22. Westpunt

“ Westpint “

No, ningun persona a sperami aki
T’ami mes a bin di bishita relámpago

Simplemente mi gusta paseo i deskubrí
Komo eksplorador

Manera Unamuno ta bisa,
“ Se hace camino al andar
Caminante, son tus huellas
el camino y nada más;
Caminante, no hay camino,
se hace camino al andar.
Al andar se hace el camino,
y al volver la vista atrás
se ve la senda que nunca
se ha de volver a pisar.
Caminante, no hay camino
sino estelas en la mar.”

sigur, sigur
Senda que vuelvo a pisar,
Estelas en el mar curazoleño

mi konosé e pueblo chiquitu aki
Pueblo serka di mar
Unda tambè mi amigu pastor Socrates tabata viva hopi tempu.

Unda nos mes tabata pasa dushi wikent na vakantienan
Den e kampeertent grandi ku a trese di Hulanda

Hopi tempu pasà
Disfrutando de su playa
tambè ku sabroso barbecue, schaafijs di Kortijn ku stroop
i awa di lamunchi
Dushi yu.

Despues di biba tantu tempu rond di mundu
Mi a bin bishitabò di nobo.

Oude liefde roest niet, manera nan ta bisa na Fríolandia,
Despues di esplorá tantu paisnan
Semper bai mi a pensa riba bo.


Bo a kambia hopi

Ami tambè ?

Pero eigenlijk bo a keda mes un kos

Nos a keda mes un kos.

P’ami mes.

Westpunt – Curaçao

21 Golven en branding van Rif

Rif – Curaçao

Golven en branding van Rif

Golven en branding van Rif

… Branding

en golven die willen landen

maar de kust

is verdwenen

een piepklein eiland

tot de punt van zijn neus verdronken

in de smaragd groene Caraïbische zee

met koraal rotsen, diabaas


altijd weerbarstige en puntige stenen

geen pad

dat me

zonder gaten


naar een veilige haven

branding en golven

alleen in de zon

wie werpt me een touw…


19. Amsterdam Vineyard

19. Amsterdam Vineyard

Vineyards, wine makers?

France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Argentina, Chile, California etc.?


Amsterdam, near Schiphol airport.

Amsteltuin Vineyard, the best kept secret of Amsterdam,

PGK (Petroleum Geologische Kring, The Hague, the Netherlands) 40th  birthday was celebrated with a splendid summer excursion and appropriate educative oenology meeting, august 2018.

I wish to share a few of my notes, musings and pictures with you.

As a geologist it is of course about the geology and terroir of this area, and its relationship with the wines here produced.

Amsteltuin Vineyard has some 3500 grape vines, allowing for about 4000 bottles of different (4), excellent, mainly white wines. More information can be found on their site below indicated.

The  Netherlands has some 40 vineyards and wine makers that produce about 1 million bottles of good quality wine.

Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Located near Amsterdam, Amstelveen and Schiphol airport. In a Dutch polder (Bovenkerkerpolder).
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Entrance.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – 4 excellent wines
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Petroleum Geologische Kring – Anniversary 40 years (1978 – 2018)- August 2018 – Geology and Wine, presentation by dr. Anko Lankreijer (not on the picture) of Amsterdam Geology College.
Geology Vinyard Surroundings
Geology de Amstel Vineyard Surroundings (based on data from Vos, 2015) -Location, Bovenkerkerpolder, south of Amsterdam, Amstelveen, in NE map quadrant. Dark brown stands for moss peat (mosveen). The upper layer consisted mainly of peat (Holland Veen). Much of the peat has been removed and mined for heating of the houses, in the last centuries.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Located in a typical Dutch ” polder “. At circa 6-7 meters below sealevel. Near the Amstelriver, protected by the Amsteldijk Zuid, an iconic Dutch dike.
Geology Vinyard Surroundings
Geology de Amsteltuin Vineyard Surroundings, Bovenkerkerpolder – In Dutch – Pleistocene and Holocene geology of the surrounding area.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin
Terroir Vinyard Amstelland
Terroir Vineyard de Amsteltuin, Bovenkerkerpolder, Cross-section. The surface and shallow subsurface consists of Holocene sediments (11.700 B.C – present day). Made up of salty sands, clays (Calais Formation) overlain by peat (Holland Veen). The sands and clays belong to the marine, transgressive, Calais formation that is about 5 meters thick.  Calais deposition ended 1800 B.C. From then on formation and deposition of the peat (Holland Veen) began. Most of it has been mined and removed such as for heating of the houses. Presence of “ sedimentary  “ peat as part of the terroir is rather unique. On a list of 45 vineyard soil types (Sotheby Wine Encyclopedia 2015) I have not encountered any original peat influenced/dominated terroir, as Amstelland Vineyard. Any wine connoisseur around that can explain the specific influence of the peat? If any? How to recognize its input as well as those of the marine salty sands and clays on the smell, aroma, perfume and bouquet of these typical Dutch wines ? Many thanks in advance. FYI: Lignite (intermediate between peat and coal) is used, but as a fertilizer in Germany and in the Champagne.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – The ripening grapes wrapped and protected by a plastic mesh curtain.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Beautiful Dutch roses that accompany the grape vines.
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin – Excellent white Souvignier Adriana wine. – Made from the Souvignier Gris (80%) and Johanniter grapes – The name of the wine comes from the last farm on this location: Adriana Hoeve. How does the peat in the terroir influence and determine the specific taste of Souvignier Adriana ? Any connoisseur around that can answer this (sub)surface question?
Vinyard De Amsteltuin
Vineyard de Amsteltuin- Circa 6-7 meters below sealevel – Probaby one the lowest vinyards and wine cellar in the world – Fermentation vessels.

Please visit their website. For a description of the really excellent wine that they produce and that we tasted and discussed during our meeting.

Though The Netherlands is not (yet) known as a wine producer. Dutchies do produce a few really excellent wines that already have reached an international standard and high level (…similar to their soccer players and trainers, e.g.).

Website de Amsteltuin http://amsterdamwine.nl

Cheers, Proost !

Questions and Musings.

  1. Vineyard de Amsteltuin has a unique vineyard geology (bedrock and overlying soils). Geology determines some of the physical parameters that affect vine performance. That could help to explain the typicity of the wines. The Amsteltuin terroir is different from most other wine producing areas in the world. In the first place because it contains peat as a natural surface, soil and shallow subsurface constituent. It is virtually flat, horizontal and located at some 6 meters below sealevel, in a typical Dutch polder. As such water is always available in the Amsteltuin vineyard substrate. The water level and drainage is strictly and splendidly regulated by the water management system of the polder (Regional Water and Polder Authority).
  2. How does the peat in the terroir influence and determine the specific taste of Souvignier Adriana ? Any wine connoisseur around that can answer this complex and highly sophisticated (sub)surface and oenological question?
  3. Or ?

    ” Finally, the notion of being able to actually taste the vineyard geology in the wine – a goût de terroir – arises partly through various misunderstandings of geological terminology and, presumably, through the sheer romance of the idea. Certainly the vision makes good journalistic copy, and is manifestly a powerful marketing tactic, geology being one of the few factors involved in wine production that cannot be translocated or easily replicated elsewhere. However, the proposition is wholly fanciful for a number of reasons and in any literal way is scientifically impossible.” Alex Maltman, 2017.

