Epernay the Avenue de Champagne is rich in the great names. Moet & Chandon, Pol Roger, Perrier-Jouet. You will also find different champagne bars that showcase and promote the smaller, less known independent producers. Have a try, it is certainly worth.

Remember, ” Too much of anything is a bad thing. But too much champagne is just right ” according to Scott Fitzgerald.

Moet & Chandon

The grandeur and richness of Moet comes form its lands and know-how. The estate has 1,200 hectares, each with 10,000 vines and each produces enough grapes for one bottle. They are fermented in some 25 km of tunnels, beneath the streets of Epernay and of Hotel Moet, the grandest of all its buildings.

Imperial, Grand Vintage and Grand Vintage Rose are blended from 3 grapes. Pinot noir, for the structure. Meunier for the texture. And Chardonnay for elegance.

Blending the distinctive Moet Imperial is more so rational, using previous years’ blends for consistency blending.

Blending of vintage Moet however is done emotional and is only released in outstanding years.

Champagne is the ultimate social drink, a superb wine that is not drunk alone. Often the Friday begins with a bottle of champagne, to celebrate the beginning of the weekend.

Champagne area - MCAL - 7
Champagne area – MCAL – 7
Tour de France - Champagne area - MCAL - 6
Tour de France – Champagne area – MCAL – 6
Tour de France - Wine areas - MCAL - 5
Tour de France – Wine areas – MCAL – 5
Tour de France - Geological Column, Time Scale, Wine areas - MCAL - 4
Tour de France – Geological Column, Time Scale, Wine areas – MCAL – 4
Tour de France - Geological Map - MCAL - 3
Tour de France – Geological Map – MCAL – 3

Tour de France 2017

The Tour de France is one of the world’s most fabulous and notorious sporting events.

From its humble origins over a century ago to its present day glory, the Tour de France has always been a race that has inspired fascination. The exploits of the riders, Tommy Simpson’s death of the slopes of Mont Ventoux, Lance Armstrong’s controversial career and Bradley Wiggins’ historic win, continue to enthral audiences worldwide.

Géologie Massif du Galibier - MCAL
Géologie Massif du Galibier – MCAL

On your own flat or curved screen at home, by watching the Tour de France, you also experience the thrill and intensity of the Tour de France for example during its most challenging climbs. From the dizzying heights of the 2,715-metre ascent of Col de la Bonette to the historic Great St Bernard Pass.
On Col du Galibier, not far away from my own 6 month fieldwork area in the Italian Cottian Alps, with its incredibly tortuous 15 percent gradient climb.

A tough gradient that also my brand new Citroën 2CV  Deux Chevaux, Fourgonnette model (16 hp, 425 cc) and its driver had to experience and conquer back in 1973. Obtaining a maximum speed uphill of only some 15 kilometres in gear one. With the big load of pieces of la Bella Italia. Rock samples for my thesis. Just to mention the garnet schists, augen gneisses, grafite- and cloritoid micashists, cargneules, marbles, schistes lustres, prasinites and ovardites of Forte Fenestrelle, serpentinites and ofi-calcites. All first subducted, later obductic and now exhumed Palaeozoic basement to Jurassic metamorphosed rocks.

And Alpe d’Huez’s famous hairpins, where legendary cyclists such as Fausto Coppi and Marco Pantani once showed off their physical strength and stamina, and blasted home with unbelievable acceleration and will-power that left other cyclists tasting their On your own flat or curved screen at home, by watching the Tour de France, you also experience the thrill and intensity of the Tour de France for example during its most challenging climbs. From the dizzying heights of the 2,715-metre ascent of Col de la Bonette to the historic Great St Bernard Pass.

Tour de France of 1989 is surely the greatest ever. A race that saw Greg LeMond overturn a 50-second deficit to Laurent Fignon on the final stage on the Champs Élysées to snatch the title by a mere eight seconds. After three weeks and more than 3200 kilometres in the saddle, this remains the smallest margin of victory in the Tour’s 100+ year history.

As a geologist and explorationist for me the Tour de France simultaneously represents a fascinating Tour de Geologie and Tour de Vin.

