5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela

5. Gold deposits of French Guyana, Guyana, Venezuela – V140418

Contents

0. Introduction

1. Geology

2. Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana

3. Montagne d’Or – Norgold

4. French Guiana – Montagne d’Or – Columbus Gold Corporation

5. Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana) – Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado (1999).

6. Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints – Jean-Pierre MILESI et. al.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

8. Guyana: Maps major gold deposits

Gold - El Callao - MCAL
Gold – El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

0) Introduction

The first years of my career as a geologist in Venezuela were as a hard-rocker and field mineral exploration consultant.

With the Ministerio de Energia y Minas (Ministry of Energy and Mines, Geological Survey), headquarters El Silencio, Torre Norte, Caracas.

One of my assignments was to assist with exploration in Minerven, Gold Company, in the town El Callao, eastern Venezuela. This area once was the major gold producing area in the world. My task included exploration surveys in the giant gold mine ” Colombia ” and surrounding area. As a ” gold digger “. Exploration? A simple focus. Discover, map and indicate where the quartz veins are with lots of gold.

Gold mine, Colombia - El Callao - MCAL
Gold mine, Colombia – El Callao – MCAL

El Callao https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Callao_Municipality:

El Callao is a most interesting mining town.

Where you can have a golden time. As it is all about gold in this town. From the gold shops on the plaza Bolivar. To the golden morning sun and golden sunset.

Where surprisingly, though deep in the Venezuelan hinterland, on the Early Proterozoic of some 2,2 billions years old, you can hear original Caribbean calypso music.

Where surprisingly you can meet native trigueñita beauties with gold blond hair and sparkling green eyes. A precious human cocktail thanks to the lovesome interaction of fortune seekers from diverse countries that came in rushing for the gold. Vintage, limited editions.

Where you can dance calypso. Till the golden morning sun, in the weekends.(https://youtu.be/XsOH4rtE1lI). 

Many first generation Callao miners came from Trinidad, in the former centuries. The older generations still spoke english when I worked there.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

The gold mine at El Callao, started in 1871, was for a time one of the richest in the world, and the goldfields as a whole saw over a million ounces exported between 1860 and 1883. The gold mining was dominated by immigrants from the British Isles and the British West Indies, giving an appearance of almost creating an English colony on Venezuelan territory.

The Trinidadian immigrants brought the music of Calypso with them, which later became very popular in the city. The folk music is a mixture of Venezuelan and Caribbean genres and is sung in Spanish and/or Caribbean English. It is closely associated with the Carnival festival, a tradition also brought by the West Indian people (https://youtu.be/h1nnL1mmGsg).

In the carnival months, Calypso is performed with competitions, where the winners are crowned Calypso King and Queen. Calypso or as the town’s people call it “Calipso” is one of the most popular cultural tradition that the city is well known for in the rest of the country. Popular instruments used in the performance of the music are the drums, cuatro, maracas, guitar, bandolin, violin and the steel drum.

Since my Minerven assignment I have stayed interested and been keen on gold exploration and genesis, specifically in the Guyana gold and greenstone belt. Extending from Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname to French Guyana. And the twin sister Birimian gold belt in West Africa.

Long before clever petroleum geologists finally realised that the Cretaceous plays on the continental shelf of northern South America were the mirror brothers & sisters of the Jubilee discovery in Ghana, gold ore geologists had already discovered and using this mirror concept for exploration. Which applies for the Guyana – Birimanian goldbeld in the precambrian craton.

El Callao - Venezuela - MCAL
El Callao – Venezuela – MCAL

Explorer ? Discoverer ? Gold Digger ?

Venezuela seems to have some 7000 tons of gold reserves, in the subsurface.(https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2062/report.pdf).

Gold subsurface exploration in the main ” Colombia ”  mine is not so much romantic but very hard work.

Visiting and exploring in the small hand-digged “private” gold mines and concessions is even tougher and more dangerous. Many miners die inside their own mines due to accidents (collapses, toxic gases etc.).

On the photo one of such mines that I visited. Where you only get in and, hopefully also out, with a private lift, a simple bucket.

Gold Deposits - Guyana Greenstone Belt - MCAL
Gold Deposits – Guyana Greenstone Belt – MCAL

Explorers, gold diggers?

Do not panic and do not get claustrophobic when descending in these mini-handcrafted mines.

Certainly good luck, God Bless You. Enjoy being in the Subsurface.

It is invaluable to have this field Surface and Subsurface experience and knowledge? As additional help, when sitting most comfortable in an ergonomic chair, in front of the multiple wide screens with the virtual subsurface world in front of you, on your workstation.

Or simply making your interpretation by strolling around with your hands in your pockets in the immersive visionarium or visualisation room.

When trying to figure out, as a digital native, from your desktop on floor 33 in a mid-town skyscraper with a most splendid panoramic city view. How the subsurface should really look like and should behave. According to Homo Sapiens Geologica Softwaretialis.

According all the smart programs which perfectly explain how Mother Earth is obliged to behave and should function.

Enjoy.

El Callao - Small, hand-digged private gold mines - MCAL
El Callao – Small, hand-digged private gold mines – I have been in several of these ” dangerous ” mines – MCAL

Afterward I switched to black gold, petroleum exploration.

Credit for all pictures: published and available on internet.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

Geologic Map El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Map El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

1) Geology and gold mineralization of the El Callao District, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

Baxter Peter, 1995: Simposio International del Oro en Venezuela 3 (Pages 143-147)

https://eurekamag.com/research/022/716/022716386.php

The El Callao Mining District located 130 kilometres southeast of Puerto Ordaz has been the most prolific gold mining district in Venezuela and the longest lasting hard rock mining district in the Guayana Shield. Published production is between 124 and 180 tonnes of gold (4 to 5.8 million ounces).

The majority of this production has been from a small number of highgrade underground mines located north and south of the town of El Callao.

Geologic Column - El Callao - Choco Gold Area - MCAL
Geologic Column – El Callao – Choco Gold Area – MCAL

Mining has been continuous since 1829 with current production from the Columbia mine at approximately 1.86 tonnes of gold per year (60.000 ounces).

Gold mineralization occurs within metavolcanics and metasediments of the Precambrian Guayana Shield, which underlies most of Bolivar State and extends through the neighbouring countries of Guyana, Surinam and northern Brazil.

There are four major lithological units of Proterozoic age in the area, from the oldest to the youngest the El Callao Formation, the Cicapra Formation, the Yuruari Formation, and the Caballape Formation. These units have been subject to amphibolite to greenschist grade regional metamorphism. Structural trends of foliation, folding, faulting and shearing in the EI Callao District are primarily oriented to the northeast with dips mostly to the southeast.

Choco Gold mine - MCAL
Choco Gold mine – MCAL

The shear hosted gold mineralization consists of quartz veins, quartz stockworks, and massive silicification. Alteration consists of silicification, carbonitization, sericitization, and propylitization. Accessory minerals in the quartz veins include tourmaline, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and scheelite.

Tropical weathering is only moderately developed in the area with laterite generally not deeper than 3 meters and the saprolitic zone typically less than 30 meters.

El Callao Mining Corporation is a junior exploration company, with majority ownership and management by Bema Gold Corporation. The company has been conducting a gold exploration program primarily on the Lo Increible 2 and 4 concessions since September 1993. Other companies active in the area include, Bolivar Gold, Goldfields of South Africa, Minoven, Teck-KinRoss, and Golden Star.

2) Le projet « Montagne d’or » French Guyana – V.220817

serait à l’origine de la première mine d’or industrielle de Guyane. Ici, le site minier aurifere de Yaou, le 17 septembre 2011, à Maripasoula, en Guyane française.
L’opposition au projet de mine d’or industrielle en Guyane grandit – Le Monde.fr avec AFP – Le 22 août 2017 à 10h59

Une pétition lancée par les opposants a reçu près de 166 000 signatures en cinq mois, alors que le gouvernement n’a toujours pas autorisé la construction de la mine.
Le sujet n’en finit pas de soulever les critiques en Guyane. Pour dénoncer le plus grand projet d’extraction d’or jamais proposé en France, l’opposition a lancé une pétition en mars, qui a déjà récolté 165 800 signatures, et est soutenue par 110 organisations nationales et internationales.

« Il y a cent cinquante ans que la Guyane a eu une histoire d’amour avec l’or, mais il faut que cela cesse. Ce ne sont pas les meilleures orientations économiques pour la Guyane », a expliqué à l’Agence France-Presse (AFP) Nora Stephenson, porte-parole du collectif Or de question. Treize chefs coutumiers de Guyane se sont déclarés contre ce projet industriel inédit, évoqué pour 2022. « Au nom de l’économie, vous êtes prêts à écraser une nouvelle génération », a déploré au début d’août Bénédicte Fdjéké, présidente des chefs coutumiers. « Faire des trous partout, dans le sol qui nous nourrit, c’est une mauvaise chose », a aussi jugé Christophe Pierre, leader du collectif Jeunesse autochtone, lors d’une réunion publique à la fin de juillet.

La raison de leur colère : le projet « Montagne d’or », prévu près de Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, dans l’Ouest guyanais, et détenu à 55 % par le russe Nordgold et à 45 % par le canadien Columbus gold. Il suscite une telle controverse qu’il n’a pas encore été autorisé par le gouvernement français.

Guyana Shield Gold Deposits
Guyana Shield Gold Deposits

Lire aussi : L’or de Guyane, un test politique pour Macron
Ampleur économique hors norme

« Montagne d’or » est « hors normes par ses aspects économiques », souligne une « note d’information » interministérielle de février 2016 obtenue par l’AFP, qui prévient également que les « empreintes spatiale et écologique sont de dimensions inconnues en France ».

Selon cette note, les taxes associées à la production minière représenteraient « 80,6 millions d’euros » et celles à l’importation « 325,5 millions d’euros ».

Les industriels, qui prévoient d’extraire « 6,7 tonnes » d’or par an pendant « douze ans », soit une valeur estimée à plus de 3 milliards d’euros, souhaitent un débat public resserré. « Après consultation des élus locaux, tout le monde est pour un débat qui serait guyanais », a affirmé le représentant des industriels, Rock Lefrançois.

Il a saisi la commission nationale de débat public (CNDP) pour lui demander d’organiser un débat local. Au début de juillet, la CNDP a rejeté la demande en l’état, au motif que les coûts initiaux du projet étaient flous et considérant « l’importance considérable des enjeux sociaux, économiques et environnementaux ». La compagnie minière Montagne d’or a annoncé qu’elle organiserait un débat « au cours du quatrième trimestre » avec « le public directement concerné » par le projet.

Impact écologique inquiétant

Mais les opposants craignent pour les conséquences écologiques du projet industriel. S’il était validé par le gouvernement, les miniers creuseraient en pleine forêt tropicale une fosse grande comme trente-deux Stades de France. Les détracteurs du projet s’alarment de la proximité du site avec des massifs à haute biodiversité, dont la plus vaste réserve biologique intégrale de France.

Ils s’inquiètent aussi des déchets qu’engendrerait l’extraction de l’or. Des millions et des millions de mètres cubes de roche devraient être charriés et traités au cyanure pour extraire les 85 précieuses tonnes d’or que Nordgold pense possible de récupérer en quinze ans.

Le déblai entraînerait la création artificielle et permanente de deux dômes de roches de 100 mètres de haut, ainsi que d’un mont endigué de 70 m de haut renfermant, selon les industriels, « 54 millions de tonnes » de boues issues du processus de traitement de la roche avec le cyanure.

Face aux craintes environnementales dans un territoire caractérisé par des retards structurels, notamment en gestion et prévention des pollutions, Rock Lefrançois précise que des « forages […] surveilleront les eaux souterraines pour voir s’il y a des traces ou des niveaux élevés de certains métaux » libérés par la roche à nu ou par les traitements physico-chimiques pour récupérer l’or. « Les forages resteront sur site pendant cinq ans après la fermeture, ensuite il y aura un suivi environnemental sur trente ans », assure-t-il.

« Le drainage minier acide peut durer des centaines d’années, c’est très difficile à maîtriser et ça coûte cher », rétorque Thibault Saint-Aubin, de l’association Ingénieurs sans frontières systèmes extractifs et environnements, soutien d’Or de question. Pour fonctionner, la mine demandera aussi des investissements publics importants (routes, énergie, port, exonérations), dans un territoire où 15 % des foyers du littoral et 30 % des foyers de l’intérieur n’ont pas accès à l’électricité.

French Guyana - Gold mine - MCAL
French Guyana – Gold mine – MCAL

3)  MONTAGNE D’OR – Norgold

http://www.nordgold.com/operations/development-projects/mondgne/

Guiana Gold Belt - Montagne d'Or - MCAL
Guiana – Birimian Gold Belt – Montagne d’Or – MCAL

Project Background

The 4.8 million ounce of Mineral Resources Montagne d’Or gold deposit is located in north-west French Guiana, 180 kilometers west of the capital, Cayenne, and 80 kilometres south of the department capital, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni. The Project’s base camp can accommodate 65 people.

In mid-March 2017, Nordgold earned-in a 55.01% interest in the Montagne d’Or project by spending a minimum of US$30 million and completing a Bankable Feasibility Study by 13 March 2017.

Nordgold also holds ~9% of Columbus Gold Corp.(“Columbus Gold”, CGT: TSX-V), the Company’s partner in the Montagne d’Or project. In October 2014, Mr. Oleg Pelevin, Director of Strategy and Corporate Development for Nordgold, was appointed to Columbus Gold’s board of directors.

Montagne d’Or official website (French)

Montagne d’Or Presentation 2017

Reserves and Resources

Montagne d’Or is located within the northern greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield in French Guiana. The mineral deposits of the Guiana Gold Belt are very similar to those in other greenstone terrains such as in West Africa. This will enable Nordgold to apply its deep knowledge of West African geology to the Project and other projects in the region. Columbus Gold, with its many years of operational experience in French Guiana and unique local knowledge will serve a strong partner in the advancement of the project.

The current model of gold mineralization is a high sulphidization, volcanogenic type. Significant portions are thought to have been emplaced as replacement style mineralization. Subsequently, the mineralization has been deformed and partly remobilised within structural controls. Gold mineralization is associated with primary sulphide minerals as replacements within pyrite and chalcopyrite.

CATEGORY TONNES (M) GRADE (AU G/T) AU (MOZ)
RESERVES *
Proven and Probable 54.11 1.58 2.75
RESOURCES **
Measured and Indicated 85.1 1.41 3.85
Inferred 20.2 1.5 0.96
Total (M+I+I) 105.3 1.4 4.81

 

  • * Proven and Probable Reserves were estimated using a gold price of US$1,200/oz at varied cut-offs dependent on lithological rock types, economics and estimated metallurgical recovery. Felsic Tuffs have CoG of 0.617 g/t Au, Granodiorites have a CoG of 0.622 g/t Au, Mafics have a CoG of 0.665 g/t Au, Saprolite and Saprock have a CoG of 0.552 g/t Au.
  • ** Mineral Resources estimated within pit shell that is defined by an US$1,300/oz price and CoG of 0.4 g/t Au.

4) French Guiana – MONTAGNE D’OR – Columbus Gold Corporation

http://www.columbusgoldcorp.com/s/MontagnedOr.asp

Montagne d’Or is part of the Paul Isnard project which is comprised of eight mining concessions covering an area of 190 km2 and is accessible via an all season forest road from the town of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, for a distance of 120 kilometres, and by small aircraft to the project’s base camp. Several roads crisscross the mining concessions providing truck access.

At Montagne d’Or, the gold mineralisation is hosted within a 400 metre thick sequence of intercalated felsic and mafic volcanic and subordinate volcaniclastic rocks that strike east-west and dip steeply south.