  4. Or?                                                                                                                                                The geology of wine is important to the wine-maker, but of very little importance to the drinker. However, a geologist with an interest in wine is almost inevitably going to take more than a passing interest in what lies beneath vineyards. This may have resulted in the importance of the geology being over-rated. Many wine writers who are not geologists have dutifully described the geology associated with particular wine regions without actually stating how the geology is important. Jake Hancock was quick to realize that a lot of what is written about geology in wine books is at best misguided and at worst utterly wrong, and set about putting this to rights at every opportunity. Vines derive most of their nourishment from a depth extending down to 0.6 m, but will, most of the time, rely on water from down as far as 2 m for transpiration. Only during periods of drought will they draw significant water from >2 m. Clearly then, in areas where there is a deep cover of drift or a deep soil horizon, geological influence on vines will be minimal. Even where the soil is thin, geology will, in many areas where vines are grown, only control the quality of the grapes indirectly through influence on soil composition, geomorphology and water retention. These factors will be examined, together with examples of instances where geology does have a direct influence on wine quality.
    (PDF) Geology and wine: A review. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248606244_Geology_and_wine_A_review [accessed Sep 01 2018].
  5. But? ” It is for the most part less contentious to speak of terroir when we talk about peat. Anyone who drinks Scotch whisky will likely be familiar with peat; that earthy-smoky flavour present in many whiskies (Islay in particular) that is acquired when the germinating barley is dried over a fire fuelled by this source.Fewer will be aware of exactly what this material is.  Peat is a built up mixture of partially decayed vegetation and organic matter formed in wetlands where the obstructed flow of oxygen slows the rate of decomposition. Peat is essentially formed from whatever vegetation grows in a particular area, meaning peat bogs in different regions will be composed from different material, and hence it is feasible that the smoke produced from its burning will be chemically distinct (and more relevant for the whisky lover will produce different aromas).
  6. Geology and wine: A review, by Jennifer Huggett, May 2006, Petroclays Ltd.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248606244_Geology_and_wine_A_review

  7. Terroir. The Role of Geology, Climate, and Culture in the Making of French Wines, by James E. Wilson, 1998, 336 pp.
  8. The Role of Vineyard Geology in Wine Typicity.
    by Alex Maltman, August 13, 2017, online. Also in Journal of Wine Research, Vol. 19, 2018. Issue 1.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences University of Wales Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3EE, U.K.  https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/10186119.pdf
  9. Geographical location and history of Bovenkerkerpolder where Vineyard de Amsteltuin is located (from Wikipedia): 
  10. Bovenkerkerpolder is een polder in en ten zuiden van Amstelveen en ten oosten van Bovenkerk. In het noorden grenst het gebied aan de Middelpolder en in het oosten aan de Amstel. Het noordelijke deel van de polder is bebouwd. In het zuidelijk deel van de polder, tussen de Nesserlaan en de Hollandse Dijk, wordt de grond agrarisch gebruikt op de oude kavels uit 1760.
  11. Geschiedenis. Tot 1639 werd er turf gestoken in de polder en ontstond er een waterplas tussen de Bovenkerkerweg (west) en de Amsteldijk (oost). Later vormde het water een bedreiging voor Amstelveen en Amsterdam. Daarom werd op 7 september 1764 door de Staten van Holland en West-Friesland octrooi verleend voor het verder uitvenen en droogmaken van de plas. Het droogmaken gebeurde door elf molens. Uiteindelijk viel de polder in 1769 droog.
  12. Location map De Amsteltuin vinyard
    Location map De Amsteltuin vineyard (indicated as/address Langs de Akker 5 – Wijngaarde) – east of Schiphol airport, south of Amsterdam and in Amstelveen.

    Bovenkerkerpolder - Amsteltuin vinyard
    Bovenkerkerpolder -Map of 1901 by W.H. Hoekwater –  Location of Amsteltuin vineyard



13. VW Beetle Redesigned

13. VW Beetle Redesigned

Posted on Linkedin, June 13th, 2018

VW Beetle Redesigned
VW Beetle Redesigned – Photography Dan Giannopoulos .

Explorer ?

On photo ?

Creativity, Resilience, Out-of-the-Box, Sustainability, Competitive-edge, Low-cost-Carrier, Low profile-high Performace, Love-for-home-Country, Lot’s-of-Fun, Authentic-Local-Art-Work, Proven-Track-Record, Five-Decades-of-Delivering-Value, Entrepreneurship, Small-Business-Management, Strategic-Marketing, Competitive Advantage, SWOT,

All-66-Buzzzz-&-Blablablaaaaa-Words-Acquired-During-My-Executive-MBA apply,

Really, amazing.

To be obtained by the Gugenheim museum ?

Certainly a stiff competitor of Janis Joplin’s Porsche 356 C 1600 cabriolet of 1964.
For just US$ 1.8 million, most recently sold & acquired.

Alternatively? Just simplistic, Out-of-the-Box thinking ?

(…Why not, sure, not a 54 years old one.

But a Brand new Porsche 718 Boxster cabriolet 2018 for just US$ 57.400 @ Dealer. Thus.

31 New ones instead of just 1 JJ. Have them 31-different-creative-versions-styled-and-painted as you heart wishes.

Certainly, make sure, also One (1) exact copy of JJ’s. Then.

Most fortunate with 31 different, unique-one-of-a-kind new Porsche 718 Boxster cabriolets.

Each day another one.

In tandem with your new, clean socks in your red-soled Christian Louboutin shoes. And Derek Rose Otis pure silk boxer underwear under your Porsche Design Denim, Yves Saint Laurent and D&G jeans.

Each and every (…working…) day another one.

During the whole month.
Sure, pls. do not forget, you will also need a 31 size garage.

Tip: after some time, that time will certainly come, when you are really bored of them all ?

Sell them all and each for some US 1.8 million…?

(sure…first ask Mick Jagger, Tom Jones, Elton John, Romeo Santos, Shakira, Marc Anthony etc. etc. to touch them at least once, sign them. And also go for a fast James-Dean-type-of-drive, to create the legacy, that later pays off. Note, don’t let the sound of your own wheels drive you crazy (Eagles). A super high ROI.

This as you will always find car lovers dearly willing and most able to pay that legacy amount).

In addition to ” Casas y Terrenos Baratos “.

Re.: Photography by Dan Giannopoulos – BBC News, In Pictures, June 12th, 2018.

18. Musical Exploration Journeys on our Globe

18. Musical Exploration Journeys on our Globe


As an active global explorer, of petroleum and mineral resources, simultaneously I also have been touring the subsurface and surface world of Music. For several decades already, since I was a little kid. I wish to share my thoughts with you.

Best songs of all time. But just part of.

Music ?

Music acts like fuel to my soul and brains. It can influence, determine, propel my mood and how I feel, act and react.

It generates hormones of Happiness, I can testify.

Though, I have never ever seen these hormones mentioned in all the philosophical and litterary essays, books, songs and music that somehow or somewhat involved the pursuit of Happiness. That I so eagerly studied and consulted during the last decades, since a was a teenager.

In pursuit of wisdom and happiness ?

Such as the writings of Confucius, Lao Tzu, Aristotle, Socrates, Seneca, The Bible, Koran, Buddha, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sören Kierkegaard, Miguél de Cervantes, Santa Teresa de Avila, Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Gabriel García Márquez, Anne Frank, Boeli van Leeuwen etc. etc. etc.

Salsa - Salsaventura - 2017
Salsa – Salsaventura – 2017 – FYI: please read my Blog on Salsa dancing and Development of Communication Skills, in chapter ” Various “.

Hormones producing happiness like endorphins, serotonin, dopamine, oxytoxin.

By the way, a little side track:

Though a most serious proposal. To whom it may concern and interest.

These Happiness Hormones should and could be available for free in all the pharmacies in the Netherlands, in my humble opinion. To make Holland and all the Dutch even much happier than they already are.

Special pharmacies, just name them ” Dutch Coffeeshops for Free Happiness Hormones “. Much, much healthier than the present day ones. And odourless.

At the same time, the problematics of drugs resolved. Finally, forever. Just an out of the box idea of an explorationist. My simple musing.

Many songs for me even function similar to the super high-octane gasoline. Such as the high octane does to my motor. Only some gasoline stations have it along the German highways. Definitely my preferred fuel to tank, while on route in Germany, usually also heading farther and further for La Bella Italia, il paese della La Dolce Vita, la mia favorita. And while cruising on Germany’s splendid autobahn network with a total length of about 12,993 km. Ennio can personally testify on this, right bro ?

On the Deutsche Autobahn. Aral (BP) 102 octane fuel, called “Ultimate” that puts him really, really on Fire.

The Turbo Compressor.

These are a few of the top songs that very much appeal to me. As I grew up hearing most of them on radio or tv. They are my coevals and transport me back, forth and through time and space, across the globe when I listen to them. Sometimes even with excessive decibels, with the Beoplay E8 Premium in-ear Bang & Olufsen.

I was super lucky to find this above mentioned link where some of the best songs are assembled. I wish to re-share it with you.

Really all the credit goes of course to the author that made this splendid list (Playlist and Autoplay, Best Songs of All Time; author han.le3359@gmail.com). Mr./Mrs. Unknown, thank you so much for taking your precious time to make and share it on Internet. Herewith I am helping you to make it go viral…who knows.

Though….uh, uhh, uhhh, still a lot missing on this list. For me.

Such as those absolute iconic songs of my favourite Rolling Stones.

May 22, 2018 at 15:00 p.m. In London Stadium, Brexitlandia. Rocking & Rolling again with Honky Tonk Woman, as always with lots of Satisfaction.