While the brave cyclists, such as Froome, Quintana, Uran, Aru, Ten Dam and the whole peloton cross the French countryside and mountains, they also cycle cross-sections through the geologic history, my geological maps, the maps and vineyards of the famous wine districts of France, that I avidly consult during the different stages.

An extra exciting dimension to the emotions of the Tour and cyclists:

Tour de France, Tour de Geologie, Tour de Vin; Bycicles, Geology, Viticulture, Three-in-One for me.

Sunday 23th July, 2017, 19:20 p.m., Champs-Élysées, Froome or Quintana ?

Please have a look at the maps, the geology and how this influences on the terroir and specifics of the different wine areas. Most maps are taken from the comprehensive book of James E. Wilson, Terroir, The Role of Geology, Climate, and Culture in the Making of French Wines – 1998 – ISBN 0-520-21936-8.

Salut, enjoy !

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

 

 

5. Negocios seguros. Las posadas en La Habana, Cuba.

Regresan las posadas a La Habana
Cuba, hotel posada Vento

Cuba, hotel posada Vento” Note from Marcel Chin-A-Lien:
Love hotels are very common in Latin America, such as in Venezuela and Colombia.
Tal como los multiples hoteles en la Carretera Panamericana, viajando de Caracas hacia San Antonio de los Altos. El sitio idílico donde tuve la oportunidad de vivir cuando laboraba con Intevep, PDVSA
Para mencionar no mas el famoso Hotel La Orquidea.”

Alguien precisó que no había negocio más seguro que el de las funerarias y las posadas; sus razones eran obvias: la muerte y el amor son sencillamente inevitables, aunque sus diferencias sean notorias: en la primera se llora, en la segunda se goza.

Con excepción de los muy jóvenes, el resto de los cubanos recordamos algo, siquiera algo de las posadas, ya sea aquel beso inolvidable, o el llamado del posadero indicando a los amantes que su tiempo había caducado. Luego de la primera posada en la isla —Carabanchel— surgida a finales del siglo XIX y enclavada en San Miguel y Consulado, en un edificio de tres pisos, con 22 habitaciones, y apartamentos con entrada independiente desde la calle, florecieron decenas de esos establecimientos, en los cuales se cumplía siempre el mismo rito: el hombre hacía el trámite en la carpeta, y la mujer, cabizbaja, alejada, mantenía una cierta discreción.
Decenas hubo en la capital y según reportes de prensa, en 1973 eran 60, y 30 en 1989. Pero lo cierto es que a pesar de largas colas y las medidas de “camuflaje” que algunos desarrollaban para no ser sorprendidos por ojos indiscretos, siempre la gran mayoría quería —o queríamos— ir al lugar, pues allí se iba a amar. Villa Cándida, Dos Palmas, 11 y 24, La Monumental, Edén Arriba y Edén Abajo, La Campiña y otros muchos, constituían nombres que se repetían de manera furtiva las más de las veces. Funcionaban las 24 horas y todos conocían su ubicación, santo y señales, aunque de estas no se conversara con total desenfado.
No solo garantizaban un final feliz para los “entresijos” de las relaciones interpersonales, sino que constituían una opción para las parejas ante realidades que se iban acentuando en el país, especialmente la falta de vivienda, de ahí que nadie duda del beneficio de esos establecimientos, a los que incluso la tradición exigía mantenerlos.
Pero ya para la década de los 90 del pasado siglo, ante muy evidentes carencias económicas, se decidió pasar a viviendas para damnificados por huracanes a la casi totalidad de esos locales. El resto, frente a la imposibilidad del más adecuado mantenimiento constructivo, sufrió un notable deterioro y poco a poco desaparecieron de la escena nacional las posadas, o los albergues Init, como prefiera llamarlos.