The near surface gold resources are contained within four (4) closely-spaced stratiform, sub-parallel, east-west-striking and south-dipping sulphide mineralised horizons, which include the principal UFZ (Upper Felsic Zone) and LFZ (Lower Favorable Zone) having average thicknesses of 50 metres and 17.5 metres, respectively.

Gold mineralisation is associated with disseminated and stringer sulphides with occasional semi-massive seams to several centimetres in width, mainly as pyrite, and is accompanied by pervasive alteration, which includes sericite, secondary biotite (retrograded to chlorite) and secondary K-feldspar ± quartz. Only a small portion of the deposit has been subjected to upper level oxidation.

Montagne d’Or occurs within the Guiana Gold Belt which stretches from western Venezuela eastward through Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana and into Brazil. Mineral deposits are typical of those in other greenstone terrains such as in Canada, Australia and West Africa. Many (8) significant gold deposits and prospects have been identified on the Guiana Gold Belt, including Las Cristinas, Choco, Toropoaru, Aurora, Omai, Gros Rosebel, Merian and Camp Caiman.

Numerous other prospects, mostly in Guyana and Surinam are undergoing active exploration.

Guyana - Africa Gold Areas
Guyana – Africa Gold Areas

5) Geological and metallogenic environments of gold deposits of the Guiana Shield; a comparative study between St-Elie (French Guiana) and Omai (Guyana)

http://emg.geoscienceworld.org/content/8/1-2/117

Jean Lafrance, Marc Bardoux, Gabriel Voicu, Ross Stevenson, Nuno Machado
Published on April 1999, First Published on April 01, 1999 – ArticleInfo & Metrics – GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological Institute.
Abstract

Paleoproterozoic gold is found in two (2) different volcano-sedimentary sequences and intrusive bodies separated by 600 km within the Guiana Shield.

The 2148 Ma St-Elie granite intruded volcanic-arc sequences of the Paramaca Group.

The 2096 Ma Omai stock penetrated back-arc/island-arc sequences of the Barama-Mazaruni Group.

Positive epsilon Nd values suggest that both suites lack Archean crustal contaminants, which is consistent with an origin in an oceanic arc setting.

4.1 The St-Elie deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented chiefly by pyrrhotite and pyrite. Biotite, calcite, and chlorite are the main gangue minerals. The alteration haloes at St-Elie feature a strong potassic zone, which is absent at Omai.

The ore-controlling structures are ductile and the vein emplacement is related mainly to contemporaneous, high-angle ductile shear zones.

The St-Elie deposit formed at temperatures >350 degrees C. The stable isotopes values are compatible with a magmatic or metamorphic source.

4.2 The Omai deposit is characterized by quartz-dominant vein systems with minor metallic minerals, represented mainly by pyrite. Ankerite, scheelite, albite, and chlorite are common gangue minerals.

The vein emplacement is syn-to post-deformation and it is related mainly to brittle shear zones with low-angle, stockwork networks and breccia zones.

The Omai deposit formed in a temperature range between 250 degrees C and 170 degrees C, much lower than the St-Elie deposit. The stable isotope values are compatible with mixing between deep-seated fluids of metamorphic or magmatic origin with surface-derived fluids.

These differences between St-Elie and Omai are interpreted in terms of their depth of formation. Alteration patterns, structural elements, and paragenetic assemblages indicate that the gold at St-Elie was most probably emplaced at a mesozonal depth, whereas the Omai setting yields evidence for epizonal conditions.

6) Gold deposits (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal lodes), markers of the geological evolution of French Guiana: geology, metallogeny, and stable-isotope constraints

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309669698_Gold_deposits_gold-bearing_tourmalinites_gold-bearing_conglomerates_and_mesothermal_lodes_markers_of_the_geological_evolution_of_French_Guiana_geology_metallogeny_and_stable-isotope_constraints

Jean-Pierre MILESI (1), Catherine LEROUGE (1) Claude DELOR (1), Patrick LEDRU (1) Mario BILLA (1), Alain COCHERIE (1) Emmanuel EGAL (1), Anne-Marie FOUILLAC (1) Didier LAHONDÈRE (1) Jean-Louis LASSERRE (2) Alain MAROT (1), Bruno MARTEL-JANTIN (1) Philippe ROSSI (1), Monique TEGYEY (1) Hervé THÉVENIAUT (2) Denis THIÉBLEMONT (1)

Les minéralisations aurifères (tourmalinites, conglomérats et gîtes mésothermaux) marqueurs de l’évolution géologique de la Guyane

Olivier VANDERHAEGHE

Géologie de la France, 2003, n° 2-3-4, 257-290, 12 fig., 7 tabl.
Mots clés : Minéralisations aurifères, Conglomérats, Tourmalinites, Gîtes mésothermaux, Guyane. Key words: Gold deposits, Conglomerates, Tourmalinites, Mesothermal lodes, French Guiana.

Abstract

In French Guiana, three (3) types of Proterozoic gold deposits can be recognized (gold-bearing tourmalinites, gold-bearing conglomerates, and mesothermal ore deposits).

And used as metallogenic markers in the two-stage (2) geodynamic evolution proposed by Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) and updated at the Guiana Shield scale by Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b this volume).

During the first stage of crustal growth by calc-alkalic and TTG magmatic accretion, an early (pre-D1 deformation) stock of gold and disseminated sulphides associated with regional tourmalinization accumulated in the Paramaca volcaniclastic sequences in subaquatic conditions (example of the stratiform/stratabound Dorlin deposit). These gold-bearing tourmalinites were locally modified under upper–middle crust conditions during emplacement of discordant mesothermal quartz veins.

During the second stage of crustal recycling and tectonic accretion, a wide variety of syntectonic ore deposits including gold-bearing conglomerate and gold mesothermal types were emplaced during all increments of D2 transcurrent deformation, which was responsible for the progressive deformation of the North Guiana Trough, from its creation through to its burial and final exhumation:

The gold-bearing conglomerate type of ore deposit, hosted by the Upper Detrital Unit in the North Guiana Trough, presents several facies markers of the progressive burial of the deposits, e.g.

(i) gold-oxide “paleoplacer” of “Banket” type,

(ii) debris-flow type with syndiagenetic and/or epigenetic deposits,

(iii) epigenetic disseminated- sulphide facies, and

(iv) epigenetic mesothermal quartz stockworks.

Overall, it formed under low to medium-grade metamorphic conditions with, however, relicts of an earlier hydrothermal event as indicated by preserved hydrothermal pebbles in polygenic conglomerates.

The gold mesothermal type of ore deposit (dominant Au- Fe-Cu type associated with brittle-ductile faults and rare Au- As mesothermal deposits), hosted by the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Paramaca Series and also by late-D2 small granite stocks, is always associated with major fault zones.

Overall, it formed under low-grade metamorphic conditions. It is characterized by hydrothermal chlorite+ muscovite+albite+carbonates±biotite alteration. Muscovite +chlorite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally

(1) Brgm, 3, avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, France.
(2) Brgm Guyane, Domaine de Suzini, Route de Montabo, BP 522, 97333 Cayenne cedex 2, France. (3) CNRS-Univ. Poincaré, Nancy, France.

GÉOLOGIE DE LA FRANCE, N° 2-3-4, 2003 – GEOLOGY OF FRANCE AND SURROUNDING AREAS, N° 2-3-4, 2003

257

GOLD DEPOSITS AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF FRENCH GUIANA

Altered metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, whereas albite+carbonates predominate in hydrothermally altered granites.

Hydrothermal fluids have a variety of origins. Stable-iso- tope (C, H, O) data indicate a dominant participation of external fluids, near seawater, in the Dorlin subaquatic stratiform/stratabound deposit, whereas metamorphic fluids become dominant in ore deposits formed at deeper levels, such as gold-bearing conglomerates and mesothermal deposits. Sulphur isotopes, trace elements, and sulphide min- eralogy show a consistent magmatic component, represented by magmatic fluids or by leaching of magmatic rocks.

Résumé

En Guyane, trois (3) types de minéralisations d’or d’âge protérozoïque ont été distingués (tourmalinites aurifères, conglomérats aurifères et or orogénique mésothermal) et utilisés comme marqueurs métallogéniques dans le scénario en deux stades d’évolution géodynamique proposée par Vanderhaeghe et al. (1998) et mis à jour, à l’échelle du bouclier guyanais, par Delor et al. (2000, 2001, 2003a, b ce volume).

Durant le premier stade de croissance crustale par accré- tion magmatique calco-alcaline et TTG, un premier dépôt de sulfures disséminés et d’or (pré-déformation D1), associé à une tourmalinisation régionale se met en place dans les séquences volcanoclastiques du Paramaca en conditions sub- aquatiques (cas du gîte stratiforme/”stratabound” de Dorlin). Ces tourmalinites aurifères ont été ensuite portées dans les conditions de la croûte supérieure à moyenne et localement remaniées par des veines de quartz mésothermales.

Pendant le deuxième stade de recyclage crustal et d’accrétion tectonique, une grande variété de minéralisations syntectoniques comprenant des conglomérats aurifères et des minéralisations mésothermales aurifères se sont mises en place durant tous les incréments de la déformation D2 transcurrente, responsable d’une déformation progressive du Sillon Nord Guyanais, depuis son initiation jusqu’à son enfouissement et son exhumation finale :

– les conglomérats aurifères, portés par l’unité Détritique Supérieure du Sillon Nord Guyanais, comprennent plusieurs faciès, marquant l’enfouissement progressif des dépôts, i.e. (i) « paléoplacers » à or-oxydes de type « Banket », (ii) coulées de débris à minéralisations syn-diagénétiques et/ou épigéné- tiques, (iii) faciès de sulfures disséminés épigénétiques, jus- qu’aux (iv) stockwerks de quartz épigénétiques mésothermaux. Ils se sont formés sous un métamorphisme de degré faible à moyen, préservant des reliques d’un événement hydrothermal précoce, comme l’indique la présence de galets hydrothermaux dans les conglomérats polygéniques ;

– les minéralisations aurifères orogéniques mésother- males (à Au-Fe-Cu dominant associé à des failles ductiles

– fragiles et à Au – As plus rare), encaissées par les séries volcaniques et sédimentaires métamorphisées du Paramaca et par de petits stocks de granite tardi-D2, sont toujours associées à des zones de failles majeures. Elles se sont généralement formées dans des conditions métamor- phiques de bas degré et sont caractérisées par une altéra- tion hydrothermale à chlorite + muscovite + albite + carbonates ± biotite. Muscovite + chlorite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants volcaniques et sédi- mentaires, tandis que albite + carbonates sont dominants dans les encaissants granitiques.

Les fluides hydrothermaux ont plusieurs origines. Les isotopes du soufre, les éléments en trace et la minéralogie des sulfures provenant des différents types de gisements indiquent une composante magmatique constante, issue soit de l’extraction des fluides magmatiques au cours de la mise en place des magmas et de leur cristallisation, soit du lessivage de roches magmatiques riches en sulfures. Les isotopes stables (C, H, O) indiquent une participation dominante de fluides externes. Dans le cas du gisement aurifère de Dorlin de type stratiforme/”stratabound” et mis en place dans des conditions sub-aquatiques, les fluides externes ont une composition proche de l’eau de mer. Dans le cas des minéralisations formées à plus grande profondeur, comme les conglomérats (pro parte) et les gîtes mésothermaux aurifères, les fluides hydrothermaux ont une signature métamorphique. Ce sont des fluides d’origine indéterminée (magmatique, marine, météorique ?), équilibrés avec les roches encaissantes dans les conditions du métamorphisme régional.

7. Guyana: Gold board moving towards minted gold coins – Apr 15, 2018 – Kaieteur News

The Guyana Gold Board (GBB) has started the groundwork for the implementation of minted gold coins and ingots, allowing persons to make certified purchases similar to what can be obtained in the United States and other countries.

Chairman of the Board, Gabriel Lall, told Kaieteur News that the senior managers are working closely with both local and foreign companies to design and be ready to deliver for approval various designs for consideration and the associated cost for production.     

“We are expecting some progress reports within the next several weeks,” Lall stated.

He revealed that the board is pursuing local input in the designs and would later rely on overseas companies for the production since Guyana doesn’t have the capabilities to undertake the minting of the coins.

“We want to enshrine in the design, national attributes. We want local fingerprints on this at the initial stages in terms of design and appearance,” Lall stated.

He said further discussions will surround quality control between Guyana and the overseas company which will undergo the minting process.

“We plan to deal with reputable overseas organizations. We can do our own testing in terms of quality control, but we have been using several reputable companies for years,” Lall noted.

He said the Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman, has given the board a mandate to utilize gold-minted coins as a revenue earning for the board. According to Lall, the Management team of the Gold Board has been moving to get something tangible to deliver.

Guyana has previously issued commemorative gold coins, which were released by the Bank of Guyana. Businesses and individuals tend to hold or invest in gold through gold coins, gold bars, and gold bullion. These items can then be traded.

Minister Trotman stated that Government envisions that the Gold Board will move away from just burning gold and shipping it overseas.

“This year, we will be moving to producing commemorative coins and ingots so that people can come and buy gold as Guyanese.

If I am a citizen of Canada or visitor to Canada or the U.S, I can go and buy gold and it comes with a certificate and a number. I believe that is where we are heading. I am happy that the board is responding to this,” Trotman stated.

15. Bella Italia + Dolce Vita + Goethe + Bellissima Geologia @ Limone sul Garda

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15. Bella Italia + Dolce Vita + Goethe + Bellissima Geology @ Limone sul Garda – V.180817

15.0 Introduction:

This is a short story on one of our discovery trips, with my dear family, that I wish to share with you, using my own pics.

It is about travelling around Lago di Garda, history, literature and about the superb geology and tectonics of this region.

Enjoy and please visit if you have the opportunity.

> J.W. Goethe, September 13, 1786:<

” This morning at three o’clock I set sail from Torbole with two oarsmen.

The wind was favorable at first, so we made good use of our sails. The morning was stupendous yet overcast, and it was tranquil at dawn. We sailed before Limone with beautiful, lush terraced gardens of lemon trees.

The garden had rows of square white pillars evenly spaced and arranged in tiers up along the hillside. Large wooden beams sat on top of these pillars and were used to cover the plants in winter. Our slow progress made it possible to observe and contemplate such delightful things.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – west flank – MCAL

Once we passed Malcesine, the wind completely changed direction and blew northward as usual “.