By the way.

This represents just part of my musical memories, luggage and appetite that I was lucky to assemble and utilise as a happiness catalyst and enjoy, throughout life. These cover only the anglo-saxon, english songs…

Why is music and dancing so good for the brain of a petroleum explorationist ?  

Salsa & Bachata fotoshoot - La Bodeguita - GGD - 2/2018.
Salsa & Bachata fotoshoot – La Bodeguita – Requested by & for GGD, Public Health Promotion Campaign – 2/2018.

For an addicted explorationist and now also a convicted salsa and bachata dancer ? 


Music and dancers maximize cognitive function and muscle memory through practice.
Music and dancing improves brain function on a variety of levels. Two recent studies show how different types of practice allow dancers to achieve peak performance by blending cerebral and cognitive thought processes with muscle memory and ‘proprioception’ held in the cerebellum. Through regular aerobic training that incorporates some type of dance with music at least once a week anyone can maximize his or her brain function.

What about all the other music genres ?

We like and listen to all of them. Really.

And have been to hundreds of festivals, concerts and presentations. Inside, outside, in concert halls, stadiums, parks, gardens, on street corners, gardens, on the street, beach etc. etc. around the world to enjoy.

This depends on the place, occasion, mood, event, time.

We even dare to dance some of them. They equally form part of my and our musical luggage. In this digital world it is oh so easy to carry and access it all and everywhere through Internet. Just to mention via Apple music, Youtube, all the private radio & tv stations, Facebook live transmission etc. etc.

Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes - Bespoke, handmade, personalised - leather - exclusively by d'Raso, Medellin
Salsa & Bachata dancing shoes – Bespoke, handmade, personalised – leather – exclusively by d’Raso, Medellin

Latin American, my own Caribbean & Surinamese & Colombian & Venezuelan & Dutch & Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, German etc. ect. songs ?

Salsa, guaguanco, son montuno, mambo, trova; bachata, merengue, bolero; meringue, compas; llanera, joropo, gaita; cumbia, vallenato, Andes folk music such as bambuco, pasillo, guabina, bunde; mapalé, porro, merecumbé, musica de despecho y carrilera;

Tumba or the so called Curacao Blues, seu, waltzes, mazurkas, danzas, pasillos, son montuno, bolero, pambiche, guaracha, merengue. These all (also) from and on my native dushi Curacao in the pristine emerald blue Caribbean sea.

Mariachi, ranchera, norteña; bolero; Tango; calypso, soca, parang; reggae, ska, reggaeton; bossa nova, samba, forro; Tejano, TexMex; Paraguaya, Chilena, Boliviana, Peruana, Ecuatoriana etc. etc.

Bigi pokoe, kaseko, kawina; zouk.

Chansons; Fado; Paso dobles, flamenco, zarzuela.

Country and Western, Rhytm & Blues, Jazz, Gospel etc. ?

Classic music ??

Vivaldi, Albinoni, Scarlatti, Strauss, Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Debussy, Haydn, Schubert, Verdi, Rossini, Puccini, Paganini, Bartok, Albeniz, de Falla,

Etc. etc. etc.

To many to mention.

And it is not my specialty at all, being just a simple rambling petroleum explorationist that enjoys music.

Meanwhile wishing Y’all tons of musical and dancing happiness.

Even Brent is high and happily swinging on salsa music, on Mother’s Day.

In the high seventies.

$$ 77.41


Also please stand up.

The first one of all those clever analysts, economists, oil traders, Wall Street analysts, corporate strategists, portfolio managers, investors and crystal ball readers, that had predicted this a year ago. Thanks in advance.

Tons, tons of Happiness hormones, for many explorers…above all for those that sell and trade oil.

Salu2, tan bun alla famirie, ajooo tur mi dushi hendenan, ciaoo caríssimi amici nella bella Italia, Berlusconiana…da nuovo, ciaooo.

8. Por si acaso No regreso…

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

Video, Alma Llanera por Simón Diáz:



This blog is dedicated to all Venezuelans, para todos los Venezolanos.

This is our tribute to You and to Venezuela. Thanking you for the splendid time we were allowed to have with you all. Muchísimas graciás de corazón, un gran abrazo para nuestros amigos y familiares etc. etc..

Venezuela is a country very dear to me and my family. Located 60 south of the little rock where I was born, that I could often see with the naked eyes on clear days. It is the country where I began my geology and explorations career. Where I got the unique opportunity to enjoy each and every day. Where I was accepted to be an integral part of the local society and to assimilate with friends, colleagues, people. Everywhere.

Where I could develop my career, know how, expertise. With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas and PDVSA. Where I was so lucky to participate in important petroleum discoveries and thus to contribute to progress of the country.

Where I could study and graduate again, following my first Alma Mater in Leiden, Holland, now at the Universidad Central de Caracas.

Where we happily got married and where my son grew up the first part of his youth.

Such as in our most precious apartment that I was then able to acquire. On the fifth floor, mahogany floor inside, with a 270 degrees panoramic mountain view. A place with 24h/365 days spring climate. In a fully equipped brand new condominium. With marble and granite floors, a large heated swimming pool, tennis and basket ball courts, opulent gardens where to stroll and meet with neighbours, 2 private parking spots, 24h security guards, 6 meter diameter satellite outdoor tv antenna, 2 giant saloons especially for parties and meetings with neighbours.

With the light fog and clouds ascending from the valley of Potrerito and Arte Murano, visiting us every day at around sunset via the balcony. Idyllic.

We literally live in the Clouds, we used to joke.

Area donde nacio y creció también Cecilio Acosta. Humanista y uno de los más polifacéticos escritores y pensadores del siglo XIX. Muy amigo del poeta cubano José Martí, que vio la luz en el pueblo cercano San Diego de los Altos en febrero, 1818. Vivió por esas montañas hasta que tuvo 13 años. Con esos paisajes seguramente se inspiró para escribir su mejor poema: “La casita blanca”. Cual ofrece una descripción idílica de un paisaje rural en endecasílabos de gran musicalidad. En pocas pinceladas dibuja su tierra natal. Las montañas de San Diego en Los Altos, muy similar a como también nosotros nos sentimos en la cercana San Antonio de Los Altos, ahora de antaño:

“Haya no lejos alfombrada loma / Que se alce apenas a la tierra llana, / Y allí subas a ver cada mañana, / Si el alba ríe, o cuando el sol asoma!” (Obras V: 412)”.

Etc. etc. etc.

Simply, part of Paradise.

” Chinito, eres uno de los nuestros, un Venezolano re-encauchado ” my friends soon used to joke amiably to me at work.

It certainly was a moveable feast and incredible feat.

” Solo te acompaño en tus futuros andanzas de explorador petrolero por el mundo, si me prometes que vamos a vivir igual o aún mejor de chévere que aquí, me aseguró muy severamente…

Te lo juro y te lo prometo, mi Amorrrr…susurré. Igual que este 20 de diciembre ante el cura en la iglesia de Prado de Maria “, …anadiendo,

” pero, vamonos pronto. Porque esto aqui se viene p’abajo. Por seguro. Pedro y los 6 otros ya vendieron sus casas y volaron para otros horizontes. Unos se fueron a Australia, otros EEUU, Canada, Espana y Portugal. Acuérdate, camaron que se duerme se lo lleva la corriente. El dolar esta por 33. El sueldo anda casi por el suelo, calculado en dolares. Estaría ganando allí mas con el seguro social, aun si estuviera sin trabajo. El puesto fijo de jefe que me ofrecio esta petrolera paga 15 veces mas que aquí y en moneda fuerte, dólares.


Etuve estudiando todos los reportes del FMI en la biblioteca en Intevep. La situacion y el futuro de Venezuela es muy, muy diferente y mucho mas grave de como lo pintan. Y como dicen el Sr. Presidente dr. Lusinchi y su secretaria dona Blanquita, todos los días en la tele….anno 1989″.

La pude cumplir, woww, G.A.D.


Muy, muy, muy lamentablemente, pero mis premoniciones se hicieron realidad. Tal como lo explico muy claramente luego en 1988 y 1999 ex-presidente Carlos Andres Perez en sus celebres entrevistas con Napoleon Bravo y Marcel Granier:

” Avanzamos hacia el caos. Nuestro pueblo vive una inconsciencia inverosimil. Que lo ha llevado a una ceguera insólita. Vamos a hundir al pais en una tragedia que ya no debería volver a vivir jamas, nunca Venezuela. Parece que tenemos que llegar hasta abajo, trepidar sobre el fondo para que volvamos a levantarnos……Una dictadura de Chavez….”.