Regresan las posadas a La Habana
Publicado el 3 Julio, 2017 • 12:00 por Gabino Manguela 4 Comentarios
Alguien precisó que no había negocio más seguro que el de las funerarias y las posadas; sus razones eran obvias: la muerte y el amor son sencillamente inevitables, aunque sus diferencias sean notorias: en la primera se llora, en la segunda se goza.
Regresan las posadas a La Habana
“Lo principal es demostrar que estatalmente podemos cumplir con ese propósito”, dijo Alfonso Muñoz Chang, director de la Empresa Provincial de Alojamiento de La Habana. Fotos: Agustín Borrego Torres

Con excepción de los muy jóvenes, el resto de los cubanos recordamos algo, siquiera algo de las posadas, ya sea aquel beso inolvidable, o el llamado del posadero indicando a los amantes que su tiempo había caducado. Luego de la primera posada en la isla —Carabanchel— surgida a finales del siglo XIX y enclavada en San Miguel y Consulado, en un edificio de tres pisos, con 22 habitaciones, y apartamentos con entrada independiente desde la calle, florecieron decenas de esos establecimientos, en los cuales se cumplía siempre el mismo rito: el hombre hacía el trámite en la carpeta, y la mujer, cabizbaja, alejada, mantenía una cierta discreción.
Decenas hubo en la capital y según reportes de prensa, en 1973 eran 60, y 30 en 1989. Pero lo cierto es que a pesar de largas colas y las medidas de “camuflaje” que algunos desarrollaban para no ser sorprendidos por ojos indiscretos, siempre la gran mayoría quería —o queríamos— ir al lugar, pues allí se iba a amar. Villa Cándida, Dos Palmas, 11 y 24, La Monumental, Edén Arriba y Edén Abajo, La Campiña y otros muchos, constituían nombres que se repetían de manera furtiva las más de las veces. Funcionaban las 24 horas y todos conocían su ubicación, santo y señales, aunque de estas no se conversara con total desenfado.
No solo garantizaban un final feliz para los “entresijos” de las relaciones interpersonales, sino que constituían una opción para las parejas ante realidades que se iban acentuando en el país, especialmente la falta de vivienda, de ahí que nadie duda del beneficio de esos establecimientos, a los que incluso la tradición exigía mantenerlos.
Pero ya para la década de los 90 del pasado siglo, ante muy evidentes carencias económicas, se decidió pasar a viviendas para damnificados por huracanes a la casi totalidad de esos locales. El resto, frente a la imposibilidad del más adecuado mantenimiento constructivo, sufrió un notable deterioro y poco a poco desaparecieron de la escena nacional las posadas, o los albergues Init, como prefiera llamarlos.

Entre los servicios que tendrá la posada Vento está el de restaurante, quizás uno de los elementos
que la distinguirá.

El servicio comenzará por Vento
La Empresa Provincial de Alojamiento de La Habana, a cargo de una importante red de hospedaje en 27 instalaciones diversas en la capital y donde tanto personas naturales como jurídicas pueden hoy alquilar a partir de una noche, es la entidad encargada de materializar la reapertura del servicio que anteriormente tenían las posadas: es decir, alojamiento por tres horas como mínimo.
Independientemente de las personas que tienen cuarto privado, casa propia, o pueden pagar una noche en un hotel, para el resto solo queda el hospedaje por horas, los parques, las escaleras oscuras, la playa y hasta el malecón.
“Ese es un servicio que ahora está en manos de particulares, quienes garantizan el espacio perdido por las famosas posadas. Creemos en la posibilidad real de retomarlo y desarrollarlo”, precisa Alfonso Muñoz Chang, director de la citada entidad. Por estos tiempos la pareja que allí acuda deberá pagar al dueño, como mínimo, 5 CUC o su conversión en CUP —una alta cifra para el cubano promedio— por tres horas de privacidad amorosa.
De manera general, la habitación cuenta con aire acondicionado, refrigerador, agua fría y caliente y un confort adecuado. Claro, ahí no se cuentan la cerveza a 1,20 CUC o más, el trago o botella de ron a precios estratosféricos, el llamado saladito y algún que otro aderezo para hacer más placentero el momento.
El confort, la higiene y la privacidad son fundamentales en este negocio, aseguran los arrendadores privados. Ello, sin duda, constituye un reto para el servicio estatal tanto en el precio que se establezca como el confort.
“Comenzaremos por lo que llamamos hotel Vento, enclavado en Vento y Santa Catalina, un inmueble de dos plantas con 16 habitaciones con baños y otros requerimientos técnicos, a pocos metros de donde antaño existiera, precisamente, una conocida posada o albergue Init”, informó Muñoz Chang.
“También trabajamos —agregó— en otras ideas para ampliar el servicio que iniciaremos, pues de la antigua red de posadas nos fue entregada la muy nombrada Monumental, una unidad con 20 habitaciones y parqueo para carros.
Llevamos un buen tiempo precisando esa acción y ya presentamos el proyecto, aunque el financiamiento es elevado y no pudimos incluirlo en el plan de este año. “Creemos que para el 2018 lo podamos asumir, pues existe la voluntad del gobierno en la capital para priorizar ese emblemático lugar, que no se está cayendo ni mucho menos, pero donde hay que trabajar”, dijo.
En sus palabras, el director de la Empresa Provincial indicó que la estrategia prevé —además de Vento y La Monumental— la recuperación con iguales fines de Edén Arriba y Edén Abajo, así como el hoy hotel Ocho Vías, una instalación que cumple con los requisitos indispensables para este servicio. Pensar en diversificar las opciones para el amor no es algo traído por los pelos: es una realidad que atañe a todos y que no puede convertirse en un lujo.
“Podemos hacer muchas cosas como empresa, pero otras igual de importantes no dependen de nosotros —subrayó—. Nuestro ánimo es recuperar ese demandado servicio, de gran impacto social y, sin duda, muy rentable. “Lo principal es demostrar que estatalmente podemos cumplir con ese propósito, y aunque tenemos la seguridad de salir airosos, tampoco queremos crear falsas expectativas”, concluyó.