The words uttered by J. W. Goethe’s Mignon seem written for the landscape of Limone: Knowest thou where the lemon blossom grows, In foliage dark the orange golden glows, A gentle breeze blows from the azure sky, Still stands the myrtle, and the laurel, high? ”

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Contents

15.0 Introduction

15.1 Limone sul Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

15.5 Geology – Sovracorrimento di Tremosina

15.6 Geology – Assetto Strutturale – Inquadramento geologic

15.7 Geology – Linea di Ballino

15.8 Geology – Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic)

15.9 Geology – Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

15.1 Limone sul Garda

is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy (northern Italy), on the shore of Lake Garda.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Despite the presence of famous cultivations of lemons (the meaning of the city’s name in Italian), the town’s name is probably derived from the ancient lemos (elm) or limes (Latin: boundary, referring to the communes of Brescia and the Bishopric of Trento). In 1863-1905 the denomination was Limone San Giovanni.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Until the 1940s the city was reachable only by lake or through the mountains, with the road to Riva del Garda being built only 1932, but today Limone is one of the most renowned tourist resorts in the area.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

> Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limone_sul_Garda

15.2 Qui si vive di più. È scientificamente provato.

Ci sono luoghi e luoghi e pare proprio che questo, quanto a longevità, non abbia rivali in Italia. Parliamo di Limone sul Garda, il paese dove fioriscono i limoni, un luogo speciale che già al solo nome evoca un senso di pace interiore.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Alcuni abitanti del borgo sono stati propriamente analizzati per capire quale sia quel “qualcosa in più” che rende più longevi e sembra che quel qualcosa sia stato trovato. Si tratta infatti di un’apolipoproteina identificata in alcuni abitanti del borgo, atta a tenere a bada malattie come l’infarto o l’arteriosclerosi. Ma non è solo questo.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Reference: http://siviaggia.it/notizie/limone-sul-garda-e-il-paese-piu-longevo-d-italia/159404/

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

15.3 Il paese di pescatori di Limone sul Garda vi incanterà

con il suo classico stile italiano, ottima gastronomia e la sua atmosfera unica.Limone sul Garda è la meta ideale non solo per gli amanti del riposo, ma anche per coloro che vogliono esplorare la zona con escursioni o tour in bicicletta. Il Sentiero del Sole, come le altre diverse passeggiate tra gli ulivi, sul Monte Carone o sul Monte Preàls, sono un must durante il soggiorno a Limone. Alcune gite sono praticabili anche in mountain bike ed in e-bike.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

Oggi Limone è uno dei pilastri del turismo del Lago di Garda Bresciano. Il paesino venne costruito intorno al pittoresco porto e esercita la tipica atmosfera di un paese di pescatori. I bei palazzi e gli stretti vicoletti del centro storico che si inerpicano sui ripidi pendii del Dosso dei Roveri, incantarono famose personalità come Goethe, Lawrence e Ibsen.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

Dalla chiesa di San Rocco (XVI secolo), situata proprio sopra il paese, si può godere di una fantastica vista del Lago di Garda. Altri luoghi d’interesse sono la Chiesa di San Benedetto con i suoi quattro altari in marmo e il pittoresco porto di Limone.

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – MCAL

La vegetazione è tipicamente mediterranea, con oleandri, palme e ulivi. Le famose limonaie, situate sulle terrazze alle pendici della Cima della Mughera, sono il simbolo della località.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Riva del Garda – MCAL

Poco più a nord rispetto a Limone si possono visitare le rovine delle prime serre, costruite intorno al 17° secolo.

http://www.lago-di-garda.org/limone-lago-di-garda.asp

Bella Italia & Dolce Vita - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Bella Italia & Dolce Vita – Limone sul Garda – background east flank – Monte Baldo – MCAL

15.4 Geology of Limone sul Garda. Carta Geologica D’Italia. 1:50.000 – foglio 080 – RIVA DEL GARDA

Reference: http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/80_Riva_del_Garda.pdf

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Limone sul Garda is located on the exhumed sediments of what used to be a Jurassic graben which was later inverted by Alpine compressional tectonic forces (25-6 my), in the Neogene epoch. These sediments are mainly of Sinemurian age (199-191 my).

Jurassic Graben - Lago de Garda - MCAL
Jurassic Graben – Lago de Garda – MCAL

The graben was a result of the first phase of breakup of Pangea. Pangaea or Pangea (means Whole Mother Earth in ancient Greek) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 200 million years ago, in this specific area of Lago di Garda. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangaea)

West Lago di Garda - Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat - Arrow=Neogene inversion - MCAL
West Lago di Garda – Lower Jurassic / Liassic tidal flat – Arrow=Neogene inversion – MCAL

Along the western border of the lake (right. on the picture), basinal deep water Jurassic deposits are present with thinly bedded cherty limestones (Medolo Formation), radiolarites (Upper Jurassic) and Calpionella limestones (Maiolica Lombarda Formation, Lower Cretaceous).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL

Limone sul Garda – MCAL – In particolare fu l’ultima glaciazione, quella di Wurm avvenuta tra gli 80 mila e i 10 mila anni fa, a “regalarci” i laghi glaciali prealpini di cui oggi possiamo godere gli spendidi paesaggi:
lago di Garda.

15.5 Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina

The spectacular west flank of Lago di Garda is represented by a major thrust body, the so-called Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina. As described in the following article.

” .Sintesi strutturale del sovrascorrimento di Tremosine-Tignale-Costa (Alpi Bresciane) by Pini, Gian Andrea, 1989. Rivisti RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA.

Il sovrascorrimento di Tremosine—Tignale—Costa è una grande struttura regionale nota da quasi un secolo, con vari approfondimenti successivi.

L’accavallamento, partendo dalla zona a N dl Limone, si sviluppa nei territori di Tremosine e di Tignale e continua a Sud bordeggiando le pendici orientali dei Monte Pizzoccolo e Pizzo Castello di Gaino, sino a raggiungere la Val Sabbia a N di Salò.

In queste sue parti più meridionali, l’accavallamento assume una caratteristica meno unitaria disperdendosi in più strutture, anche plicative (vedi a E a S del Colle di San Bartolomeo).

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - MCAL
Limone sul Garda – Nappe – west flank Garda – MCAL

L’unitarietà di questa struttura è stata riconosciuta, pur con differenze nella cartografia, gia in altri lavori a scala regionale (v. CASSINIS e CASTELLARIN, 1961) e in carte geologiche di dettaglio (v. AA.VV., 1972).

Fatto nuovo dei rilevamenti e delle analisi strutturali da noi effettuate ê il riconoscimento di una distribuzione bimodale delle direzioni delle meso e macrostrutture presenti nelle successioni giurassico-cretaciche-eoceniche alla base dei sovrascorrimento:

Infatti sia le direzioni degli accavallamenti-faglie inverse che gli assi delle pieghe risultano distribuiti in direzioni N70-60° e N20-40°, in accordo con le recenti sintesi regionali “.

Lago di Garda - Geologic Map - MCAL
Lago di Garda Area – Geologic Map – MCAL

http://www.vialattea.net/esperti/php/risposta.php?num=7332

http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/80_Riva_del_Garda.pdf

15.6 –  I – ASSETTO STRUTTURALE (p.15,16)

II – INQUADRAMENTO GEOLOGICO

La zona del Foglio Riva è ubicata in un settore centrale delle Alpi meridionali. Le Alpi meridionali rappresentano la fascia strutturale della catena localizzata a S del Lineamento Periadriatico (o Insubrico) (fig. 2).

Si tratta della catena “Africa vergente”, dominata cioè da pronunciata vergenza verso S opposta a quella della catena “Europa-vergente”, presente a N del Lineamento (Catena Nordalpina).

Nel Foglio Riva mancano del tutto gli affioramenti del basamento cristallino e metamorfico e delle sue coperture tardo paleozoiche. Nelle aree del Foglio Riva l’inversione strutturale compressiva è essenzialmente riferibile all’evoluzione post-collisionale delle Alpi.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – left, Monte Baldo – MCAL

Solo a partire dal Miocene inferiore in poi le succes- sioni dei vari comparti del Foglio vengono deformate e incorporate all’interno dei sistemi strutturali compressivi, raggiungendo nel Neogene (Messiniano e Pliocene) l’assetto strutturale attuale.

Va anche ricordato che le successioni strati- grafiche marine più recenti, affioranti nelle aree del Foglio si spingono fino alla base del Miocene (formazione del M. Brione) e che le deformazioni successive al Miocene inferiore non possono essere controllate su scala locale sulla base dei depositi sintettonici a causa della loro assenza, determinata dal sollevamento e dall’erosione dei rilievi orografici in formazione.

Nel settore centrale delle Alpi Meridionali possono essere individuati tre principali assetti strutturali corrispondenti ad altrettante aree (fig. 2).

1) La zona orientale (Dolomiti occidentali – M.ti Lessini), a E del Fiume Adige. Nelle aree centro settentrionali di tale zona, l’evoluzione tettonica e magmatica post-ercinica, tardo-paleozoica, mesozoica e cenozoica è stata intensa- mente condizionata dalle imponenti manifestazioni magmatiche intrusive ed effusive del Permiano inferiore e quelle, di minore estensione e volumi, del Triassico medio che in gran parte risultano sovrapposte alle prime nelle Dolomiti occidentali.

Tali manifestazioni sono spiegabili come espressione della tettonica disgiuntiva embrionale probabilmente connessa allo smembramento iniziale della Pangea (VEEVER, 1989). Esse preannunciano con molto anticipo il rifting continentale vero e proprio, norico-liassico, della Tetide alpina.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – left is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

Nella parte meridionale di tale zona, un contributo non trascurabile è stato determinato anche dalle manifestazioni vulcaniche del Paleogene (basalti e loro differenziati) che hanno interessato il Veneto sud-occidentale (M.ti Lessini, Euganei) estendendosi anche al Trentino occidentale (zone ad E del F. Sarca).

Tutte queste manifestazioni contribuirono a creare un vasto nucleo di crosta sudalpina assai più rigida di quelle circostanti, intensificando la resistenza alle deformazioni tettoniche in questo comparto (CASTELLARIN & VAI, 1986; CASTELLARIN et alii, 1988).

Va inoltre osservato che questo nucleo a comportamento più rigido è anche quello, apparen- temente, più profondamente incuneato entro l’edificio nordalpino lungo il Lineamento Periadriatico (tra la Linea delle Giudicarie N e la Linea della Val Pusteria).

Riva del Garda - MCAL

Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.7 Linea di Ballino

The rather straight and steep and touristically spectacular western border of Lago di Garda, as seen on my pictures of the lake/mountain, is defined by two structural elements.

A major thrust, the Sovrascorrimento di Tremosina on which Limone sul Garda is located.

And by a macro-tectonic element, called Linea di Ballino, that runs parallel to the thrust.

This Linea di Ballino extends in SSW-NNE direction and has a length of more than 200 km.

” La Linea di Ballino, documentata come faglia sinsedimentaria liassica negli anni ‘70 e ‘80, si estende con continuità e, più o meno, con il medesimo orientamento e caratteri, anche verso Nord, fino in prossimità della Linea delle Giudicarie Nord (vedi Fogli Tione e Malè). Essa prosegue anche verso sud di Riva del Garda (p. 12).”

The rocks exposed in along the lake area represent sediments of the Late Triassic – Lower Jurassic rifting. They are mainly of Early Jurassic age (201-174 my). To the west the older sediments of Hettangian age (201 – 199 my) outcrop. Along the west coast of Lago di Garda itself, including Limone sul Garda, the rocks are of Sinemurian age (199-191 my). The area to the east of the lake consists of younger sediments of Toarcian age (183-174 my).

From west to east the rocks get younger and they move upwards in age, through the Early Jurassic.

15.8 ” Le successioni norico-giurassiche (Late Triassic Norian to Jurassic),

espressione del rifting continentale che precede la nascita della Tetide alpina, sono rappresentative della complessa zona di contrapposizione tra le successioni della Piattaforma di Trento e quelle del Bacino Lombardo (p.8) ” .

Figure: Upper Triassic (Norian) – Lower Jurassic (Lias) rifting. And its structural compression and inversion in Neogene.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda – right is West border – MCAL

Riva del Garda – west flank Lago di Garda

Sediments are:

1.5. – UNITÀ NORICO – RETICHE (p.29).

Calcare di Zorzino, Argillite di Riva di Solto, Calcare di Zu (rampa carbonatica (sub)tidale, margine di piattaforma, deposito di transporto in masa).

1.6. – UNITÀ DI PIATTAFORMA DELL’INTERVALO RETICO – AALENIANO (p.32). Unita costituisce un litosoma carbonatico di piattaforma uniforme nelle litologie e tipico della sponda occidentale del Garda e dei rilievi Bresciano.

1.7. – GRUPPO DEI CALCARI GRIGI E PIATTAFORMA TOARCIANA – AALENIANA (p.34).

Costituisce un’unità sintettonica di piattaforma carbonatica tra le più classiche del Lias sudalpino. Essa si è sviluppata sotto il controllo della tettonica estensionale del rifting norico liassico.

 

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL
Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL
Geology – Limone to Riva del Garda – MCAL

15.9 Jurassic tectonic framework of the eastern border of the Lombardian basin – By Alberto Castellarin and Vincenzo Picotti

http://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?var=true&type=pdf&pid=egh-001:1990:83::930

ABSTRACT

Along the tectonic alignment Ballino-Garda a wide. N-S trending belt between the Po plain and the Tonale Line was affected by extensional tectonics linked to Liassic intracontinental rifting which disintegrated the area of the Southern Alps. i.e. the future southern continental margin of the western Tethys. The structural architecture of this belt is determined by normal master faults (very probably listric and/or domino systems) presently trending in a N-S and NNE-SSW direction and by nearly E-W trending fault systems which can be interpreted as kinematic links (transfer faults) between the different segments of the listric (or domino) major system.

Extensional tectonics prograded from W to E during the Liassic as documented by the drowning age of the peritidal carbonate shelf in the different sectors: Early Liassic (?Hettangian-Early Sinemurian) in the western parts of the belt (Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta and Sebino-Val Trompia areas); mainly Middle Liassic (?Late Sinemurian- Pliensbachian) between the western side of Lake Garda and the hills of Botticino (Brescia); mostly Late Liassic in the easternmost part of the belt. This last event marks the greatest eastward progradation of the Liassic rifting in this area.

The Liassic rifting displays a marked irregularity: to the North of Riva del Garda there is no intermediate block that was foundered around the beginning of the Middle Liassic.

Lago di Garda - Limone sul Garda - right is west flank - Overthrust / Nappe - MCAL
Lago di Garda – Limone sul Garda – right is west flank – Overthrust / Nappe – MCAL

The Liassic evolution of the Ballino Line is strongly different N and S of Riva. To the N this structure is the principal divide between the basinal Lombardian and Venetian platform domains, whilst to the S, the line did not produce a major fault scarp in the Early Liassic and there was one continuous carbonate platform from the eastern Venetian area (Calcari Grigi Formation, lower member) to the Lombardian sector (Corna Formation).

The most characteristic, complete and thick basinal Liassic successions form syntectonic sedimentary prisms which are equivalent in geometry and stratigraphie patterns in the Ballino-Gruppo di Brenta zone and in the Sebino- Val Trompia area. They are not continuous in N-S direction, but are offset along E-W trending faults. This offset runs along a major E-W trending fault system (Vies-Trat. Lenzumo and Dosso del Vento Lines) and presumably has a western prolongation in the Val Trompia Line. These discontinuities are interpreted as parts of a transfer fault system which was the Liassic kinematic link between the two segments of the belt.

Geology - Riva del Garda etc. - MCAL

Geology – Riva del Garda etc. – MCAL

Visit, enjoy, ciaooo !

15.10 Formation de la Mediterranee et des Alpes.

 

 

 

 

14. Tauromaquia y Fotografia

14. Tauromaquia y Fotografía – V.270817

Contenido

1. Introducción

1.1 Bull fighting

1.2 Tauromaquia

1.3 Dolor del Toro durante la lidia

1.4 Referencias literatura

2. Fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano

3. Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas, Madrid

4. Plaza de Toros de Almadén – Corrida Goyesca

5. Hotel Plaza de Toros de Almadén

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

1) Introducción

1.1 Bull fighting and tauromaquia is detested by many people, for many valid reasons.

If you belong to this group please stop reading this post, as you would not like the contents. Sorry about that and thank you in advance.

In a major part of Spain and also elsewhere, bull fighting and running the bulls, still has a lot of followers and fans.

Toros - Los Romero - MCAL
Los Romero, dinastía taurómaca – 1686-1839 – Ronda – MCAL

1.2 Tauromaquia es un termino que dentro del Diccionario de la Real Academia Española consta como ” el arte de lidiar toros ” (2001, p.1455).

La lidia como la conocemos en la actualidad nace en el siglo XVIII, cuando se abandona el toreo a caballo para realizarlo a pie (Todo Sobre España, 2009), siendo éste el punto de partida para la “fiesta brava”.