Y en el profundo y premonitorio análisis psicológico hecho por Gabriel Garcia Marquez en 1999:

El enigma de los dos Chavez. Terminando su brillante articulo con “…Y el otro, un ilusionista, que podia pasar a la historia como un despota mas.”

La suerte de la democracia Venezolana a partir del 1999?

                                 “  Paradise gone rack and ruin “.

Similar a los sucesos en el thriller de Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Cronologia de una muerte anunciada,

Chronology of a Death Foretold.



Now it really hurts. Whether from the near distance while swimming in the pristine emerald blue sea of Curacao. Or from the far distance from wherever we are, to read, hear, and see what is happening to this paradisiac place. It is all Gone.

In Curacao, April 2019, already some 20 000 refugees form Venezuela. Many escape and cross the sea in small boats. Many drowned and died, similar to the refugees form Syria in the Mediterranean Sea. What a gigantic tragedy. Planned and executed by the politicians with insane ideas on how to develop, better said how to efficiently and fast destroy a country.

Caracas and Venezuela,


Unfortunately, unwillingly and recklessly being forced to mimic:

” Paradise Lost ” of John Milton.

By ideology encapsulated, money driven buccaneers, privateers, devil-red coloured and chamelion-reddened opportunists, a former bus driver, self-proclaimed-generals, former military coup actors, Andorra & Panama-bank-account-holders, professional robbers dedicated to corruption and to steal billions US$,  filibusters, etc. etc.

And whatever with red shirts, spectacles, etc..

The following chapters in it’s history, for sure, though in the very, very far, far distance… ?

” There is Never Any End to Caracas “ followed by ” Paradise Regained “, also from John Milton.


When I hear, listen, when we dance the following music, ahora definitivamente adictos a la salsa y bachata, we always think within others of Caracas, San Antonio de Los Altos and Ciudad Ojeda, where we lived.

And think of all our dear friends and family with whom fortunately we have continually been in contact with, since 1989 already.

The lyrics of these following songs for sure represents what the each of the some 5 million Venezuelan diaspora emigrants on this globe now feel deep in their own heart and soul.

A feeling that we equally share with You all.

de Celia Cruz


Por si acaso no regreso,
yo me llevo tu bandera;
lamentando que mis ojos,
liberada no te vieran.

Porque tuve que marcharme,
todos pueden comprender;
Yo pensé que en cualquer momento
a tu suelo iba a volver.

Pero el tiempo va pasando,
y tu sol sigue llorando.
Las cadenas siguen atando,
pero yo sigo esperando,
y al cielo rezando.

Y siempre me sentí dichosa,
de haber nacido entre tus brazos.
Y anunque ya no esté,
de mi corazón te dejo un pedazo-
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Pronto llegará el momento
que se borre el sufrimiento;
guardaremos los rencores – Dios mío,
y compartiremos todos,
un mismo sentimiento.

Aunque el tiempo haya pasado,
con orgullo y dignidad,
tu nombre lo he llevado;
a todo mundo entero,
le he contado tu verdad.

Pero, tierra ya no sufras,
corazón no te quebrantes;
no hay mal que dure cien años,
ni mi cuerpo que aguante.

Y nunca quize abandonarte,
te llevaba en cada paso;
y quedará mi amor,
para siempre como flor de un regazo –
por si acaso,
por si acaso no regreso.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Y si no vuelvo a mi tierra,
me muero de dolor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
A esa tierra yo la adoro,
con todo el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
me matará el dolor;
Tierra mía, tierra linda,
te quiero con amor.

Si acaso no regreso
me matará el dolor;
Tanto tiempo sin verla,
me duele el corazón.

Si acaso no regreso,
cuando me muera,
que en mi tumba pongan mi bandera.

Si acaso no regreso,
y que me entierren con la música,
de mi tierra querida.

Si acaso no regreso,
si no regreso recuerden,
que la quise con mi vida.

Si acaso no regreso,
ay, me muero de dolor;
me estoy muriendo ya.

Me matará el dolor;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor.

Ay, ya me está matando ese dolor,
me matará el dolor.
Siempre te quise y te querré;
me matará el dolor.
Me matará el dolor, me matará el dolor.
me matará el dolor.

Si no regreso a esa tierra,
me duele el corazón.

Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018
Venezuela -Emigrantes 2018

La Vanguardia, 30 Agosto 2018:

” Con los pies llenos de ampollas y el estómago vacío, los caminantes venezolanos recorren más de 200 kilómetros para llegar (de Cúcuta) a Bucaramanga.

Meten en un bolso los recuerdos de toda su vida y se arman de valor para recorrer el vasto territorio colombiano “.

” Himno Nacional: Gloria al bravo pueblo

Mas que nunca ahora se aplica y se debe de hacer, lo que dice el precioso himno nacional. Con texto ya escrito en 1810 por Vicente Salias.


Dos compatriotas de mi pequeña isla natal dushi Curacao fueron próceres en la lucha de Simon Bolivar para la Independencia.

Felipe Luis Brión Detrox (Curazao, 6 de julio de 1782 – Curazao, 27 de septiembre de 1821) fue un militar curazoleño-venezolano que luchó en la Guerra de independencia de Venezuela alcanzando el grado de Almirante de las Marinas de Guerra de Venezuela y la Gran Colombia.

Manuel Carlos María Francisco Piar Gómez (Willemstad, Curazao; 28 de abril de 1774Angostura del Orinoco,116 de octubrede 1817) fue un militar venezolano de origen curazoleño, prócer de la Independencia de Venezuela. Y además dentro de los canales de la historia republicana venezolana es reconocido como el Libertador de Guayana y Generalísimo Invicto, por haber disputado 24 batallas y no haber sido derrotado.

Manual Piar fue fusilado, por orden del propio Simon Bolivar. Aparentemente por una diferencia de opinion, por Piar estar mucho a la defensa de la gente de color (el mismo era morenito), es decir por discrimination racial. Y por hacerse mas popular que el propio Bolivar.

” He derramado mi propia sangre ” dijo Bolivar llorando, después del fusilamiento que el mismo no quiso presenciar.

Así se paga aparentemente a los buenos amigos y colaboradores. Fusilándolos.

Yo mismo estuve en la celebración, conmemoración 201 anos, muerte/fusilamiento Piar, en Willemstad, Curacao en octubre 2018. Con representante oficial, el consul de Venezuela, familiares actuales y descendientes directos de Piar y dignatarios de Curacao. En esta oportunidad se dijo que Piar sera incorporado en el Panteón Nacional en Caracas.

Simon Bolivar y sus 2 hermanas vivieron en Curacao, donde fueron cobijados y bien recibidos cuando se tuvieron que escapar de Venezuela.

The Octagon Museum houses the Bolívar exhibit in memory of the Curaçao connection to Simón Bolívar (1783-1830). In 1812 after the first stage of the revolt in Venezuela had failed, Bolívar took refuge on the island of Curaçao. He and his two sisters arrived penniless and had to rely on the generosity of friends on the island. Lawyer and merchant Mordechai Ricardo lodged them in two houses. The two sisters stayed in the octagonal building by the sea, while Bolívar worked an studied in a small house on a hill overlooking the busy harbor of Willemstad.

Alma Llanera, tiene su origen y esta basada sobre una composición del músico Jan Gerard Palm músico de Curacao. Es un “cover” hecho por Pedro Elias Gutiérrez en 1914.The Engelenzang waltz is not only one of the most beautiful but also the oldest known Curaçaon waltz and dates from before 1867. Jan Gerard Palm wrote this waltz dreaming of singing angels visiting him to take away his soul… The second part of Palm’s waltz Mita was reused by Pedro Elias Gutiérrez in 1914 when he composed Alma Llanera. It became one of the most popular joropos from Venezuela.

que el yugo lanzó,
la ley respetando,
la virtud y honor.

¡Abajo cadenas!
gritaba el señor,
y el pobre en su choza
libertad pidió.
A este santo nombre
tembló de pavor
el vil egoísmo
que otra vez triunfó.

Gritemos con brío:
¡Muera la opresión!
Compatriotas fieles,
la fuerza es la unión;

y si el despotismo
levanta la voz,
seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dio.”

“Yo no vi las casas, ni vi las ruinas. Yo sólo vi las llagas de los hombres. Se están derrumbando como las casas, como el país en el que nacimos. No es posible soportar más. A este país se lo han cogido cuatro bárbaros, veinte bárbaros, a punta de lanza y látigo. Se necesita no ser hombre, estar castrado cómo los bueyes, para quedarse callado, resignado y conforme, como si uno estuviera de acuerdo, como si uno fuera cómplice”.