Publicado el 3 Julio, 2017 • 12:00 por Gabino Manguela
En: Trabajadores, Organo de la central de trabajadores de Cuba.

4. Il Palio, Siena, Italia, July 2nd

4. Il Palio, Siena, Italia, July 2nd

Explorer?

A splendid and unique opportunity to explore this historic event in Siena.

As well as to study the geology of Tuscany
I wish to share it with you. Accompanied by my own pictures.

Siena - Sedimentology - Conglomerates
Siena – Sedimentology – Conglomerates and braided stream sediments on the front wall of Gift Shop 5, Artigianato Senese – ” Food ” for geologists even during Il Palio – City Centre – Close to Cattedrale di Siena and Piazza del Campo.

On your bucket list?

Immerse yourself in the Italian celebration and traditional colorful pageantry of Il Palio, Siena‘s historic barebacked horse race dating to the 12th century. Travelers venture from all over the world to witness Il Palio.

Il Palio
Il Palio – Piazza del Campo

This is Il Palio: 

” Il Palio è il Palio. Nessuna interpretazione sociologica, storica, antropologica, potrebbe spiegarlo. Sublimazione e dannazione insieme del fato di ogni singolo senese e nella sua cittadinanza. Rogo furente della senesità, in ogni caso impareggiabile conferma di essa.”

Mario Luzi, poeta, 1998  

Il Palio, Siena, Piazza
Il Palio, Siena, Piazza – Pic Mcal

The Palio di Siena known locally simply as Il Palio, is a horse race that is held twice each year, on 2 July and 16 August, in Siena, Tuscany, Italy.

This is not a mere touristic event, but a significant part of the life of the city today as it did centuries ago. Ten horses and riders, bareback and dressed in the appropriate colours, represent ten of the seventeen contrade, or city wards.

Visitors to the city can assist for free from the centre of Piazza del Campo.

We attended the Palio held on 2 July, named Palio di Provenzano, in honour of the Madonna of Provenzano, a Marian devotion particular to Siena which developed around an icon from the Terzo Camollia.

Il Palio - Siena
Il Palio – Siena

The Palio held on 16 August is named Palio dell’Assunta, in honour of the Assumption of Mary.

A pageant, the Corteo Storico, precedes the race, which attracts visitors and spectators from around the world.

The race itself, in which the jockeys ride bareback, circles the Piazza del Campo, on which a thick layer of dirt has been laid.

The race is run for three laps of the piazza and usually lasts no more than 90 seconds. It is common for a few of the jockeys to be thrown off their horses while making the treacherous turns in the piazza, and indeed, it is not unusual to see unmounted horses finishing the race without their jockeys.