Bien sabido es que las corridas de toros acarrean consigo años de tradición y cultura que se ven reflejados en el fortalecimiento de las relaciones humanas (Sabios del Toreo, s.f./2009) y en la creación de obras artísticas de toda índole (López, 2007; Molina, 1998).

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

One of the most notorious fans in the past was Ernest Hemingway. Such as in the Fiestas de San Fermin, 6-14th July in Pamplona.

Hemingway - Toros - MCAL
Hemingway – Toros – MCAL

These are my own pictures on bull fighting. Made in different parts of Spain and South América.

Solo las 3 foto’s blanco-negro son del famoso fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano:

La cogida por el toro ” Islero” de Miura que causo la muerte de Manolete en Linares, 29 agosto1947; ” Que disgusto que se va a llevar mi madre ” fueron las ultimas palabras de Manolete, antes de morir.

 

Toros - MCAL
My textbook on Toros – MCAL

1.3 Dolor del toro durante la lidia

Juan Carlos Illera, Director del Departamento de Fisiología animal de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, realizó un estudio con el objetivo de investigar, por una parte, los mecanismos de respuesta al estrés en el toro de lidia, y por otra parte, si la respuesta neuroendocrina modifica el umbral de dolor de estos animales.

Para esto, se han utilizado180 toros y 120 toros lidiados todos ellos en la Plaza Monumental de las Ventas de Madrid.

“Hemos llegado a comprobar analizando los medidores del estrés como son la hormona adenohipofisaria (ACTH-hormona adrenocoricotropa) y las hormonas adrenales.

Tanto de la corteza (cortisol) como de la médula (epinefrina y norepinefrina) que, el toro presenta, durante la lidia, menor liberación de ACTH y cortisol que durante el transporte.

Lo que significa que el animal tiene una mejor respuesta al estrés. Por supuesto que el toro tiene estrés, pero con estos análisis hemos podido demostrar que éste, es significativamente más elevado, por ejemplo en el momento de salir al ruedo que durante o al completar su lidia”.

Otra parte del estudio fue intentar conocer el umbral del dolor mediante la medición de betaendorfinas en toros y novillos.

“La betaendorfina es un opiáceo endógeno y la hormona encargada de bloquear los receptores de dolor (nocireceptores) en el sitio donde éste se está produciendo, hasta que llega un momento que deja de sentirse dolor”.

1.4 Referencias literatura
Just a few references on bull fighting. There are websites and libraries full with books on tauromaquia.

A. http://www.rtve.es/noticias/20141104/fotografo-taurino-francisco-cano-canito-premio-nacional-  tauromaquia/1042226.shtml

B. http://www.abc.es/cultura/toros/20150828/abci-manolete-antes-morir-disgusto-201508271730.html

C. http://www.malagahoy.es/toros/documental-metraje-fotografo-taurino-Canito_0_653334686.html

D. https://www.casadellibro.com/libro-mitos-de-cano-canos-legends/9788493570101/1616938

E. http://www.tauroweb.es/plazas-de-toros.php?plaza_id=57

F. http://tauromaquiarte.weebly.com/origen-e-historia.html

2) El fotógrafo taurino Francisco Cano “Canito”

(Alicante, 1912) ha sido galardonado por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte con el Premio Nacional de Tauromaquia 2014 al considerar el jurado que su trabajo es “una antología gráfica de todos los hitos y manifestaciones” de la Fiesta.

Francisco Cano - Fotógrafo Taurino - MCAL
Francisco Cano – Fotógrafo Taurino – MCAL

Cano: una vida de fotografía taurina

El galardonado vivió durante la Guerra Civil en Madrid en casa de su amigo Gonzalo Guerra Banderas, quien le introdujo en el mundo de la fotografía.

Poco a poco, le fueron encargando reportajes grandes maestros de la época como Domingo Ortega, Pepe Luis Vázquez o Luis Miguel Dominguín Aunque toda su vida fue freelance, el premiado ha sido colaborador habitual de publicaciones como ABC, El Ruedo, Aplausos Marca.Mantuvo una estrecha relación con la familia Dominguín, especialmente con Luis Miguel, al que acompañó a Linares (Jaén) el 29 de agosto de 1947, en el que el fotógrafo logró el mayor éxito profesional de su carrera, al ser el único reportero que hizo un reportaje gráfico de la cogida y la muerte de Manolete. Las imágenes que tomó Cano aquella tarde y la madrugada siguiente dieron la vuelta al mundo.

Manolete - toro Islero de Miura - plaza toros Linares - MCAL
Manolete – toro Islero de Miura – plaza toros Linares – MCAL

Su fotografía de Manolete ya amortajado con el crucifijo entre las manos fue una de las imágenes que tuvo mayor repercusión en la prensa de la época y generó un gran impacto en España.

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Francisco Cano – Tauromaquía – MCAL

El jurado del Premio Nacional de Tauromaquia ha estado compuesto, además, por Luis Alberto de Cuenca, Juan Diego Vicente Hernández, María Teresa Cobaleda, Ignacio Lloret, María del Mar Mayoral, Antonio Petit Caro, Pío García-Escudero, Beatriz Badorrey y José Rodríguez Sanz-Pastor, y el torero Paco Ojeda, premiado en la anterior edición.

Córdoba - Manolete - Casa Natal
Córdoba – Manolete – Casa Natal – My own picture

Artículo: El último día de Manolete.

https://elpais.com/elpais/2018/08/27/actualidad/1535376595_474975.html

3) Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas (Las Ventas) – Madrid

Is a famous bullring located in Madrid, Spain. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Ventas)

Tauromaquia - Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

Situated in the Guindalera quarter of the district of Salamanca, it was inaugurated on June 17, 1931. It has a seating capacity of 25,000.

This bullring was designed by the architect José Espeliú in the Neo-Mudéjar (Moorish) style with ceramic incrustations. The seats are situated in ten “tendidos”. The price of the seats depends upon how close they are to the arena and whether they are in the sun or the shade (the latter being more expensive).

The bullfighting season starts in March and ends in October; bullfights are held every day during the San Isidro Fiesta, and every Sunday or holiday during the season. Bullfights start at 6 or 7pm and last for two to three hours.

“Las Ventas” is located in the east of Madrid.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

The Plaza de Toros of Las Ventas is considered the most important bullring in the world, the Mecca of bullfighting,  the arena where all matadors want to succeed.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

It is also the most demanding audience in the world, and few bullfighters reach the absolute triumph, the exit through the Puerta Grande of Madrid: less than 100 bullfighters since it opened in 1931.

Tauromaquia - Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Tauromaquia – Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

Las Ventas is a seasonal bullring, in which bullfights begin at the end of March and end in October, normally on Sundays.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

The most important bullfighting festival of the world is the Feria de San Isidro, patron of the city of Madrid, which takes place in May, with about 30 festivities.

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

For more information on times and prices of bullfights, please visit the website www.las-ventas.comg

Las Ventas - Madrid - MCAL
Las Ventas – Madrid – MCAL

4) Plaza de Toros en Almadén

La vida de los toreros observado y vivido antes, durante y después de la corrida de toros. A unique experience behind the scenes.

Corrida de Toros Goyesca - Almadén - MCAL
Corrida de Toros Goyesca – Almadén – MCAL

Patrimonio de la Humanidad desde 2012

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL

Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La Plaza de Toros de Almadén es una de las más antiguas, data del siglo XVIII (año 1755 aprox.), tras la Plaza de Toros de las Virtudes, en Santa Cruz de Mudela.

La construcción de la Plaza de Toros de Almadén está íntimamente vinculada a la del Real Hospital de Mineros de San Rafael.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCALPlaza de Toros – Almadén – Goyesca – MCAL

Es una construcción de planta hexagonal, con veinticuatro viviendas de dos plantas en su exterior, y portadas y balcones de rejería, por lo que forma un conjunto urbano verdaderamente original.

A principios de agosto de 1752, el superintendente de las minas, que por aquel entonces era D. Francisco Javier De Villegas, ante las frecuentes epidemias y la alta mortandad de la población y de los forzados que trabajaban en las minas, propuso la fundación del Real Hospital de Mineros de San Rafael.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – Puesto: Tendido 1, bajo, Barrera – MCAL

Otra curiosidad de la plaza de Almadén es la de contar con toques específicos de clarín, incluido el toque de muerte, hoy día en desuso.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – Capa para la Lidia –  MCAL

 

 

 

 

 

Por la plaza de Almadén pasaron, entre otros muchos, Curro Guillén, Juan León, “Paquiro”, “Cuchares”, “Lagartijo”, “Costillares” y Rafael Bejarano. Cuentan que se cantaba en Córdoba una coplilla, en referencia a estos últimos, que decía:

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

Arrogante Costillares,
Anda vete al Almadén
Para ver matar bien toros
Al famoso “cordobés”

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

Las antiguas viviendas se sitúan en dos plantas rodeando el coso, que está formado a su vez por dos galerías en altura, la inferior construida en arquería encalada y la superior por pies derechos, zapatas y tirantes de madera. Finalizada su rehabilitación en el año 2003, hoy día se celebran importantes festejos taurinos y alberga también el Museo Taurino, sala de exposiciones, Oficina de Turismo, restaurante y hotel.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Goyesca – Salida por la Puerta Grande – MCAL
  • Dirección: Pza. Waldo Ferrer, s/n
Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL
Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La corrida goyesca (de Ronda o de cualquier otra ciudad) está compuesta por matadores de toros, banderilleros y picadores, todos ellos vestidos con trajes goyescos, una vestimenta surgida en el Madrid del siglo XVIII y utilizada hasta el siglo XIX por su burguesía para, posteriormente, extenderse su uso al resto de España.

Plaza de Toros - Almadén - Goyesca - MCAL

Plaza de Toros – Almadén – Corrida Goyesca – MCAL

La primera corrida goyesca de Ronda se celebró con el II Centenario del nacimiento del torero Pedro Romero en el año 1954 y por influjo de Cayetano Ordóñez en la plaza de toros de Ronda, propiedad de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Ronda. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrida_goyesca_de_Ronda

Almadén - España - MCAL
Almadén – España – MCAL

5) Hotel Plaza de Toros Hotel in Almadén

(http://www.hotelplazadetoros.com/index.php?idioma=in)

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – Plaza Toros visto desde el pasillo – MCAL

Historic and Artistic Monument since 1979, has recently been declared UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the local mining heritage. Both recognitions serve to demonstrate the uniqueness and Historic- Cultural Importance of this monument, that reopens its doors renewed as a magnificent 4 Star Hotel with any luxury and comfort you could imagine.

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – MCAL

“El Trapío” Restaurant, the perfect counterpart for our Hotel, is located on the ground floor of the Bullring, with superb views of the hexagonal arena from its outdoor terrace, arranged among the seats of the bullring proper.

In our restaurant you will be able to taste a luscious cuisine, in which tradition and modernity come together with such mastery that it has become a gastronomic benchmark in the region.

La cena es realmente tanto excelente como abundante. Recomiendo por ejemplo probar el Rabo de Toro de Lidia.

El trato tanto en el restaurante como en el hotel son sobresalientes.

El gerente del hotel hasta nos reservó los mejores sitios para la corrida. Inmediatamente detrás de los toreros y de su equipo de trabajo. Donde se suelen y se permiten ubicar solo a los mas allegados de los torereos. De tal forma pudimos tener la experiencia única de ver y de vivir detrás de las escenas lo que involucra la vida de un torero. Antes, durante y después de la corrida. Durante la cual 2 cortaron orejas y salieron sobre los hombros, por la puerta grande.

Una experiencia única.

Si tienen la oportunidad alójese en este histórico hotel. Único también porque los maestros Toreros se hospedan aquí mismo. Así tuvimos la espléndida oportunidad de verlos, hablarlos y observarlos con su protocolo y costumbres particulares antes de la corrida.

La vida de un torero vivido muy de cerca.

Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén - MCAL
Hotel Plaza Toros Almadén – Corrida Goyesca -Salida por la Puerta Grande – MCAL

 

 

 

 

13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid

Metro - Poesía Subterránea - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacionál – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

13. Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – V.160817

Explorer? Discover – Madrid,  My own pictures.

L.S.,

Since I discovered this website, below attached, I have been able to consult a lot of historical manuscripts and documents that previously were unable to see or access. And that I always longed to consult. Such as the original Diary of Christopher Columbus (Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolome de las, 1474-1566. My blog Nr.6, Chapter Various). And many other manuscripts that could only be seen by visiting El Archivo de Las Indias in Sevilla.

Enjoy !

The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain’s highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

The library’s collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, and 30,000 manuscripts.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

La Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (BDH) es el portal de la BNE a través del cual se pueden consultar de forma libre y gratuita las obras digitalizadas por la Biblioteca.

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Biblioteca Nacional – Madrid – MCAL – Own pic

Los materiales disponibles incluyen libros impresos entre los siglos XV y XIX, manuscritos, dibujos, grabados, folletos, carteles, fotografías, mapas, atlas y grabaciones sonoras. Además, con la colaboración del Departamento de Música y Audiovisuales, se ha llevado a cabo una digitalización masiva de partituras.

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

Desde la BDH se accede a la aplicación de Hemeroteca Digital. Permite la consulta de 900 publicaciones de prensa. La Hemeroteca, da acceso a la colección digital de prensa histórica española que alberga la Biblioteca.

Visit, Explore, Discover & Enjoy !

http://www.bne.es/es/Inicio/

BNE - Madrid
BNE – Madrid – Own pic

12. Capas Seseña – Madrid

 

Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid - MCAL
Capas Seseña – Madrid – MCAL

12. Capas Seseña – Madrid – V.160817

Explorer ? Capas Seseña. https://lnkd.in/ggB_2Ja – My own pic. – Madrid –

https://www.sesena.com/es/

http://www.sightseeing-madrid.com/spanish-cape-capas-sesena.php

Capas Seseña, founded 1901, Calle de la Cruz 23, is the only shop in the world that sells only capes, made on premises.

La sastrería de capas más antigua del mundo. Cortando y cosiendo a mano en su taller.

Amazing, awesome.

Capas Seseña - Madrid
Capas Seseña – Madrid

King Juan Carlos, Valle Inclán, Pío Barroja, Ernest Hemingway, Gary Cooper, Federico Fellini, Marcello Mastroianni, Plácido Domingo, Hillary Clinton, Carolina Herrera, Jeff Bezos, Mar Cal etc. etc. etc. are and/or were customers.

Picasso left instructions to be buried in his Capas Seseña cape.

Special lightweight wool from Béjar, Salamanca.

Which one??

Tantos, para cada gusto uno. E.g.

Damas: Capa Paloma Negra.

Capa clásica de lana merino con esclavina.

Caballeros: Capa Pablo Claveles. Capa clásica de lana merino bordada.

Enjoy, they are timeless.

Mientras que la vida es una (1) no mas.

Capas Seseña 2 - Madrid
Capas Seseña 2 – Madrid

www.sesena.com

11. Metro Madrid & Poesia Subterránea

Metro - Poesía Subterránea - Madrid - MCAL
Metro – Poesía Subterránea – Madrid – MCAL

11. Metro Madrid & Poesia – Subterranea V.160817

Explorer? Poesía Subterránea & Besos 🖤 https://lnkd.in/ggB_2Ja

Metro Madrid – Mis propias foto’s.

Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL

” T de Tren (Subterráneo)

Madrid no tiene tranvía

ni tampoco tiene mar,

pero hay un tren y una vía

debajo de la ciudad.

Si no llueve no te mojas,

y si llueve, ! que sé yo !

Madrid no tiene tranvía,

pero sí, un Metro veloz.”