Fragmento de la novela “Casas muertas” escrita por Miguel Otero Silva en 1955, que describía el estado de destrucción de un pueblo golpeado por la epidemias y el éxodo de sus habitantes, el pueblo de Ortiz.

Hoy como si se retrocediéra sesenta y tres años en el tiempo pareciera que asistiéramos a un nuevo capítulo de aquella realidad descrita por Otero Silva. Esta vez a escala nacional.

Por si acaso no regreso – Celia Cruz


Celia Cruz, Cuando salí de Cuba:


Gloria Estéfan, Mi Tierra:


Article: The Tragedy of Venezuela – WSJ.com, Anatoly Kurtmanaev, May 24, 2018:


”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

1. Introduction

2. Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

3. From the Caribbean to Italy

4. Geology Fenestrelle – Parco Orsiera – Rocciavré

1) Introduction

In the summers of 1973 and 1974 I spent 7 months in NW Italy, Piemonte Province, Cottian Alps.

This area was to become the site of the Winter Olympics in 2005. Val Chisone.

Vilar Perosa in Val Chisone is home village of the famous Agnelli, Fiat dynasty family. And of their Juventus football club that every year celebrates the grande festa della Juve in august.

Il Campo sportivo di Villar Perosa è noto in tutta Italia per ospitare ogni anno la Juventus. Infatti qui viene presentata la squadra ufficiale e si svolge la consueta “partita in famiglia”, ed era nota l’immancabile presenza dell’ Avvocato Agnelli. Si tratta di una vera passerella per i nuovi giocatori, che hanno modo di presentarsi al Campionato di calcio che sta per iniziare. La partita di Villar Perosa è un appuntamento fisso della Juventus in Val Chisone: un evento estivo irrinunciabile per tutti i suoi tifosi, che possono ammirare i propri beniamini dal vivo. La consueta partita in famiglia organizzata nel “feudo” degli Agnelli è un appuntamento classico della preparazione estiva bianconera.

Since august 2018 also with CR7, Cristiano Ronaldo, and since 2019 Mathijs de Ligt, ex-Ajax, with Juve.

Located close to my thesis fieldwork area, Fenestrelle and ” Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré “.

Complemented at the end with an amazingly interesting roundtrip in Northern Italy.

With my brand new trusted, iconic and legendary Citroen 2CV AK40, ” Deux Cheveaux Vapour “.

2 Cylinders – boxer, 425 cc, 500 kg, Solex 28BCI carburator, just 10 HP and a top speed of 95 kilometres.

Classic Car anno 2017, attaining prices up to 30,000 Euro’s. In the seventies a preferred car for geology students.

Together with my fellow student. Wilbert Hocks and his dear wife Josely. On honeymoon, just married.

We were allowed to set up our 3 tents and camp together, near Rifugio Bergeria Selleries.

Località Alpe Selleries. Quota 2023 m. 10060 Roreto Chisone, Piemonte, Italy.

At a height of 2023 meters, we had a fabulous time. An Italian fairy tale. Thanks to the really splendid, open, accessible and most interested Italian people that we met. Many of them have become life-long friends. We just felt that it was also our home.

Refugio Bergeria Selleries.

And surroundings in northern Italy?

Val Chisone, Sestriere, Pragelato, Fenestrelle, Chambons, Roure, Perosa Argentina, Pinerolo, Cavour, Torino.

Val di Susa. Cuneo.

Italian Riviera, Riviera dei Fiori, Albenga, Alassio, Ventimiglia, Menton, Monaco.

Genova (then…still with ponte Morandi intact), Rapallo, Porto Fino, Carrara, Pisa, Firenze, Fiesole.

Venezia, Padova, Lago di Garda, Trento, Bolzano, Brennero…….

Through time we have met many times, both in Italy and in the Netherlands. La nostra famiglia Italiana ! La bella Italia & La Dolce Vita.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

I wish to dedicate this post to them All.

In gratitude for their friendship and friendliness of all the Italians that we met at Rifugio Bergeria Selleries and in Italy. Which made every day of our visit so exciting and special:


Marisa, Silvana, Tonino, Giovanna.

Madama Lidia Berger, Signore Giacomo Miraglio, Sra. Lida MIraglio, Lida Jr. Miraglio.

Famiglia pastore Agu, Mario, Giovanni, Rita (la bella pastora cantante; inoltre grazie per il gustoso caffe nella grotta, lassù, vicino Lago Ciardonnet), Piero Blengino (minerali), Loredana.

Ing. Gastaldi, Torino.

Prof. dr. Giorgio Dal Piaz, geologo Universita Torino (Padua), that gave us a field introduction in the geology of the Cottian Alps. He received me in his office in Torino to discus my field results.

"Marcel, l'anno scorso non parli affatto italiano. E ora parli correntemente italiano. Sono sorpreso ha detto il professor Giorgio."

So many people of which I have unfortunately forgotten the names. Very sorry about that. But I can still remember your faces and voices.

Molto grazie, carissimi amici. Ciao, ci vediamo. Mille Grazie Tutti !

The son of Silvana and Beppe, dr. Wilbert, is since 2015 post-doc researcher at the University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Anche Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin, ciaoooo.

” In Selleries ho lasciato un pezzo del mio cuore, 1973, 1974 “

The seventies in Bergeria Selleries and Val Chisone ?

The time in slow motion, compared with nowadays. Every thing. Living, driving, food, music. All slow.


The pace of life and the music was as the mood so nicely created in ” Summertime and the living is easy “.

In Italy and Val Chisone, on my Sony transistor radio, the sounds of Patty Pravo, La Bambola, Pazza Idea.

Domenico Modugno, Ciao ciao bambina, Volare, Nel blu dipinto di blu.

Nicola di Bari, Sai che bevo,  sai che fumo:


Gigliola Cinquetti, Non ho l’eta:


Claudio Baglioni, Questo piccolo grande amore.

Claudio Villa, O sole Mio:


Tony Dallara, Come Prima.

Mia Martini, Minuetto:



Fortunately no superfast internet, tablets, mobiles, WhatsApp, Social Media yet existed. The world was not yet mainly focussed on and limited to the screen of the iPhone or iPad. Social media was socialising, verbal and non-verbal communication, face to face, in italian (.)


Via slow post. Writing and receiving handwritten letters with postal stamps, to and from home, travelling 7969 km to reach destiny. My mother still cherishes the Edelweiss flower from my field area that I included in one of my letters. Sending postcards. My post was received and well kept at the lobby of the only hotel in Villaretto. Unfortunately forgot the name of the hotel and the owners. Each saturday we would also go to Fenestrelle to buy our food and of course, the two liter bottles with red, strong Barbera wine from Piemonte.

On several lazy, touristic saturday’s also regularly to Pinerolo (Pinareul). A charming old little town, at the beginning of Val Chisone, 50 km southwest of Torino. With a beautiful historic center, cathedral, bustling open air market, cinema’s and excellent pizzerias. The home town of Tonino and Giovanna, our friends and members of the ” Banda Rifugio Selleries 1973-1974 “. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinerolo).

Times now gone when slow living was still an art.