The drappellone (“banner”), or palio, known affectionately as “the rag” in Siena, is the trophy that is to be delivered to the contrada that wins the Palio.

The palio is an elongated rectangular piece of silk, hand-painted by an artist for the occasion. It is held vertically on a black-and-white shaft halberd and topped by a silver plate, with two white and black plumes draped down the sides.

The palio, along with the plumes, remains the property of the contrada. The plate is returned to the city of Siena before the two Palii of the following year, after the date and the name of the victorious contrada are inscribed on its back. There is one silver platter for the Palio in July and another for the August Palio. The plates are replaced approximately every ten years.

Il Drappelone - The Banner 2018
Il Drappelone – The Banner 2018

The value of the banner is unique, because it represents a particular historical period of the city of Siena. The palii often reflect the symbols of the various governments that have presided at various times, including the crest of the grand duchy of Lorraine, the crest of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany, the crest of the Kingdom of Savoy of Italy, symbols from Fascist Italy, and most recently, imagery of the Republic.

The process that an artist should follow in designing the palio is rigid: it must follow a precise iconography that includes some sacred symbols, as the July Palio is dedicated to the Madonna of Provenzano, and that of August to the Madonna of the Assumption. It must present the insignia of the city, those of the third part of the city, and the symbols or colors of the ten contrade participating in the race. There are, however, no limits regarding the style of the art. The palio is first presented at a press conference in the courtyard of the Podestà of the City Hall about a week before the race.

Reference, our own visits to Siena, Tuscany, La Bella Italia dalla Dolce Vita, many publications on internet, books, magazines etc.
All my own photographs, exept the main, featured one.

Il Palio
Il Palio – Before the race
Il Palio - After Dinner on Piazza del Campo
Il Palio – After Dinner on Piazza del Campo

Geology of Tuscany and Siena Area.

As an explorationist one is immersed and sees and thinks about geology about everywhere. Also when visiting Siena during holidays, while driving through the scenery, on the beach and in the airplane while looking outside of the window.

Geological overview

The Northern Apennine is a fold-thrust belt built during the Tertiary by the collision between the Apulia (or Adria) microplate related to the African plate, and the Briançonnais microplate (Sardinia-Corsica block), related to the European plate.

In Tuscany there is complete outcropping of the nappe stack of the Northern Apennines. From the bottom the following are exposed:

the Tuscan Metamorphic Units, the Tuscan Nappe, the Subligurian Units, The Ligurian Units, the Epiligurian Succession, the post-orogenic sedimentary succession starting from Middle Miocene to Quaternary.

All these tectonic units are derived from the Apulia continental margin and the Tethys oceanic realm and were emplaced during Tertiary subduction and continental collision.

The geologic map reports metamorphic, sedimentary and magmatic units cropping out in Tuscany, grouped in palaeogeographic domains and in the main tectonic units.

Tuscan Domain: This domain represents the continental margin of the Apulia microplate. The respective tectonic units are both metamorphic and non-metamorphic.

a. Cervarola Unit: An Apulia-derived unit belonging to the Tuscan Domain, consisting of siliciclastic turbidite and hemipelagic deposits, deposited during shortening of the Tertiary orogenic wedge. Its age is Chattian to Langhian.
b. Tuscan Metamorphic Unit: Tectonic unit derived from severe deformation and metamorphism of part of the Apulia microplate. It is exposed in core complexes and small outcrops in northern and southern Tuscany. They consist of an Hercynian basement (Cambrian? to Devonian), a meta-siliciclastic post-Hercynian succession (late Visean-Permian), a meta-siliciclastic-carbonate Group (middle-late Triassic) and an upper carbonate-siliciclastic succession (late Triassic -? earliest Miocene).
c. Tuscan Nappe: Tectonic unit derived from the Apulia microplate. It is non-or only slightly metamorphosed; internal thrusting and large-scale folds are only locally developed. The age of its deposits (dolostones, limestones, shales and turbiditic sandstones) span from the late Triassic to the earliest Miocene.
d. Pseudoverrucano Unit: A tectonic unit cropping out in southwestern Tuscany only, whose original paleogeographic domain, internal stratigraphy and evolution is still a matter of debate. We favor the interpretation that it originated from the innermost portion of the Tuscan Domain. It is composed of a great variety of lithologies, Triassic to Eocene in age.