Poema de Víctor Soría, 6 marzo 2012

Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL
Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL
Madrid - Metro - MCAL
Madrid – Metro – MCAL

19. Guyana. Concerns about ExxonMobil Deal

ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil

19. Guyana. Concerns about ExxonMobil Deal. V.210817

Guyana
Guyana

Contents (4)

1. FYI, related 12 posts are nr. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. from Marcel Chin-A-Lien

2. Agreement with ExxonMobil…“Matters not if Guyana secured a good or bad deal, we got a deal…time to move on” – Minister            Jordan

3. Guidelines to Acquiring Petroleum Prospecting and Production Licenses – Fiscal Package – www.ggmc.gov.gy – 15/8/2017

4. Guyana armed with world’s leading financial and petroleum experts
Aug 17, 2017 News 0 Comments –

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1. FYI, related other 12 posts are nr. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. from Marcel Chin-A-Lien

2) Agreement with ExxonMobil…“Matters not if Guyana secured a good or bad deal, we got a deal…time to move on” – Minister Jordan

Aug 15, 2017 News 0 Comments – Re-blogged from kaieteurnewsonline.com – By Abena Rockcliffe-Campbell

Finance Winston Jordan wants Guyana to start looking ahead. He said that it makes no sense

(Photo: Minister of Finance, Winston Jordan).

continuing to waste time lamenting on whether or not Guyana may have received a good or bad deal. The Minister said that what is now important is for Guyanese to look to the future with hope for development.

Jordan hosted a press conference yesterday at his Main Street Office. At that forum, he was asked if he was happy with the deal Guyana has secured with oil giant ExxonMobil.

Jordan refused to answer the question in the simple negative or affirmative. He took a different route. The Minister told reporters, “It is not for me to be happy or unhappy.”

Jordan said that once Cabinet approves a document, all members have a collective responsibility. “If you do not like something (a Cabinet decision) and you are passionate about it, you have the option to resign. It (the agreement) has been discussed, received and approved by Cabinet. We have gone beyond that.”

The Finance Minister took the opportunity to note that there have been tremendous attempts at oil exploration in Guyana. He even referred to a time in Guyana’s history when oil was reportedly found in Takutu. The Minister said that the announcement back then about an oil find sparked much celebration. However, a few days later there was another announcement that the oil found was not commercially viable.

Cartoon Kaieteurnewsonline - August 15, 2017 - MCAL
Cartoon Kaieteurnewsonline – August 15, 2017 – MCAL

Further, Jordan sought to point out that ExxonMobil had no easy task in accessing Guyana’s oil.

The Minister noted that “ the depth of water that ExxonMobil is currently drilling in is unheard of. So they had to have specific types of technology not known to too many ”.

Jordan also made note of the level of financing that has to be available to ExxonMobil for it to carry out drilling of that magnitude. “And, I believe the further out they go will be more depth which will require even more technology.”

Jordan said that the deepest ExxonMobil ever drilled before is said to be in the Gulf of Mexico and that is nothing in comparison to the depth at which it has gone offshore Guyana.

Jordan went on to state that APNU+AFC did not have full control over what kind of deal Guyana secured. He said that the current government did not renegotiate the contract.

“ With all this issue about good deal and so on, you are making an assumption that we renegotiated the contract. That contract was already in place, we inherited that contract,” said Jordan.

The Minister summed up his discussion on the matter by saying it is time Guyanese look to the future and hope for the best. He said, “We can talk till cow come home but in going forward, we can say that discoveries not covered by this contract we have a basis to drive a harder bargain and negotiate for more. But when people are going to go (that length) it’s a risk and private people look for reward.”

Minister Jordan gave an analogy of the situation at hand. He said that someone can choose to stand up in a gambling den and look on all night. However, Jordan said that at the end of the night that person will be no richer or poorer. “But if I go with the big boys or girls and put my millions, at the end of the night I can be x millions poorer or y millions richer, it is about the risk.”

The Minister continued, “When you put all together it is not whether we got a good deal or bad deal or whatever… we got a deal.” Using another gambling metaphor, Jordan said that “hindsight will always be 20/20, but at the time you are making a deal it depends on what cards you hold and what the other person holds. If you think you have the best hand, then you can drive the bargain. At the time when this deal was put together by the last government you have to ask what cards did we hold? Did we know anything was under there?

Jordan said that while the deal has already been made, Guyana still has a chance to experience real growth.

He said, “We can discuss this over and over, but I believe the positive that you can take away is that we now have resources coming to Guyana that can finally put Guyana on the path to sustained high end development where two percent and three can become things of the past.”

The Minister noted, “It depends on how well we use these resources.”

3) Guidelines to Acquiring Petroleum Prospecting and Production Licenses – Fiscal Package – www.ggmc.gov.gy – 15/8/2017

Guyana - Guidelines for applying for an E&P license 1 - MCAL

Guyana – Guidelines To Acquiring Petroleum Prospecting and Production Licenses 1 – MCAL

Guyana - Guidelines for applying for an E&P license 2 - MCAL
Guyana – Guidelines To Acquiring Petroleum Prospecting and Production Licenses 2 – Fiscal Package – Procedures – MCAL

Important note:Not updated as per August 15, 2017, on www.ggmc.gov.gy of Guyana:

” Procedures for Petroleum Production License:Guyana has NO (???) commercial discovery for which such a license apply…..etc”.

4) Guyana armed with world’s leading financial and petroleum experts

Aug 17, 2017 News 0 Comments – Reblogged from: www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

…Trotman says advice being received on spotting loopholes

“We are being advised in terms of possible loopholes, pitfalls, areas of concern. We can’t say that we have detected or discerned any sign of the company trying to hoodwink us, but we are not going to be naïve. We are going to be prepared….”
– Minister of Natural Resources

By: Kiana Wilburg
It will be highly unlikely for USA oil giant, ExxonMobil to manipulate its books to rob the nation

(Photo: Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman)

of what is due to it, without being detected.

In fact, Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman is confident that the Government and its relevant agencies will be able to keep this multi-billion dollar and multinational company in check.

Trotman recently told Kaieteur News that Guyana is armed with some of the world’s leading financial and petroleum experts.
The politician said that Guyana is receiving expert advice from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP), Chatham House, the United States Government and even the Mexican Government.
Trotman said, “The point I am making is that we have some of the world’s leading financial and petroleum experts advising us. And so while we are not going to say we have seen no evidence of manipulation or attempts to manipulate, the government is relying on the very best international advice and expertise.”

The Natural Resources Minister also revealed that the Government is consulting with Experts from Deloitte which happens to be one of the top financial companies in the world. He said that Deloitte officials are consulting with the Ministry of Finance.
Trotman therefore feels that Guyana being fleeced by ExxonMobil is highly unlikely.

Trotman also stated that the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the IMF are expected to formulate a programme which will support those agencies in providing further advice to Guyana.

“We have met with their technical people and it has been determined that they will work out a shared responsibility in terms of advising us. We know that there are concerns and pitfalls but we are working…and as I said, we are not relying on our own judgment and understanding. We are learning and we are not leaving everything in the hands of the foreign consultants.

“But we are being advised in terms of possible loopholes, pitfalls, areas of concern. We can’t say that we have detected or discerned any sign of the company trying to hoodwink us, but we are not going to be naïve. We are going to be prepared.”
Trotman believes that the most important thing for the Government is to satisfy the Guyanese people that they are getting value for money.

EXXONMOBIL’S WORRYING PAST
This oil and gas superpower has faced a wave of litigation regarding the underpayment of royalties.
In the case of Chad, ExxonMobil was fined US$74 billion as it was ruled in the courts that the nation was underpaid in the royalties it was entitled to from the oil giant.

Research indicates that the fine itself is about five times more than Chad’s Gross Domestic Product, which the World Bank estimates at US$13 billion.
The fine imposed against the company was handed down October 5, last by the High Court in the capital, N’Djamena. The ruling was in reaction to a protest from the Finance Ministry in Chad that a group led by the ExxonMobil giant did not honour its tax commitments.

According to www.bloomberg.com, the court also demanded that the Texas-based oil explorer pay US$819 million in overdue royalties.
Legal minds believe that Chad would not see most of the money as ordered by the court.
ExxonMobil has since said that it disagreed with the Chadian court’s ruling. At the time of the judgment, it was examining other options.

Additionally, in 2003, ExxonMobil was found to be defrauding the state of Alabama out of royalty payments and was ordered by the courts to pay up more than US$100 million in back-pay royalties.

According to www.classaction.org., in August 2012, a Kansas judge approved a US$54 million settlement with landowners who claimed they were underpaid royalties when ExxonMobil made deductions for expenses that occurred downstream of their wells.
The settlement also ended a lawsuit filed in Kansas state court against ExxonMobil over royalties dating back to 2000.

 

 

10. Tower of Babel and Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

5. Tower of Babel and Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

3. Post on LinkedIn. By Mr. Ashley Church, Social and Economic Commentator, august 7, 2017

4. Do we think different in different languages ?

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See Menu-Chapter <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1. Introduction

Being multi-lingual and multi-cultural can generate a lot of special advantages. For your personal life, career, for doing business etc..

It allows you to connect and to communicate in a genuine way with many people and cultures on this globe.

To swiftly cross boundaries (lingual, cultural, mental, geographical) that so often constrain and divide us.

These musings are based and inspired by my own history as a ” native multi-lingual-cultural global citizen “.

It represents my personal point of view. Based on what I have experienced as a varied, interesting and privileged language and life experience.

I wish to share this story with you, hope its serves you.

Enjoy !

Multi-lingual - MCAL
Multi-lingual – MCAL

Background, Why?

I was lucky to grow up in a fully multi-cultural-lingual society, on a small island and hard rock in the emerald blue Caribbean sea.

An island of just 444 square kilometres with 150.563 inhabitants representing many different nationalities, in all the colors of the rainbow.  That fully communicate with each other and that live and dance carnival, salsa and bachata most peacefully together.

A small Paradise.

With 37 awesome beaches.

Such as my/our favourite spot since many decades (http://piratebaycuracao.com/nl/) .

Where you can enjoy unforgettable sunsets.

While eating a fresh catch-of-the-day piska korá or red snapper. Drinking a few Heineken beers, or a bottle of ron Diplomático. Getting additional inspiration with Despacito of Luis Fonsi & Daddy Yankee, swinging salsa, bachata and reggae music on the background.

Dushi Korsow - Sunset - Bachata fish restaurant - MCAL
Dushi Korsow – Sunset – Bachata fish restaurant – MCAL

Discovered by Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda. September 7th, 1499. ” Isla de los Gigantes “.

As part of the third voyage of Christophorus Columbus, beginning 30th May in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain. When Columbus officially discovered the South American continent. The 31th July 1498, Trinidad and a few days later Paria, Venezuela.

The New World, Las Indias, discovered ” In Nomine Domini Nostri Ihesu Christi ” in 1492, according to Columbus’ diary. Fortunately incorporated in the iconic ” Historia de Indias ” from Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. The original manuscript is safeguarded in la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid.

At the dawn, stepping out of the dark Late Middle Ages and entering the bright sunny Early Renaissance, in 1499.

Then for many renowed scientists and clever people, this globe was still flat.

Flat as my favourite Dutch sweet pancake in restaurant Oudt Leyden, 110 years old, in my Alma Mater Leiden, Holland.

Flat as my favourite Vera Pizza and the Mastunicola, most delicious pizza’s in ” Antica Pizzeria Port’Alba “. The oldest pizzeria in Napoli nella bella Italia and the world’s first pizzeria, 187 years young.

Curaçao, Dushi Korsow in Papiamento, my native island (https://youtu.be/jd-n0aT9RV0.).

Curaçao - Historical map - MCAL
Curaçao – Historical map – MCAL

During my childhood and as a teenager, already before leaving for university studies abroad, most of us on Korsow would daily speak and fluently communicate in many languages across cultures.

Many ???

Up to seven (7).

Dutch, Sranan Tongo, Papiamento at and around home.

Spanish, English, already compulsory on primary school.

French, German on secondary / high school.

Seven (7).

Those friends that studied at the ” Gymnasium ” included Old Greek and Latin.

Nine (9) for some.

Multi-lingual - MCAL6
Multi-lingual – MCAL6

In the Netherlands I added la preziosa lingua Italiana from Dante Alighieri.

La lingua Italiana ?

La Lingua Italiana insegnati agli Straineri, A. Rincari – C. Brighenti, 288 pages. As self-obliged preparation in Alma Mater Leiden for my 6 months doctoraal fieldwork nella Bella Italia.

Guyana - Guidelines for applying for an E&P license 2 - MCAL
Lingua Italiana – MCAL

Dovè?

Parco naturale Rocciavre – Orsiera, Rifugio Selleries, 2023 metri (www.rifugioselleries.it).

Per chiacchiarare tutti gli giorni.

Con Madama Lida, Giácomo, Lida, Lida Jr. (ciao Bella, dove siete, a Roma?), Marisa, Silvana, Giovanna, Tonino, pastore famiglia Agu, Giovanni, Mario, Blengino  etc. etc.. (Carissimi amici, ci vediamo fra poco, su Selleries…ciao). Anche per godere dalla Dolce Vita, con Barbera, Barolo e Dolcetto d’Alba.

Portuguese, (…well, boy, you never know, you may need it as a global geologist……). Both languages by self study in the language lab of the Languages Department of the University.

Russian, Русского Языка?

Private classes from Ирина and Галина during 2y, for my work. In addition classes at the university.

For projects in Russia, Moscow, Siberia, Caucasus area (…Dagestan..) and Yamal Peninsula.

Учебник Русского Языка 1,2 - Головоломки 1,2 - По Пути - Словаръ - Марсел Чин-А-Лин
Учебник Русского Языка 1,2 – Головоломки 1,2 – По Пути – Словаръ – Марсел Чин-А-Лин

Practical also to correctly order caviar in the restaurants.

To buy the Russian Siberian silver and red fox fur hats.

To search for Cien Años de Soledad, the translated version in Russian in Дом Кпига, the only gigantic library in town, in Москва or Moscow.

To buy a pizza, in the first Pizza Hut.

Red & Silver Fox Fur Hat - Shawl - Moscow - Siberia - MCAL
Red & Silver Fox Fur Hat – Shawl – from Moscow – Siberia – MCAL

Seven (7) months before Michael Gorbachov left office as President of the Soviet Union. When the СССР or USSR still existed. Though, communism on the brink to capitalism by perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness).

Seventy four (74) years after the October revolution?

Negotiating and signing the first contracts between capitalists and communists. With Herbert Hunt, co-owner and the BOED of Dallas-based Placid Oil. First entrans, Siberia and Moscow, May 1991.

South African ?

Resembles Dutch and is easy to understand for a Dutchman, e.g. while in Cape Town. This as 90 % of the words are of Dutch origin (…such as apartheid…).

I have greatly benefitted from my multiple language toolkit.

To make it a bit more interesting and sustainable ?

I ventured to combine it with my profession, multiple (4) petroleum exploration related university postgrad disciplines.

Braincrafting my signature multiple-energy-work-toolkit.

In my elusive quest and endeavour to become a global Explorer.

Why ??

It enabled me to communicate, to interact in an personal way, to make genuine friends, on their specific frequency, in their own language.

To do business with many different people, to feel at home and to integrate in many diverse countries on this globe.

Above all it gave me Freedom.

Freedom to talk, write and communicate with my own mouth, hand and brains with many different people, cultures and countries.

Freedom to think, read and feel in other languages and cultures.

Freedom to become an explorer. To discover new things wherever I was and every day. I did it my way.

Freedom and ability to feel and to be at home, to have great fun, to be happy together with many others in the different places where I have been on Earth.

This in addition to my native Paradise Curacao.

Freedom?

” Freedom’s just another word for nothin’ left to lose.
Nothin’, ain’t worth nothin’ but it’s free “.

It also seems to protect against dementia ??