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
La-Banda-di-Selleries, 1973,1974 – Val Chisone – Marcel, Madama Lida, Tonino, Silvana, Josely, Giovanna, il Cane – MCAL

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Camp site – 2023 m. – Val Chisone – MCAL


Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Il Cane, Josely, Marcel, Tonino, Silvana, Giovanna, le mucce di signor Agu – MCAL


2) Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

Rifugio Selleries - Val Chisone - Italia - MCAL
Rifugio Selleries – Val Chisone – Italia – MCAL

Credit: http://www.rifugioselleries.it/?page_id=109 – https://www.facebook.com/rifugioselleries/

Si trova nel cuore del Parco Naturale Orsiera Rocciavrè e costituisce base di partenza per numerosi itinerari escursionistici ed alpinistici. A poca distanza dal rifugio è inoltre possibile praticare l’arrampicata sportiva su una piccola struttura rocciosa. Il 18 Giugno del 2006 è stato ufficialmente inaugurato ed ora è dotato di un’ampia sala ristorante, bar e di 12 camere per un totale di 40 posti letto. Alcune camere sono dotate di servizi indipendenti, e l’edificio è stato reso totalmente accessibile ai disabili. Il rifugio è aperto tutto l’anno, ed è raggiungibile anche in auto nel periodo estivo (comodo parcheggio nei pressi dell’edificio). Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin curano, grazie alla loro grande esperienza nel settore, la gestione del rifugio coadiuvati da alcuni bravi collaboratori nei periodi di grande affluenza. La cucina, magistralmente diretta e curata da Sylvie, è ovviamente tradizionale, con interessanti specialità locali, e piacevolmente affiancata da vini e birra di ottima qualità. Il piccolo Leonardo, classe 2005, sta imparando rapidamente come si intrattengono gli ospiti e dimostra come si possano allevare i bambini in un ambiente così fiabesco. Nei giorni festivi e nei periodi di alta stagione è consigliabile la prenotazione.Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL Selleries – Wilbert, Marisa, Marcel H., Silvana, Lida Jr., Tonino – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Forte Fenestrelle – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Monte Orsiera, 2878 m. – Val Chisone & Val di Susa – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Fenestrelle teleferico – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert, Josely and Amici – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Lida, Tonino, friend ?, Marisa, Loredana, Wilbert, friend ?, Silvana – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Arie Schaap, Andre van der Meulen, Marcel, Ray Bergval (R.I.P.) – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Marcel Chin-A-Lien, Wilbert Hocks (sitting), Ray Bergval (R.I.P., 2016, Paramaribo, Suriname), Andre van der Meulen, Arie Schaap – MCAL


My thesis fieldwork area covered from the village of Fenetrelle up to Bergería Rifugio Selleries. Along this route one encounters the famous Forte Fenestrelle and a little village called Usseaux.

1. Usseaux: On Youtube I found the following nice recent drone film:

– Riprese aeree a Usseaux, Val Chisone – aerial footage with DJI Phantom 2…Film / full credit to Alessandro Bonaudo.

2. Forte Fenestrelle: Il Forte di Fenestrelle visto dal drone. A drone film taken from Youtube; From / full credit to Mr. Fabrizzio Prelato.

3. Forte Fenestrelle:  https://youtu.be/rEVUN0nPiyE

3) From the Caribbean to Italia

Anna C - First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet - MCAL
Anna C – First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet – MCAL

My first visit to la Bella Italia was as a kid of 12 years old. Impressive. Many permanent, (trans)formative impressions, July 1962. Breath-taking.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

It was the sabbatical year of my dear dad.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

With my parents, sister and brothers. Crossing the hugh Atlantic ocean in some 12 days. Arriving in busy and bustling Genova. From little native Curacao in the Caribbean to Italy and Europe.

Via La Guaira-Venezuela, Aves islands; Barbados; Pointe-a-Pitre-Guadaloupe; the majestic and vast Atlantic Ocean; Funchal-Madeira-Azores Portugal; Santa Cruz deTenerife Canary Islands, Gibraltar, Barcelona; Monaco, Genova.

Crossing the Atlantic.

One of our 4 transatlantic crossings and voyages. Old, classic style, in the fifties and sixties. Magnificent memories.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

A 2 week transatlantic voyage with the Anna C. The first true passenger ” cruise ” ship in the Italian Costa fleet, Linea ‘C’. The interior designed by renowned Venetian architect Giovanni “Nino” Zoncada. During the voyage we already got introduced and accustomed to the Italian language, friendliness, cuisine, music and flair. Where we learned how to eat spaghetti, as Italians (http://www.italianliners.com/costa-en).

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Italian Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL – ” The pictures of the ‘Fifties show class passengers at ease in the various moments marking the day on board and consolidated by the ancient tradition of the “transatlantic style”: tramping up the gangway, the noisy farewell to those who remain ashore, the exchange of streamers; souvenir photos, first with relatives or close friends before the departure, then, once the elapsed time has brought new bonds of friendship, in pose with other fellow travelers…”.

Our family discovery trip in Europe.

Italia ? Genova, Vespa’s all around. Milano, Venezia, Roma, Porto Fino etc. etc.. So exciting for a 12 year Curacao kid. For the whole united family.

A history with memories that I still have to write. Hopefully soon.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Old Style Italian Transatlantic Voyage in the Sixties – MCAL – ” a passage nearby the Azores with the fascinating view of Mount Saint Michael always circled by a cloud ring. In the middle of the ocean the sky is clean and pure, crossed by quick clouds during the day and studded by bright stars at night. Among the most awaited for events there are the encounters at sea with other liners, above all the fleet mates. In the latter case the captains plan the route to meet each other at short distance while the horns fill the air and flags and people wave to wish bon voyage. Even the visit to the bridge is a thrilling moment: the officers welcome the guests and their endless questions on how to “drive” a giant ship”.
Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCALAna C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

The guests belonging to the upper class will show their familiarity with the open-air games and sports on the same large and immaculate open decks which made famous the Italian liners worldwide. The rest on a steamer chair accompanied by a good book, a sun bath, a match of badminton or shuffle-board, a drink enjoyed at the side of the pool where other guests play and swim together.

At night the chefs astonish eyes, noses and palates of the passengers with gorgeous buffets exposing authentic artworks which kept busy since the afternoon ice and fruit sculptures. Among the complex organisation of the ship personnel, the deck seamen preserve spotless the open decks

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one’s lifetime.” – Mark Twain

2) Geology of Fenestrelle – Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré (under construction)

16. Segovia – España

16. Segovia – España


1. Introduction
2. Segovia: Outstanding universal value.
3. Roman Aquaduct

4. Restaurante Casa Candido – Cordero lechal asado

1) Introduction

Since primary school, when I began studying the language of Miguel de Cervantes, my attention was attracted by a black-white photo of the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia in the study book. This picture has since then remained in my memory.

Therefore it was a historical opportunity to visit and explore together with my family Segovia. To admire the construction and splendid setting. To touch, feel the granitic building blocks of the aqueduct.

To have dinner at Candido, one of the renowed traditional restaurants of Spain.

To visit the magical old city centre.

These are my own pictures.

El espíritu necesita de tiempo en tiempo aspirar el germen de una nueva vida. Esto lo conseguimos viajando. Paisajes distintos y variados, escenas desconocidas, aire, luz, movimiento, gentes y costumbres diferentes, un mundo de sensaciones. Asi son los frutos de los viajes. Cuando el tiempo ha corrido y con el las emociones que formaban nuestro encanto. Entonces goza el alma en recordar los días, los instantes de nuestros viajes.

Please join. Visit if you have the opportunity. Enjoy.

2) Segovia: Outstanding Universal Value


Brief synthesis 

The Old Town of Segovia is located in the centre of Spain, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León. The centre is crowded together on the rocky bluff delineated by the confluence of the Eresma and Clamores rivers.Segovia is symbolic of a complex, historical reality. Its neighbourhoods, streets, and houses are laid out in accordance with a social structure in which hierarchy was organized and dominated by belonging to one of the different cultural communities. Moors, Christians, and Jews coexisted for a long period of time in the medieval city and worked together during the 16th century manufacturing boom.  The evidence of this cultural process can be seen in the large number of outstanding monuments in the city, among which, the Roman Aqueduct stands out. Other important monuments can be found in the property: the Alcázar, begun around the 11th century; several Romanesque churches; noble palaces from 15th and 16th centuries; the 16th-century Gothic cathedral, the last to be built in Spain in this style; and the Segovia Mint, the oldest industrial building still existing in Spain.

Segovia - España

Segovia - España

3) The Roman Aqueduct

of Segovia, probably built c. 50 BC, is remarkably well preserved. This impressive construction, with its two tiers of arches, forms part of the magnificent setting of the historic city of Segovia. It is an enormous construction of masonry, 813 m in length, consisting of four straight segments and two superimposed arcades borne by 128 pillars. At the lowest point of the valley, the Aqueduct stands at a height of 28.5 m above ground.

The 221 colossal pillars bear witness to the magnitude of the Aquae Atilianae in the province of Zaragoza while in other parts of Spain, only remnants of the Roman aqueducts of Sevilla, Toledo, and Calahorra have survived. The impressive monuments that survive in Mérida, Tarragona, and Segovia illustrate the political determination, which following the steps of the victorious armies, greatly increased the number of aqueducts which Frontinus described as ‘the most solemn testimony of the Empire.’