Geologic cross section across Tuscany – very interesting.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2013.820154

Carta Geologica della Toscana – Geological Map of Tuscany (Italy)

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/suppl/10.1080/17445647.2013.820154/suppl_file/tjom_a_820154_sm5045.pdf

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

3. Exhilarating Morgan AR Plus 4 in Leiden

Morgan AR Plus 4 - Leiden, the Netherlands
Morgan AR Plus 4 – Leiden, my Alma Mater, the Netherlands

A really exhilarating Morgan AR P4.
Leiden, (Rapenburg, Nonnenbrug), (one of) my Alma Mater(s), the Netherlands.
Foto: Marcel Chin-A-Lien

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Leiden:
A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but also in the arts. One of the world’s most famous painters, Rembrandt, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has been one of Europe’s most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave. Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’.

Leiden University is one of Europe’s top universities, it boasts thirteen Nobel Prize winners, it is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned highly in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom’s oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere.
From: en.m.wikipedia.org

Morgan ARP 4:

• Limited run of 50 cars, developed by Morgan’s motorsport division, AR Motorsport
• Extensive list of standard speci cations offered with this car
• Powered by a Cosworth 2.0 litre 225bhp engine
• 65 years of the Morgan Plus 4
• Being launched at Silverstone Classic 2015

In this, the 65th year of Plus 4 production, Morgan are pleased to announce the AR P4. Since 1950, the exhilarating Morgan +4 has been the mainstay of Morgan production and to celebrate this, a strictly limited run of 50 will be built. Each hand assembled and tuned by Morgan’s experienced AR Motorsport technicians. With enhanced on-road performance and driver comfort in mind, each car embraces a powerful Cosworth two litre engine, new interior and an extended list of standard features.

Performance:
2.0 LITRE COSWORTH ENGINE
A special car requires a special engine, one that has been developed to give drivers the ultimate driving experience. Cosworth, famous for over 50 years of racing success at all levels, provide their 2.0 litre engine for the ARP4. Developing 225bhp, the ARP4 is the most powerful production Plus 4 ever built.

The ARP4 would not belong to the AR Motorsport family if it did not offer significantly more performance than a standard Morgan. As such, a large range of upgrades compliment the 225bhp Cosworth 2.0 litre. Each one of the 50 cars will be setup by an AR Motorsport race technician, ensuring that the investment in performance parts for each vehicle is transformed into a more capable and exhilarating car both on road and track. Further changes over the standard Plus 4 include an all-new suspension, the addition of adjustable shock absorbers, a new braking system, a different axle ratio and a revised chassis.

Styling:
Aesthetically the AR P4 pushes the boundaries of the traditional Classic. The initial brief; to create a sports car that positions performance, experience and driver convenience above all else. The challenge for the styling being; to echo the suggestion of modern performance and function but maintain the appeals of on-road classic motoring. The ARP4 achieves this by sticking to the use of Morgan’s core materials; Handcrafted Ash wood, aluminium and leather. However, by altering the mix of how these are applied gives an entirely new and exciting impression. Aluminium panels are left untrimmed and exposed adding to the sense of lightweight performance, whilst rich Box weave carpets celebrate the leather and reintroduce comfort, detail and luxury. Contrasting colours selected from the AR motorsport brand pantones, provide a striking and modern visual, whilst high levels of detailing ensure the result isn’t brash. In answer to the initial brief; the ARP4’s really is form follows function.

Comfort and Usability
Of paramount importance when undertaking the ARP4 project was to ensure that it not only performs exceptionally, but is also useable. As such, the ARP4 has received signi cant changes over standard production Morgans. Soundproo ng in the hood and throughout the body ensures a reduction in road and wind noise and an improvement in NVH. A redesigned dashboard distinguishes the car and also offers improved usability for the driver. LED lights all round offer better road visibility, ensuring the ARP4 is further suited for long distance touring.

From: www.morgan-motor.co.uk