Multi-lingual - MCAL
My 102y dearest & lovely Mom – Multi-5-Languages – Have never met Dr. Dementia – Casino – Up to recently: Daily 19 – 23 p.m. – Tan bun – Ajoo – Cheers – Gezondheid – MCAL

And it saves you from being a narrow, self-confined ” lingual and cultural autist ” ?

Similar to the Blue-and-Yellow Macaw or Ara Ararauna?

Locked-up in a cage.

With a tiny future of 2 cubic metres, 2 metres high. Depressed eyes. Exclaiming only his 3 learned phrases, day after day, year after year.

Like waiting in Death Row, in Folsom Prison. Ill-fated, cursed and imprisoned just because of his really precious colors.

Formerly, a free man, flying and living a most happy life with his partner, such as in Arapahu, deep in the Amazon jungle.

Now confined and sentenced to speak only 3 sentences.

In this contemporary world with a new species denominated ” global citizins “.

Multi-lingual - MCAL
Multi-lingual – MCAL

Very special for me is to be able to read, understand, feel, taste, smell and palpate the nuances, in its original language, for example of:

Cien Años de Soledad of Gabriél García Marquez, Español.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream of Shakespeare, English.

Les Fleurs du mal of Charles Baudelaire, langue Française

Il Paradiso of Dante Alighieri, Italiano.

Os Lusíadas of Luís Vaz de Camões, Português.

Hé Patu of Ellis Juliana, Papiamento.

Ala poewema foe Trefossa, Sranan Tongo.

Perestroika of Gorbachov, Русского Языка.

Etc. etc. etc.

Multi-lingual - MCAL7
Multi-lingual – MCAL7

Benefits of being multilingual and multicultural ?

Re: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160811-the-amazing-benefits-of-being-bilingual

> I have greatly benefitted from my own language tool kit.

> It enabled me to communicate, to interact in an authentic way, to make genuine friends in their own language, to do business with many different people. To gain cross-cultural understanding. To integrate, to feel at home and to be happy in many countries on this globe.

> It adds a special dimension to your communication with people and with friends.

> Each language gives you a whole new lifestyle, a whole new shade of meaning.

” To have another language is to possess a second soul.” Charlemagne (742/7 – 814), King of the Franks.

> Speaking a different language, whether it’s your grandparents’ tongue or high-school Spanish, fundamentally changes the structure of your brain.

> Put a bunch of these malleable minds together in a company, and you create the potential for some truly original thinking.(https://qz.com/927660/people-who-speak-multiple-languages-make-the-best-employees-for-one-big-reason/)

> Observations of multi-language work teams show that mixed-language groups have a propensity to find innovative solutions for practical problems. This is because they use a range of communication strategies in flexible and dynamic ways.

> Please see, Linguanomics: What is the Market Potential of Multilingualism ? by Gabrielle Hogan-Brun – http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/linguanomics-9781474238298/

It also protects and delays against dementia.

My dear 100y Mom - MCAL
My dear 102y Mom – Multi-5-lingual – MCAL

> I can therefore certainly fully recommend, get multi-lingual and multi-cultural.

( http://www.multilingualliving.com/2010/10/18/9-ways-to-keep-language-learning-going/ )

> It makes life much more varied and interesting.

Multi-lingual - MCAL2
Multi-lingual – MCAL2

2) Tower of Babel & Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizens

2.1 Why the world’s peoples speak different languages ?

From Wikipedia:

The Tower of Babel is a Near Eastern account recorded in the Book of Genesis. It is meant to explain why the world’s peoples speak different languages.

According to the story, a united humanity in the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating eastward, comes to the land of Shinar. There they agree to build a city and a tower tall enough to reach heaven God, observing their city and tower, confounds their speech so that they can no longer understand each other, and scatters them around the world.

Some modern scholars have associated the Tower of Babel with known structures, notably the Etemenanki , a ziggurat dedicated to the Mesopotamian god Marduk by Nabopolassar, the king of Babylonia circa 610 BCE. The Great Ziggurat of Babylon was 91 metres (300 ft) in height. Alexander the Great ordered it to be demolished circa 331 BCE in preparation for a reconstruction that his death forestalled. A Sumerian story with some similar elements is told in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.

2.2 The amazing benefits of being bilingual

Reference: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160811-the-amazing-benefits-of-being-bilingual

Multi-lingual - MCAL3
Multi-lingual – MCAL3

Just a few quotes of this extensive article, that explains the advantage of knowing different languages. In many aspects it resembles my own experience.

> Around the world, more than half of people, estimates vary from 60 to 75 per cent,  speak at least two languages.

> Many countries have more than one official national language. South Africa has 11. People are increasingly expected to speak, read and write at least one of a handful of “super” languages, such as English, Chinese, Hindi, Spanish or Arabic, as well.

> To be monolingual, as many native English speakers are, is to be in the minority, and perhaps to be missing out.

Multilingualism has been shown to have many social, psychological and lifestyle advantages.

Moreover, researchers are finding a swathe of health benefits from speaking more than one language, including faster stroke recovery and delayed onset of dementia.

> What will happen if the current rich diversity of languages disappears and most of us end up speaking only one? The first words ever uttered may have been as far back as 250,000 years ago, once our ancestors stood up on two legs and freed the ribcage from weight-bearing tasks, allowing fine nerve control of breathing and pitch to develop.

> And when humans had got one language, it wouldn’t have been long before we had many. Language evolution can be compared to biological evolution, but whereas genetic change is driven by environmental pressures, languages change and develop through social pressures. Over time, different groups of early humans would have found themselves speaking different languages. Then, in order to communicate with other groups – for trade, travel and so on – it would have been necessary for some members of a family or band to speak other tongues.

> Research in the last decade by neurologists, psychologists and linguists, using the latest brain-imaging tools, is revealing a swathe of cognitive benefits for bilinguals. It’s all to do with how our ever-flexible minds learn to multitask.

> Bilingual children did better than monolinguals in both verbal and non-verbal intelligence tests.

> Psycholinguistics pioneer, Susan Ervin-Tripp concluded (1960) that human thought takes place within language mindsets, and that bilinguals have different mindsets for each language – an extraordinary idea but one that has been borne out in subsequent studies, and many bilinguals say they feel like a different when they speak their other language.

Mental muscles: In fact, says cognitive neuropsychologist Jubin Abutalebi, at the University of San Raffaele in Milan, it is possible to distinguish bilingual people from monolinguals simply by looking at scans of their brains. “Bilingual people have significantly more grey matter than monolinguals in their anterior cingulate cortex, and that is because they are using it so much more often,” he says. The ACC is like a cognitive muscle, he adds: the more you use it, the stronger, bigger and more flexible it gets.

My 100y Mom - Multi (5) Languages - Still Going Super Strong - MCAL
My dearest and loving 101y Mom – Multi (5) Languages – Mental Muscles Going Super Strong Since 1917 – Gracias a Dios – MCAL

> But perhaps the most exciting benefit of bilingualism occurs in ageing, when executive function typically declines: bilingualism seems to protect against dementia.bilingualism should be encouraged”.

> As for the financial benefits, one estimate puts the value of knowing a second language at up to 128,000 US dollars over 40 years.It is never too late to learn another tongue, and it can be very rewarding.

> Alex Rawlings is a British professional polyglot who speaks 15 languages:

“ Each language gives you a whole new lifestyle, a whole new shade of meaning,” he says. “ It’s addictive! ”

2.3 The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual – from www.dana.org/Cerebrum/2012/

Today, more of the world’s population is bilingual or multilingual than monolingual.

In addition to facilitating cross-cultural communication, this trend also positively affects cognitive abilities. Researchers have shown that the bilingual brain can have better attention and task-switching capacities than the monolingual brain, thanks to its developed ability to inhibit one language while using another.

In addition, bilingualism has positive effects at both ends of the age spectrum: Bilingual children as young as seven months can better adjust to environmental changes, while bilingual seniors can experience less cognitive decline.

Being bilingual can have tangible practical benefits.

The improvements in cognitive and sensory processing driven by bilingual experience may help a bilingual person to better process information in the environment, leading to a clearer signal for learning.

This kind of improved attention to detail may help explain why bilingual adults learn a third language better than monolingual adults learn a second language.

Multi-lingual - MCAL4
Multi-lingual – MCAL4

Conclusion

The cognitive and neurological benefits of bilingualism extend from early childhood to old age as the brain more efficiently processes information and staves off cognitive decline.

What’s more, the attention and aging benefits discussed above aren’t exclusive to people who were raised bilingual; they are also seen in people who learn a second language later in life.

The enriched cognitive control that comes along with bilingual experience represents just one of the advantages that bilingual people enjoy. Despite certain linguistic limitations that have been observed in bilinguals (e.g., increased naming difficulty7), bilingualism has been associated with improved metalinguistic awareness (the ability to recognize language as a system that can be manipulated and explored), as well as with better memory, visual-spatial skills, and even creativity.

Furthermore, beyond these cognitive and neurological advantages, there are also valuable social benefits that come from being bilingual, among them the ability to explore a culture through its native tongue or talk to someone with whom you might otherwise never be able to communicate.

The cognitive, neural, and social advantages observed in bilingual people highlight the need to consider how bilingualism shapes the activity and the architecture of the brain, and ultimately how language is represented in the human mind, especially since the majority of speakers in the world experience life through more than one language.

> References (3):

European Commission Special Eurobarometer. (2006). Europeans and their languages. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf3.

Associated Press. (2001). Some facts about the world’s 6,800 tongues. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://articles.cnn.com/2001-06-19/us/language.glance_1_languages-origin-tongues?_s=PM:US11. Abutalebi, J., Pasquale, A. D. R., Green, D. W., Hernandez, M., Scifo, P., Keim, R., Cappa, S. F., & Costa, A. (2011).

Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring. Cerebral Cortex  doi:10.1093/cercor/ bhr287

This subject relates for example to attached post and interesting opinion on Linkein by Mr. Ashley Church.

Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizin - New Breed - MCAL
Multi-Lingual-Cultural Global Citizin – New Breed of citizin’s – MCAL

3) Post on Linkedin by Mr. Ashley Church, Social and Economic Commentator – august 7, 2017

There’s a 16th Century quote attributed to Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, which goes something like this: “I speak Latin to God, Italian to musicians, Spanish to women, French at the Court, German to my servants and English to my horses”.

While the quote is almost certainly wrong – the principle behind this version of it is sound – suggesting, as it does, that back then the German and English languages were ‘unworthy’ and beneath the ‘nobel’ classes.

Br Exiting & Exited to become bi-Lingual - BBC - MCAL
Br-Exiting & Excited to become bi-Lingual – BBC – MCAL

How times have changed.

English is now, indisputably, the international language and the means by which vast numbers of us communicate. It’s either spoken as a native tongue – or used as the intermediary language between two other languages.

There are probably a range of cumulative reasons for this – particularly, the influence of the British Empire which exerted influence over at least a quarter of the worlds population for over 300 years – and more recently, the rise of the US at a time which coincided with mass communication and the worldwide cultural influence of ‘Hollywood’.

Whatever the reason, it’s a phenomenon which is leading us inexorably, to a day when we will all speak the same language – either directly, or with the aid of technology…..

4) Do we think different in different languages?

https://www.bbc.com/ideas/videos/do-we-think-differently-in-different-languages/p07ry35k

18. Guyana – How much money will Guyana receive – All Hands On Oil – Concerns ExxonMobil’s Agreement

18. Guyana – How much money will Guyana receive – All hands on Oil – Concerns ExxonMobil’s Agreement – V.150817

From “Rags to Riches”, “ a nation that did not expect to win the lotto”, “ soon to be the richest corner of South America”.

Ahead ?

The prime goal and objective ?

Convert these 8 billion barrel recoverable (@ Febr. 2020, 15 discovery wells, proceeds and income in equal, high prosperity, happiness and excellent qualty of life for all Guyanese.

In 2045 ?

Yeahhh, we have achieved it, we are definitely a high developed, rich country. Comparable with e.g. Singapore.
Just come and see with your own eyes. And check. Our high level of infrastructure, modern roads, bridges, housing facilities, education, hospitals, hotels, airport, social welfare system, etc. etc.

Hopefully !

1. Introduction – by Marcel Chin-A-Lien

2. Petroleum Geology Offshore Guyana – March 2017 – from Newell Dennison.

3. All hands on oil – August 3, 2017 – Reblogged from Verian Mentis-Barker.

4. Guyana: will its oil boom benefit the people ? Al Jazheera, Video, July 30, 2018

1) Introduction by Marcel Chin-A-Lien – For further info, also see my other posts on Guyana, in Chapter Petroleum Exploration

1.1. Guyana. Concerns about arrangement with ExxonMobil.

1.2. How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil’s offshore oil production?

1.1 Guyana. Concerns about arrangement with ExxonMobil.

The contents of the arrangement that the Guyana Government in 1999, has signed and apparently recently renegotiated with ExxonMobil, has never been published (P.D.@ december 2017: finally published by Guyana Government; this blog was written august 15, 2017).

(P.D.1, inserted August 15, 2017 – kaieteursnewsonline.com – Abena Rockcliffe-Campbell :“ With all this issue about good deal and so on, you are making an assumption that we renegotiated the contract. That contract was already in place, we inherited that contract,” said Jordan.

P.D. 2, The arrangement was finally released and published in december 2017, after much pressure from the Guyanese society.

My observations in this post of august 2017 are nonetheless still valid. In the course of 2018 I will publish my personal full observations on the published contract).

The first contract was signed on or around June 14th 1999 by Mrs. Janet Jagan.

With the appendage of Her Excellency and President (Re. V. Mentis Barker – All hands on oil, august 3, 2017).

FYI.: Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918 – 1997) was minister-president (1957-1964) and president (1992-1997) of Guyana.

Janet Jagan – Rosenberg (1920-2009) was the wife of Cheddi Jagan, married in 1943. She was president of Guyana from december 1997 – august 1999 and signed the first contract.

MInister Trotman recently declared that his government had decided that ” it was not in national interest to discuss contract details at this time ” (kaieteurnewsonline.com).

Therefore there is anno 2020, 21 years later, a lot of uncertainty and public discussions on the arrangement, on its exact content, on transparency. Amongst all the stakeholders, inhabitants and de facto “owners” of their own natural resources, regarding this important item.

This to know for example how much money Guyana would get from its offshore production.

In 1998, also when Mrs. Janet Jagan was president, Guyana signed an arrangement (PPL) with CGX.
My educated-guess is that the arrangement signed with ExxonMobil in 1999 could resemble the arrangement signed previously with CGX.

The contents of this PPL can be found by researching Internet publications.
The Petroleum Prospecting License (PPL) was signed between CGX Energy,Inc.(Company) and the Government of Guyana (Government) on June 24, 1998.

The main articles/clauses are:

  1. Cost recovery production allocation is as follows.
    Maximum Cost Recovery is 75% during the first 3 years.
  2. Afterwards 65%.
  3. Profit Oil Split (Developer Share):
  4. During the first 5 years, 50% for the first 40,000 b/d.
  5. And 47% for Production above 40,000 b/d.
  6. After 5 years, 45 % for all production.
  7. The Developer does not pay income tax (…what a blessing from Heaven…there are almost no places on this globe where no income tax is paid…).
  8. The PPL provides that the income tax is paid from the Government’s share of the profit oil (…what a piece of cake for contractors, CGX and/or ExxonMobil, how beautiful negotiated).
  9. The Company has an exemption from VAT, exercise taxes, duties, fees, levies and from property tax.
  10. The Company does not pay royalty. ***
  11. This is considered to be included in the Government’s share of profit oil.
  12. (…what a piece of cake for CGX and/or ExxonMobil).
  13. This was apparently re-negotiated with ExxonMobil in 2016.
  14. Was upgraded from 0% formerly to 2% presently.
  15. In my opinion this is still very/far to low.
  16. I would suggest/negotiate if I were to be in the negotiating team, at least 6.5% in post-2017 Licenses. This is almost standard in surrounding areas.