The aqueduct runs about 15 km from the mountains into Segovia.  With a 813 meter long raised section running through town.  The tall double arch of granite blocks is impressive enough by modern standards. Especially considering that it was built in the 1st or 2nd century. The granite had to be carried in from the mountains, and it is a dry-laid structure, with no morter holding the blocks together. It has been standing for 1800 or 1900 years. This talking about sustainability in constructions.
Segovia - España

Segovia - España

4) Restaurante Casa Candido


In 1884, such longed-for event finally took place in Segovia. Great efforts were made: Inns, Lodgings, Furnaces, Cheap Restaurants, Wine and Food dispensing Establishments, and Inns were built. Among the millenary stones of the Aqueduct that had been erected by the Romans, this inn, the sole survivor of all those public houses, was open. It was located in an older building constructed with brick and Tuscan order arches and colonnades.

From those hostels that were established along the Roman Aqueduct, this old Inn is the only one that prevails and that still serves its visitors on a daily basis.

Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España

The establishment’s Golden Books are a valuable bibliographic collection. It contains signatures, autographs, and opinions of the inn’s visitors, which include Kings and Queens, Emperors and Empresses, members of different Royal Houses, Heads of State, Politicians, Ambassadors, Nobel Prizes, Writers, Poets, and Artists of all kinds who honoured the place with their presence and left their own memento.

The Gallery of Famous Men and Women contains framed scrolls with the signatures of these prominent visitors.

The Inn enjoys international acclaim and therefore, the greatest service that the Cándido family can offer is to preserve this Inn of Azoguejo as a homage to its ancestors, and as the best service to the HIGHLY NOBLE AND LOYAL CITY OF SEGOVIA.

Segovia - España

Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España
Segovia - España
Segovia – España


15. Bella Italia + Dolce Vita + Goethe + Bellissima Geologia @ Limone sul Garda

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15. Bella Italia + Dolce Vita + Goethe + Bellissima Geology @ Limone sul Garda – V.180817

15.0 Introduction:

This is a short story on one of our discovery trips, with my dear family, that I wish to share with you, using my own pics.

It is about travelling around Lago di Garda, history, literature and about the superb geology and tectonics of this region.

Enjoy and please visit if you have the opportunity.

> J.W. Goethe, September 13, 1786:<

” This morning at three o’clock I set sail from Torbole with two oarsmen.

The wind was favorable at first, so we made good use of our sails. The morning was stupendous yet overcast, and it was tranquil at dawn. We sailed before Limone with beautiful, lush terraced gardens of lemon trees.

The garden had rows of square white pillars evenly spaced and arranged in tiers up along the hillside. Large wooden beams sat on top of these pillars and were used to cover the plants in winter. Our slow progress made it possible to observe and contemplate such delightful things.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – west flank – MCAL

Once we passed Malcesine, the wind completely changed direction and blew northward as usual “.

The words uttered by J. W. Goethe’s Mignon seem written for the landscape of Limone: Knowest thou where the lemon blossom grows, In foliage dark the orange golden glows, A gentle breeze blows from the azure sky, Still stands the myrtle, and the laurel, high? ”

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – MCAL


15.0 Introduction

15.1 Limone sul Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

15.5 Geology – Sovracorrimento di Tremosina

15.6 Geology – Assetto Strutturale – Inquadramento geologic

15.7 Geology – Linea di Ballino

15.8 Geology – Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic)

15.9 Geology – Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.

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15.1 Limone sul Garda

is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy (northern Italy), on the shore of Lake Garda.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Despite the presence of famous cultivations of lemons (the meaning of the city’s name in Italian), the town’s name is probably derived from the ancient lemos (elm) or limes (Latin: boundary, referring to the communes of Brescia and the Bishopric of Trento). In 1863-1905 the denomination was Limone San Giovanni.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Until the 1940s the city was reachable only by lake or through the mountains, with the road to Riva del Garda being built only 1932, but today Limone is one of the most renowned tourist resorts in the area.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

> Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limone_sul_Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

Ci sono luoghi e luoghi e pare proprio che questo, quanto a longevità, non abbia rivali in Italia. Parliamo di Limone sul Garda, il paese dove fioriscono i limoni, un luogo speciale che già al solo nome evoca un senso di pace interiore.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Alcuni abitanti del borgo sono stati propriamente analizzati per capire quale sia quel “qualcosa in più” che rende più longevi e sembra che quel qualcosa sia stato trovato. Si tratta infatti di un’apolipoproteina identificata in alcuni abitanti del borgo, atta a tenere a bada malattie come l’infarto o l’arteriosclerosi. Ma non è solo questo.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Reference: http://siviaggia.it/notizie/limone-sul-garda-e-il-paese-piu-longevo-d-italia/159404/

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

con il suo classico stile italiano, ottima gastronomia e la sua atmosfera unica.Limone sul Garda è la meta ideale non solo per gli amanti del riposo, ma anche per coloro che vogliono esplorare la zona con escursioni o tour in bicicletta. Il Sentiero del Sole, come le altre diverse passeggiate tra gli ulivi, sul Monte Carone o sul Monte Preàls, sono un must durante il soggiorno a Limone. Alcune gite sono praticabili anche in mountain bike ed in e-bike.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

Oggi Limone è uno dei pilastri del turismo del Lago di Garda Bresciano. Il paesino venne costruito intorno al pittoresco porto e esercita la tipica atmosfera di un paese di pescatori. I bei palazzi e gli stretti vicoletti del centro storico che si inerpicano sui ripidi pendii del Dosso dei Roveri, incantarono famose personalità come Goethe, Lawrence e Ibsen.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Dalla chiesa di San Rocco (XVI secolo), situata proprio sopra il paese, si può godere di una fantastica vista del Lago di Garda. Altri luoghi d’interesse sono la Chiesa di San Benedetto con i suoi quattro altari in marmo e il pittoresco porto di Limone.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

La vegetazione è tipicamente mediterranea, con oleandri, palme e ulivi. Le famose limonaie, situate sulle terrazze alle pendici della Cima della Mughera, sono il simbolo della località.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Riva del Garda – MCAL

Poco più a nord rispetto a Limone si possono visitare le rovine delle prime serre, costruite intorno al 17° secolo.


Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – background east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

Reference: http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/80_Riva_del_Garda.pdf

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Limone sul Garda is located on the exhumed sediments of what used to be a Jurassic graben which was later inverted by Alpine compressional tectonic forces (25-6 my), in the Neogene epoch. These sediments are mainly of Sinemurian age (199-191 my).

Jurassic Graben - Lago de Garda - MCAL
Jurassic Graben – Lago de Garda – MCAL

The graben was a result of the first phase of breakup of Pangea. Pangaea or Pangea (means Whole Mother Earth in ancient Greek) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 200 million years ago, in this specific area of Lago di Garda. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangaea)

West Lago di Garda - Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat - Arrow=Neogene inversion - MCAL
West Lago di Garda – Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat – Arrow=Neogene inversion – MCAL

Along the western border of the lake (right. on the picture), basinal deep water Jurassic deposits are present with thinly bedded cherty limestones (Medolo Formation), radiolarites (Upper Jurassic) and Calpionella limestones (Maiolica Lombarda Formation, Lower Cretaceous).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL

Limone sul Garda – MCAL – In particolare fu l’ultima glaciazione, quella di Wurm avvenuta tra gli 80 mila e i 10 mila anni fa, a “regalarci” i laghi glaciali prealpini di cui oggi possiamo godere gli spendidi paesaggi:
lago di Garda.

15.5 Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina

The spectacular west flank of Lago di Garda is represented by a major thrust body, the so-called Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina. As described in the following article.

” .Sintesi strutturale del sovrascorrimento di Tremosine-Tignale-Costa (Alpi Bresciane) by Pini, Gian Andrea, 1989. Rivisti RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA.

Il sovrascorrimento di Tremosine—Tignale—Costa è una grande struttura regionale nota da quasi un secolo, con vari approfondimenti successivi.

L’accavallamento, partendo dalla zona a N dl Limone, si sviluppa nei territori di Tremosine e di Tignale e continua a Sud bordeggiando le pendici orientali dei Monte Pizzoccolo e Pizzo Castello di Gaino, sino a raggiungere la Val Sabbia a N di Salò.

In queste sue parti più meridionali, l’accavallamento assume una caratteristica meno unitaria disperdendosi in più strutture, anche plicative (vedi a E a S del Colle di San Bartolomeo).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – Nappe – west flank Garda – MCAL

L’unitarietà di questa struttura è stata riconosciuta, pur con differenze nella cartografia, gia in altri lavori a scala regionale (v. CASSINIS e CASTELLARIN, 1961) e in carte geologiche di dettaglio (v. AA.VV., 1972).

Fatto nuovo dei rilevamenti e delle analisi strutturali da noi effettuate ê il riconoscimento di una distribuzione bimodale delle direzioni delle meso e macrostrutture presenti nelle successioni giurassico-cretaciche-eoceniche alla base dei sovrascorrimento:

Infatti sia le direzioni degli accavallamenti-faglie inverse che gli assi delle pieghe risultano distribuiti in direzioni N70-60° e N20-40°, in accordo con le recenti sintesi regionali “.

Lago di Garda - Geologic Map - MCAL
Lago di Garda Area – Geologic Map – MCAL



15.6 –  I – ASSETTO STRUTTURALE (p.15,16)


La zona del Foglio Riva è ubicata in un settore centrale delle Alpi meridionali. Le Alpi meridionali rappresentano la fascia strutturale della catena localizzata a S del Lineamento Periadriatico (o Insubrico) (fig. 2).

Si tratta della catena “Africa vergente”, dominata cioè da pronunciata vergenza verso S opposta a quella della catena “Europa-vergente”, presente a N del Lineamento (Catena Nordalpina).

Nel Foglio Riva mancano del tutto gli affioramenti del basamento cristallino e metamorfico e delle sue coperture tardo paleozoiche. Nelle aree del Foglio Riva l’inversione strutturale compressiva è essenzialmente riferibile all’evoluzione post-collisionale delle Alpi.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – left, Monte Baldo – MCAL

Solo a partire dal Miocene inferiore in poi le succes- sioni dei vari comparti del Foglio vengono deformate e incorporate all’interno dei sistemi strutturali compressivi, raggiungendo nel Neogene (Messiniano e Pliocene) l’assetto strutturale attuale.

Va anche ricordato che le successioni strati- grafiche marine più recenti, affioranti nelle aree del Foglio si spingono fino alla base del Miocene (formazione del M. Brione) e che le deformazioni successive al Miocene inferiore non possono essere controllate su scala locale sulla base dei depositi sintettonici a causa della loro assenza, determinata dal sollevamento e dall’erosione dei rilievi orografici in formazione.

Nel settore centrale delle Alpi Meridionali possono essere individuati tre principali assetti strutturali corrispondenti ad altrettante aree (fig. 2).

1) La zona orientale (Dolomiti occidentali – M.ti Lessini), a E del Fiume Adige. Nelle aree centro settentrionali di tale zona, l’evoluzione tettonica e magmatica post-ercinica, tardo-paleozoica, mesozoica e cenozoica è stata intensa- mente condizionata dalle imponenti manifestazioni magmatiche intrusive ed effusive del Permiano inferiore e quelle, di minore estensione e volumi, del Triassico medio che in gran parte risultano sovrapposte alle prime nelle Dolomiti occidentali.

Tali manifestazioni sono spiegabili come espressione della tettonica disgiuntiva embrionale probabilmente connessa allo smembramento iniziale della Pangea (VEEVER, 1989). Esse preannunciano con molto anticipo il rifting continentale vero e proprio, norico-liassico, della Tetide alpina.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – left is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

Nella parte meridionale di tale zona, un contributo non trascurabile è stato determinato anche dalle manifestazioni vulcaniche del Paleogene (basalti e loro differenziati) che hanno interessato il Veneto sud-occidentale (M.ti Lessini, Euganei) estendendosi anche al Trentino occidentale (zone ad E del F. Sarca).

Tutte queste manifestazioni contribuirono a creare un vasto nucleo di crosta sudalpina assai più rigida di quelle circostanti, intensificando la resistenza alle deformazioni tettoniche in questo comparto (CASTELLARIN & VAI, 1986; CASTELLARIN et alii, 1988).

Va inoltre osservato che questo nucleo a comportamento più rigido è anche quello, apparen- temente, più profondamente incuneato entro l’edificio nordalpino lungo il Lineamento Periadriatico (tra la Linea delle Giudicarie N e la Linea della Val Pusteria).

Riva del Garda - MCAL

Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.7 Linea di Ballino

The rather straight and steep and touristically spectacular western border of Lago di Garda, as seen on my pictures of the lake/mountain, is defined by two structural elements.

A major thrust, the Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina on which Limone sul Garda is located.

And by a macro-tectonic element, called Linea di Ballino, that runs parallel to the thrust.

This Linea di Ballino extends in SSW-NNE direction and has a length of more than 200 km.

” La Linea di Ballino, documentata come faglia sinsedimentaria liassica negli anni ‘70 e ‘80, si estende con continuità e, più o meno, con il medesimo orientamento e caratteri, anche verso Nord, fino in prossimità della Linea delle Giudicarie Nord (vedi Fogli Tione e Malè). Essa prosegue anche verso sud di Riva del Garda (p. 12).”

The rocks exposed in along the lake area represent sediments of the Late Triassic – Lower Jurassic rifting. They are mainly of Early Jurassic age (201-174 my). To the west the older sediments of Hettangian age (201 – 199 my) outcrop. Along the west coast of Lago di Garda itself, including Limone sul Garda, the rocks are of Sinemurian age (199-191 my). The area to the east of the lake consists of younger sediments of Toarcian age (183-174 my).

From west to east the rocks get younger and they move upwards in age, through the Early Jurassic.

15.8 ” Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic),

espressione del rifting continentale che precede la nascita della Tetide alpina, sono rappresentative della complessa zona di contrapposizione tra le successioni della Piattaforma di Trento e quelle del Bacino Lombardo (p.8) ” .

Figure: Upper Triassic (Norian) – Lower Jurassic (Lias) rifting. And its structural compression and inversion in Neogene.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda – right is West border – MCAL

Riva del Garda – west flank Lago di Garda

Sediments are:

1.5. – UNITÀ NORICO – RETICHE (p.29).

Calcare di Zorzino, Argillite di Riva di Solto, Calcare di Zu (rampa carbonatica (sub)tidale, margine di piattaforma, deposito di transporto in masa).

1.6. – UNITÀ DI PIATTAFORMA DELL’INTERVALO RETICO – AALENIANO (p.32). Unita costituisce un litosoma carbonatico di piattaforma uniforme nelle litologie e tipico della sponda occidentale del Garda e dei rilievi Bresciano.


Costituisce un’unità sintettonica di piattaforma carbonatica tra le più classiche del Lias sudalpino. Essa si è sviluppata sotto il controllo della tettonica estensionale del rifting norico liassico.


Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL
Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Limone to Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.9 Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti



Along the tectonic alignment Ballino-Garda a wide. N-S trending belt between the Po plain and the Tonale Line was affected by extensional tectonics linked to Liassic intracontinental rifting which disintegrated the area of the Southern Alps. i.e. the future southern continental margin of the western Tethys. The structural architecture of this belt is determined by normal master faults (very probably listric and/or domino systems) presently trending in a N-S and NNE-SSW direction and by nearly E-W trending fault systems which can be interpreted as kinematic links (transfer faults) between the different segments of the listric (or domino) major system.

Extensional tectonics prograded from W to E during the Liassic as documented by the drowning age of the peritidal carbonate shelf in the different sectors: Early Liassic (?Hettangian-Early Sinemurian) in the western parts of the belt (Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta and Sebino-Val Trompia areas); mainly Middle Liassic (?Late Sinemurian- Pliensbachian) between the western side of Lake Garda and the hills of Botticino (Brescia); mostly Late Liassic in the easternmost part of the belt. This last event marks the greatest eastward progradation of the Liassic rifting in this area.

The Liassic rifting displays a marked irregularity: to the North of Riva del Garda there is no intermediate block that was foundered around the beginning of the Middle Liassic.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

The Liassic evolution of the Ballino Line is strongly different N and S of Riva. To the N this structure is the principal divide between the basinal Lombardian and Venetian platform domains, whilst to the S, the line did not produce a major fault scarp in the Early Liassic and there was one continuous carbonate platform from the eastern Venetian area (Calcari Grigi Formation, lower member) to the Lombardian sector (Corna Formation).

The most characteristic, complete and thick basinal Liassic successions form syntectonic sedimentary prisms which are equivalent in geometry and stratigraphie patterns in the Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta zone and in the Sebino- Val Trompia area. They are not continuous in N-S direction, but are offset along E-W trending faults. This offset runs along a major E-W trending fault system (Vies-Trat. Lenzumo and Dosso del Vento Lines) and presumably has a western prolongation in the Val Trompia Line. These discontinuities are interpreted as parts of a transfer fault system which was the Liassic kinematic link between the two segments of the belt.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Visit, enjoy, ciaooo !

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.