(*** Also see: Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 1986 – Act. No. 3 of 1986. And Act No. 4 of 1992:

that is an Amendment of only section 51 in the previous act 1986,  ” Part V – Financial – Royalty on petroleum obtained under license “:

45 (1) Subject to this Act, the holder of a petroleum production license shall, in accordance with his license and this Act, pay to the Government royalty in respect of petroleum obtained by him in the production area to which the licence relates. vs.

50 (1) Royalty payable pursuant to section 45 and any penalty under section 48 is a debt due to the State and recoverable in the same manner as revenues due to the State ***).

Inserted comment: how beautiful is life. You first pay royalty. And immediately recover it back. What is the purpose ? To earn royalty and to give it back immediately?
Do not understand this. Cannot believe it.

17. Training expenses of US$ 40,000 per year are required, only during the exploration period. These are qualified as exploration expenses. A very low amount.

17. Annual license rental payments of US$ 40,000 per year are required during the exploration and production period. An extremely low amount.

In my opinion this represents a very good deal (arrangement) for the Company.
And a rather ” inconvenient deal ” for the Government.

Tip that can benefit a country with billions of US$:

Always be so diligent to first design, negotiate and only later sign your own PSC.
Customised with those clauses and articles you wish to have.
Consult e.g. with a clever and seasoned PSC and E&P specialists and advisors with worldwide experience. Once signed it is extremely difficult to change and adapt it substantially. It can yield you really billions US$ extra income, a good contract.

From what I perceive from internet publications the Government did recently renegotiate the original PPL with ExxonMobil and obtained somewhat better conditions.
Including a royalty (2%) and possibly a 50% – 50% overall share.

(P.D. August 15, 2017 – kaieteursnewsonline.com – Abena Rockcliffe-Campbell :“ With all this issue about good deal and so on, you are making an assumption that we renegotiated the contract. That contract was already in place, we inherited that contract,” said Jordan.)

One would assume that the original 1999 PPL was rather favourable for ExxonMobil. Given that it was signed in a period when there was relatively little interest of IOC’s in offshore Guyana.
As is usual in such cases and in high risk, still non-oil-proven basins, it is to be assumed that Guyana has granted rather favourable (“soft”) conditions to ExxonMobil. In order to attract exploration investments with a clear work program, including seismic and drilling.

Present 2020 situation.

From “Rags to Riches”, “a nation that did not expect to win the lotto”, “soon to be the richest corner of South America”.

As a blessing from Heaven and the El Dorado, the subsurface of the prolific Guiana-Suriname Basin.
In tandem with the splendid assistance of ExxonMobil and their superb team of explorationists and drillers. Already 15 discoveries on a row. Unbelievable. Never seen earlier in a virgin exploration area. Chapeau, top.

Completed with a contract already signed in 1999 Guyana is now beginning to reap the benefits of an unprecedented oil boom.

Much has been debated on the 1999 Petroleum Agreements.

Very good, necessary, lessons learned?

More important now.

The way ahead?

Now that it has become a proven basin, it is a different ball game.

Disclaimer.

This is strictly my personal opinion as an independent global petroleum and mineral resources explorationist. And its related business. commercial, strategy and policy development.

It represents what I would recommend or aim to achieve myself.

If I were part of a Country negotiation or any other team.

(…Sure, if I was sitting on the IOC/Contractor side, as I have so often been.

Then it would negotiate the reverse, most certainly…But that is the game of doing business…

The smartest guy wins.

The innocent, weak and poorly prepared guy looses.

The ” fittest survives “, as Darwin already stated in his famous evolution theory in 1895).

  1. Contracts with new entrants could / should be negotiated with a much better share for Guyana.
  2. Focussing on items as the royalty percentage: least 6.5%.
  3. Mind you:
  4. Sixty one (61) relevant (sub-)articles and clauses are omitted. Not included and not defined in this slender contract.
  5. These all cover items that can/will have an impact. Such as on profit share, environment and fluent, efficient management of the petroleum assets, by the host country.
  6. Ring fencing:
  7. Mind you, does not even appear in the Definitions. Should have been included on page 7. Was omitted, on business as usual purpose, by ExxonMobil ?? Though, financially could/will be impacting positively on cost recovery purposes for the IOC; and negatively for Guyana. For example to prevent costs of dry holes being carried over to that of successful wells.
  8. Article 10 – p.25, Annual License Rental Charge: US $ 1 million. Far to low. A real piece of cake for such an unusual massive area. Could be some US $ 20 million.
  9. Dutch fees (” Dutch treats”) in the Netherlands licenses vary around 500 Euro’s/km2/year (with a sliding, increasing scale).
  10. Possibility for State oil participation, step-in, in production phase: not provided for, as is usual in PSC’s, e.g. up to 25%.
  11. Work obligations for contractors are to low.
  12. Ceiling for cost recovery, can be adapted/lowered.
  13. Above all:
  14. Drastically optimise Guyana’s Profit Share:
  15. From  ‘ Profit Oil “,
  16. With a sliding scale, immediately after the IOC has recouped it’s investments from the ” cost oil ” .
  17. For Guyana Profit Oil Share for example the following sliding R-Factor Slices:
  18. 1) 0-1.25
  19. 2) 1.25- 1.50
  20. 3) 1.50- 1.75
  21. 4) 1.75 – 2.0
  22. 5) 2 – 3
  23. 6) > 3
  24. This would yield a sliding and gradually increasing Guyana Share (%) of respectively 20, 25,30, 40, 50, 70.
  25. Plus the flat, fixed royalty.
  26. The fixed royalty could be sliding scale royalty, increasing as production increases.
  27. Financing: Insurance premiums can be fully recovered. Also interests on loans and financing costs.
  28. Include a pre-funding arrangement for decomissioning expenses at the end.
  29. Income tax: Government pays the income tax of the IOC. Out of the country profit share.Wow, what a deal, never seen this before. Say a Dutch Treat in the PSC.
  30. Total profits ? Much, much higher, up to some 70%; how many billions US$ does this represent ? Just calculate, run your own cash flow and revenue model.
  31. Much better, higher (really billions US$) than with the actual Agreements.
  32. That have just 2% Royalty.
  33. And a flat 50% from cost oil, for host country share.
  34. Calculate how the revenue through time would be for Guyana in following case:
  35. Given some 8 billion barrels reserves (…at February 2020 and much more to come…). A production increasing from of 100.00 in 2020 up to 1.2 million barrels in the near future (2025).
  36. As a comparison, with Suriname, next door. Still frontier, not-proven offshore @ august 2018. First significant offshore discovery in Block 58 in january 2020. Most contracts signed before the 2015 Liza discovery.

    Operators in Suriname are obliged to pay a royalty equivalent to 6.25% of gross production value and corporate tax at a rate of 36%.

  37. Financial Engineering:
  38. Valuation and cash flow modelling
  39. In tandem with the expected/prognosed production profiles from the prospects & leads in the-to-be-licenced-areas and in existing fields.
  40. The Fiscal Regime/clauses in the PSC has/have to be flexible, not static.
  41. Why? Adapted to the prognosed prospectively of each block and license. These (can) rank very different in prospectivity.
  42. This includes using exploration and production geology, geophysics, reservoir engineering, that are fundamental.
  43. ???
  44. The best results that I myself could obtain was in the following setting:
  45. An efficient negotiation & fiscal regime team has to consist of merely technical capable persons (…no politicians, unless they have this following knowledge), thus:
  46. An integrated multi-disciplinary team.
  47. Including and where All individuals have extensive grounded knowledge of following 7 (seven) items:
  48. Petroleum exploration and production geology (1)
  49. Reservoir production engineering (2)
  50. Geophysics (3)
  51. Petroleum Sharing Contracts and Fiscal modelling (4)
  52. Contract negotiations (5)
  53. Petroleum laws (6)
  54. (7) Environmental clauses in the present PSC do not cover all possible casualties and clear responsibilitues for the Operator/Contractor:
  55. Social Responsibility and the protection of the Environment.
  56. Article 28. Sub-Articles 28.1 to 28.6, page 63 and 64:
  57. Just 40 sentences. 
  58. In case of a major oil spill ? That could reach neighbouring countries as Venezuela, Trinidad, Barbados etc. in some 48 hours with the westward flowing Gulf stream.
  59. What if ?
  60. Such as in the 2010, with Macondo, 3.2m barrels  oil spill.
  61. Cost BP 13.8 bn US$ in damages @ January 2015 New Orleans courts
  62. Additionally the Clean Water Act penalties would come on top of the more than US$ 42 bn that BP set aside or spent for clean-up, compensation and fines.
  63. BP Macondo fine
    BP Macondo fine – 17 feb 2020, Bloomberg Businessweek, Joe Nocera, pp. 70-71,
  64. By the time you are not Friends but rather big Enemies, and in Court?
  65. Because of all the claims from neighbouring countries due to environmental damages caused by a/your major oil spill.
  66. Do the meager 40 sentences of Article 28 cover and safeguard and cover All your country interests ? Sure about that ?
  67. Will you win a possible (many, many billions US$) lawsuit with just these 40 sentences and 1.2 pages of text in your trembling hands ???
  68. Personally I have my most, most serious doubts.
  69. My own Article on Environment would cover all these casualties. Such as also in the past negotiated for Clients that I served. 
  70. Faites vos jeux, international and petroleum law specialists.
  71. You would by then be in the driver’s seat. In Court.
  72. In case of an oil spill
  73. (…But, sure…you would be in Gold Rush Business. Making lots, millions and millions of money… for legal advise and corresponding fees…from your Clients…during many, many years…).

The main objective of Guyana should be to maximise its petroleum wealth by encouraging appropriate levels of offshore activities.
To this end Guyana must design a robust fiscal system with for example the following characteristics.

It should provide a fair return for both the state and the international companies. It has to be clear and avoid undue speculation, just as is now frequently surfacing in the press. Administration has to be efficient without undue rules, permits and burdens. At the same time it should provide enough flexibility and create a healthy, competitive competition and market efficiency.

Guyana Oil Boom - Sovereign Wealth Fund - - from www.kaieteurnewsonline.com - MCAL
Guyana Oil Boom – Sovereign Wealth Fund – – from www.kaieteurnewsonline.com – MCAL

A much different Petroleum Sharing Contract (Petroleum License Agreement) is certainly highly recommended in my opinion.

Designed and ” financially & subsurface potential engineered ” to produce a contemporary, ” larger and higher fair share distribution and fractionation ” for Guyana and IOC’s.

Compare with 130 PSC’s on www.resourcecontracts.org.                                                 A directory of Petroleum & Mineral Contracts; https://www.resourcecontracts.org/search?q=&country%5B%5D=GY (8 Guyana contracts)

(Inserted note @ May 2018:

I published this blog in august 2017. On my site and on Linkedin.

During 2017 IMF elaborated a confidential report for the Guyana Government (Nov. 2017). Unfortunately it is not published on internet. Apparently it includes the main and same observations that I made before in my blog.

Morale:

Most important PSC items for offshore exploration and production one can figure out on its own. Or with just a small seasoned technical team.

One does not need a whole (…super expensive…) IMF team to ” unveil ”  the most important items.

But just a few seasoned global explorers.

One way to do this is to first develop a clear view of the leads, prospects and play types that Guyana’s offshore acreage has and can offer to IOC’s. This is geology, geophysics, reservoir and production engineering.

Especially on what their expected rewards potential is (subsurface areal OIP – GIP and financial – NPV, cash flow).

Align and link the potential of the different licensing areas with specific corresponding PSC clauses. Customised PSC profit share scales. Not a static fiscal profit share scheme, for all the differing/different leads, prospects, licences.. 

This is usually and frequently done.

Myself I had the opportunity to contribute, with this licensing strategy and philosophy, in other areas, such as nearby Guyana. Where PSC’s have been signed optimal for the home country.

Otherwise you give away for free billions of €€€ and $$$ that you want & need to have in your very own pocket.

Cartoon Kaieteurnewsonline - August 15, 2017 - MCAL
Cartoon Kaieteurnewsonline – August 15, 2017 – MCAL

 

1.2 How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil’s offshore oil production, Liza Phase 1?

Guyana - Revenues - Liza Phase 1 Development
Guyana – Revenues – Liza Phase 1 Development – ExxonMobil figure.

How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil’s offshore oil production. From coming Liza Phase 1 development.

See on figure the Government Revenue from Profit Oil, in green color. Figure published by ExxonMobil.

This gives a fair idea of what everyone wants to know.

Guyana Government Revenue from Profit Oil is some 7 billion US$.

This amount would be received in the period 2020 – 2033.
Payout is successful in about 4 years.

The economics of the Liza – Payara – Snoek giant fields development is thus highly profitable, with an IRR exceeding 100%.

Eco Atlantic O&G - Liza 1 - Sept. 2018
Eco Atlantic O&G – Liza 1 – Sept. 2018

Guyana earnings, according to its Business Minister Mr. Gaskin ?

” Minimum of US$300 million annually from 100 barrels of oil per day at today’s estimated US$60 per day.”

From march 6, 2018, Demerara Waves – https://guyaneseonline.wordpress.com/2018/03/11/exxonmobils-contract-will-yield-more-royalties-than-gold-business-minister-dominic-gaskin/#more-65372

” Addressing the opening of a Private Sector Commission- organised seminar under the theme “Oil and Gas in Guyana: Perspectives in Guyana”, Gaskin said he had no problem with criticisms of the contract but contended that comparisons with Ghana and Uganda amounted to “incomplete and misleading” information.

Noting that ExxonMobil was not compelled to renegotiate the valid 1999 agreement with Guyana, the Business Minister said the 2016 “revised” Production Sharing Agreement which provides for a two percent royalty and 50 percent of profit oil would earn the country a minimum of US$300 million annually from 100 barrels of oil per day at today’s estimated US$60 per day.”

Marcel Chin-A-Lien – Advisor Petroleum Exploration & Production, Business-Commercial-Policy Development, PSC’s.

” FYI:

All-in-1, Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

Contact & Contract Me at marcelchinalien@gmail.com ”

2) Petroleum Geology Offshore Guyana – March 2017 – from Newell Dennison.

Question:

What kind of exploration concepts, playtypes, leads, prospects and subsurface elephants exist in offshore Guyana ?

Taken from and published on internet:

Petroleum Geology Offshore Guyana by Newell Dennison – GGMC –

Guyana Oil and Gas Association Inc. – Oil and Gas Conference – Marriott Hotel Georgetown, Guyana – March 26-28, 2017 –

A brief account of features typical of the offshore Guyana & Takutu bains.

Guyana - Petroleum Geology - N. Dennison - MCAL
Guyana – Petroleum Geology – N. Dennison – MCAL – Fig. 1

 

Guyana - Offshore Concession Status - MCAL
Guyana – Offshore Concession Status – MCAL – Fig. 2

 

Guyana - Petroleum System - MCAL
Guyana – Petroleum System – MCAL – Fig. 3

 

Guyana Basin - Exploration history - MCAL
Guyana Basin – Exploration history – MCAL – Fig. 4

 

 

Guyana - Play Types 1 - N. Dennison - MCAL
Guyana – Play Types 1 – N. Dennison – MCAL – Fig. 5

 

 

Guyana - Play Types 2 - N. Dennison - MCAL
Guyana – Play Types 2 – N. Dennison – MCAL – Fig. 6.

 

3) Guyana, oil, Exxon, Hess, CNOOC China, Lisa, Stabroek

Reblogged from : Verian Mentis – Barker – August 3, 2017

Reference, read more: http://xpressblogg.com/all-hands-on-oil/

Guyana - Hands on Oil - V. Mentis-Barker - MCAL
Guyana – Hands on Oil – V. Mentis-Barker – MCAL

When the International Financial News Organs mention the Liza 1 and 2 and the Stabroek oil wells found in the waters of its off-shore, it’s always with Guyana as the subtext.

Just look at the swagger in these headlines of Forbes Financial Magazine, June 30th 2016, in article by Christopher Helman “With Second Big Oil Discovery, Exxon Puts Guyana On The Map”…yeah, putting Guyana on the map…as Economist Magazine ‘Gusher in Guyana’, article of June 29th 2017 tops it off with sub heading ‘It will take better politicians to resist the corrosive power of petrodollars’

Just for the record….if there is any noble propensity here, it is certainly tempered by a reputation of avarice and narcissism and this is what makes these magnates mount their horses of hubris and ride in to town…not because they are overtaken by any zealous munificence and definitely not because they want to make Guyana its benefactor… only because they are driven to multiply their riches by oil.

First off, their mental image of the leader of Guyana -of any third world country for that matter- comes pre-packaged. For them he’s a meretricious caricature of leadership, achieves spectacularly little, an unrepentant dictator who constantly revises the laws to ensure longevity of rule – as he sips quality champagne from a diamond glass on the tax payer’s dollar…maybe on a private 747 – just to add to the visual.

There’s a famous recount of what happened when Esso Chad, a consortium led by Exxon Mobil, brought business to the little African country and paid USD 4 million to farmers whose lands were spoiled for farming and $1,000 USD for every mango tree cut down to facilitate oil extraction. The choices made by the farmers on spending their new found wealth grew into a common joke and became the prevailing anecdote for the oil magnates when discussing contract compensation.

Reportedly, in their unworldly joy, they spent their money only as they knew how. One took a bath in beer, another left his mud hut and checked in to a four star hotel in Ndjamena for several weeks, others took several more wives. Some did invest in wind mills and more cattle but the focus was on those who did the less enterprising things.

And, in this presumed unsophistication of the third world leader, capitalist buccaneers like Exxon find justification in exploiting their simplicity – a charge copiously documented in Exxon’s multiple Court Cases, legal defenses and its numerous charges and settlements with third world countries.

These modern day marauders never really stumble upon oil, you know.

When they show up, they’ve already done their home work…analyzed the politics of the country, identified the venal politicians, the philistine business men and developed the right kind of palm oil – for those whose palms would be greased.

The Integrity Forum calls it the ‘Voracity Effect’ but it’s really just public officials at their dishonest best.

Thing is, there was a thriving culture of local corruption, when Exxon first sought its exploration in Guyana’s waters. That first contract, covering the Stabroek Block, was signed on or around June 14th 1999 by Janet Jagan with the appendage of Her Excellency and President –titles that will not be validated in this forum, since their legitimacy remain under question.

Nevertheless, Janet signed that exploration contract during the tenure of a dictatorship that did business with foreign governments and conglomerates through murky agreements, creative accounting; much of which landed the country on world Corruption Indices and remain the subjects of internal forensic audits- audits we hope to see completed before the next national elections. She was a pliable subject, undoubtedly and fit the profile of many that resource extractors do business with.

It may be coincidence that resource rich third world countries have this type of politics but it’s incontrovertible that big oil finds a great deal of its holdings in these countries and remains the number one culprit cited when there are discussions involving the paradox of plenty, in these poverty stricken zones.

We were motivated, primarily, by the need to keep an eye on the nation’s patrimony; much of which has been pawned for returns that cannot be shown, by clear accounting, to have benefited Guyanese other than those who served under the PPP dictatorship… recalling the generous $115 million paid by Norway as disincentive to preserve the rain forest which was then sold by the Jagdeo Government to Bai Shan Lin, Vaitarna, Barama in a cross-selling, bid-rigging, price-gouging racket, then covered up in a crafty accounting scheme by, then, Finance Minister, Ashni Singh and signed off by Gitanjali Singh the Director of the Audit Office (Auditor General) who was none other than his wife.

But we were propelled by the involvement of Exxon, this business magnate, steeped in a series of investigations, an unscrupulous chaser of natural resources and market share through investment in resource extraction from small underdeveloped nations.

These are some of Exxon’s not so illustrious deeds:

In 2000, the construction of the USD 4.2 billion Chad-Cameroon pipe line with the promise of 35,000 local jobs …only that it was grossly inflated and deliberately exaggerated …many of the jobs were for bush cutters which lasted no more than 2 days at $6.50 per day and for those with a few more skills, jobs lasted just about three weeks…while Exxon flooded the job site with its imported western laborers.
The promise to the Chadians and Cameroonians to bypass wild life and fishing the mainstay of locals; of improved education and the installation of electricity – leaving instead, half constructed homes, non functional parks, and abandoned fish ponds and electricity projects.
In 2003, its $ 500 million bribe paid directly into the private account of Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, the President of Equatorial Guinea, for concessions to the nation’s oil.
Hess is no better. We read the exposé of Hess oil and its link to the Russian mob through Rosnef, -Russia’s oil- and its culture of bribery, more notably to Latin American countries and to African countries through trading name, Amerada Hess.

The Chinese Government’s CNOOC has had its share of bribe, scandals and litigation as far away as Iraq and as close to home as the Caribbean.

And Halliburton, the latest natural resource pariah to join this school of sharks, comes with decades of investment misbehavior, creative accounting that overstates its investment in collusion with corrupt leaders and uses that overstated amount to grease the palms of sleazy government officials.

So, when we learnt of the Coalition’s reticence to declare the details of the oil extraction contract, with Minister Trotman declaring that his government had decided that “it wasn’t in national interest to discuss contract details at this time”, that “they didn’t want to expose all their business to the world”, we thought of the salt-goods shop mentality of the previous government and remembered how these same officials, these upper echelon Coalition members, lambasted the PPP Government from the podium of the Opposition for withholding information on contracts with the Chinese de-foresters – information that would have served the nation better, were it known before they were scammed by them.

And don’t get us wrong.

We see Jagdeo’s demand for ‘full disclosure’ as political impiety, as the hallmark of hypocrisy, as barefaced duplicity and dismiss it as lamentation, distraction, by an insidious loser who is dying to know if contract negotiations are as nefarious as his were – overflowing with personal perks, coordinated with corruption, governed by grifting and grand larceny – and as a pitiful Pavlovian response at the thought of missed undue enrichment that is coming out as cries of foul.

What Trotman said may have sound basis but it was delivered in unprofessional political parlance. The grand take away is that this Coalition is engaging in the same covert behavior that it decried when it was in the Opposition…a takeaway that could have been avoided at the Communications/Public Relations level.

The fact is, Guyana’s natural resources and government –owned service delivery systems are the property of the people; even if there was massive misappropriation of millions of dollars for the failed Amalia Falls project, quiet gifting of land along the country’s defunct train lines, the siphoning of funds and unconscionable compensation for the unqualified engineers in the fiber optic debacle.

Guyanese have a right to know what is being done with their property, as well as, the prerogative to reject the advancement of any argument that suggests a waiting period, before they are told what is being negotiated on their behalf.

There’s a growing disquiet amongst the electorate.

They are now beyond jaded.

Many went to the polls as swing voters, identifying political matters with a transcendent moralism, casting their votes more for moral order than the traditional political ideology and ethnicity. They were tired of being marginalized by a government that flagrantly stole from them, that offered no hope to the generations after them.

The swing vote mattered.

This is political capital that cannot be squandered.

Behind the strategic and tactical problems- not to emphasize the frequent humiliations – things are not coming out right from the Coalition. It’s time for it to sense the limits of its actions, as voter reaction confirms a constantly diminishing yardage of these limits.

People are aware of the discovery of the humongous reserves; know that the harvesting of oil will bring in billions of dollars. Why not give them a sense of how this thing works, an idea of how the contracts are being negotiated?

It is the petroleum contracts that detail the flow of money; that will tell them if Exxon, an investor renowned for rapacious behavior, is not going to hog the revenue from the two blocks…Stabroek and Lisa. There is growing trepidation that Exxon owns 45% of the stake, Hess owns 30% and the Chinese via CNOOC owns 25%. To them that’s 100% of ‘outside’ ownership.

So, tell the people how this thing works, what ownership really means, in this case.

Explain the general parts of the agreement. Let them know, first of all, that the contract will be between the government on behalf of the people of Guyana and oil companies.

Explain that the typical petroleum contract may have hundreds of subsidiaries to it.

Assure them that the contract conforms to the dictates of the Constitution and that the land still belongs to Guyana.

Reassure them that there is built- in environmental protection, biodiversity protection and land conservation – violations of which comprise parts of Exxon’s rap sheet.

Let them know that it is a Production Sharing Contract, that it includes the finding of diesel, butane and petrol as well…that they will all be represented as petroleum in their contract with extractors, that the oil companies will bear the upfront financial burden, pay off their investment expenses, then split the remainder, giving Guyana 50% of those proceeds.

We get that these contracts can be complex, providing for the politics of both government and corporate practices but there is an abundance of empirical evidence that attests to a greater frequency than not of kick backs and payoffs, when transactions are executed in virtual secrecy.

So, answering questions along the way can’t hurt. Moreover, it offers an opportunity for government to let citizens know that it has enlisted the help of proven professionals and the elements of the contract are being discussed on equal footing with these oil magnates …who have designed these contracts… and mostly for their advantage.

The fact is, people are suspicious of outsourcing, engaging foreign countries and conglomerates, offering Guyana’s resources for development because they did not see any benefits or feel the effects of any inflow of revenue, when this happened during the past Administration.

In acceding to power, along with the reins of government, the Coalition inherited a presumption of lawlessness; the image of a government with a Potemkin feel, driven by propaganda and bogus activity, where under qualified and even less suitable staff showed up for work and executed a partisan ideology – much of which steered national gains into individual pockets.

The general sentiment is that elected officials are all corrupt, compromised by the culture of bribe.

And, who can blame them.

Power remains too heavily concentrated in the executive, and, without a robust Judiciary created through long awaited Constitution Reform, the electorate will remain leery of political actions, feeling that there is no real oversight.

This is an opportunity for the Coalition to show that they have chosen the competent ahead of the compromised and that it will go for the upstanding, even if inexperienced.

So stop hemming and hawing…

A refusal to issue contract details, updating upon dramatically changing events, will only cause the Coalition Government to suffer from the twin afflictions of opaque dealings and pernicious intent…not unlike its most recent predecessor.

This new charge for Guyana’s natural resources by these oil titans could become another story of corporate entitlement and government misdeeds or an unprecedented opportunity for economic development.

Oil escalates to a poor country’s most powerful industry – when bad economic planning allows it to subvert other industries …whole other conversation– and is too often allowed to become a parallel government…employing kick back mechanisms and gift envelopes to local officials, to get its way.

We’re not saying that this will happen in Guyana but Exxon, Hess, Halliburton and China’s CNOOC are quite dexterous in these activities and have stood across from various Prosecutors in defense of these activities enough times to be considered pros.

What we are saying is that President Granger, in his eloquent and impressive address to the The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) at the United Nations on September 28th 2015, spoke of the prodigious potential of the oil find and said that his government’s plans were to ensure that oil revenues reached future generations of Guyana…that efforts to establish a Sovereign Wealth Fund – a state-owned fund established for the benefit of the people, now and future – are well underway.

This lines up with the Coalition’s Manifesto under Natural Resources and the Environment #3: The Fair and Equitable Sharing of benefits arising from commercial utilization of natural resources….

We like the idea of there not being an extractor elite…like there was when logs were being felled by foreigners in our forests.

The promise now is for democratic accountability….

We’re hanging on to that, during this current scramble for the country’s resources…..because the foreign companies that come to the country to make profits never generate wealth for Guyanese….

So far, we’ve only been ripped off.

Reblogged from: http://xpressblogg.com/all-hands-on-oil/

4) Guyana: will its oil boom benefit the people? Al Jhazeera, July 30th, 2018, Video.

https://youtu.be/Akd4RogA-gI

16. Guyana’s oil find $2.7B barrels

16. Guyana’s oil find $2.7B barrels – V.010817

Contents:

0. Arrangement Guyana Government with ExxonMobil.

How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil offshore oil production ? – Note Marcel Chin-A-Lien

1.Guyana’s oil find estimated at $2.7B barrels – July 29, 2017 – www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

2.ExxonMobil secures environmental permit ExxonMobil secures environmental permit – Eighth well to be drilled – Jun 13, 2017 News 0 Comments – www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

3. Several questions unanswered about nation’s oil find – July 31, 2017 – www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

0) Arrangement (PPL) Guyana Government with ExxonMobil

How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil’s offshore oil production ?

The contents of the arrangement that the Guyana Government in 1999, has signed and apparently recently renegotiated with ExxonMobil, has never been published.

Therefore there is a lot of uncertainty and public discussions on transparency going on regarding this important item.

This to know how much money Guyana would get from its offshore production.

In 1998 Guyana signed an arrangement (PPL) with CGX.

My educated-guess is that the arrangement (PPL) signed with ExxonMobil in 1999 could resemble the arrangement signed previously with CGX.

The contents of this PPL can be found by researching Internet publications.

The Petroleum Prospecting License (PPL) was signed between CGX Energy,Inc.(Company) and the Government of Guyana (Government) on June 24, 1998.

The main articles are:

Cost recovery production allocation is as follows.

Maximum Cost Recovery is 75% during the first 3 years, afterwards 65%.

Profit Oil Split (Developer Share): During the first 5 years, 50% for the first 40,000 b/d. And 47% for Production above 40,000 b/d. After 5 years, 45 % for all production.

The Developer does not pay income tax. The PPL provides that the income tax is paid from the Government’s share of the profit oil.

The Company has an exemption from VAT, exercise taxes, duties, fees, levies and from property tax.

The Company does not pay royalty. This is considered to be included in the Government’s share of profit oil.

Training expenses of US$ 40,000 per year are required, only during the exploration period. These are qualified as exploration expenses.

Annual license rental payments of US$ 40,000 per year are required during the exploration and production period.

In my opinion this represents a very good deal (arrangement) for the Company.

And a rather ” inconvenient deal ” for the Government.

Tip that can benefit a country with billions of US$:

Always be so diligent to first design, negotiate and only later sign your own PSC.

Customised with those clauses and articles you wish to have.

Consult with clever and seasoned PSC and E&P specialists and advisors with worldwide experience. Once signed it is extremely difficult to change and adapt it substantially to your benefit.

From what I perceive from publications the Government did recently renegotiate the original PPL with ExxonMobil and obtained somewhat better conditions.

Including a royalty and a better overall share.

One would assume that the original 1999 PPL was rather favourable for ExxonMobil. Given that it was signed in a period when there was relatively little interest of IOC’s in offshore Guyana.

As is usual in such cases and in high risk, still non-oil-proven basins, it is to be assumed that Guyana has granted rather favourable (“soft”) conditions to ExxonMobil. In order to attract exploration investments with a clear work program, including seismic and drilling.

Now that it has become a proven basin, it is a different ball game.

Contracts with new entrants could be negotiated with a much better share for Guyana.

By focussing on items such as the royalty percentage, ring fencing, the ceiling for cost recovery. By drastically optimising its profit share, from the profit oil. Immediately after the IOC has recouped its investments from the ” cost oil ” .

Financial engineering, valuation and cash flow modelling, in tandem with the expected production profiles from the fields are fundamental in this respect.

The main objective of Guyana should be to maximise its petroleum wealth by encouraging appropriate levels of offshore activities.

To this end Guyana must design a robust fiscal system with for example the following characteristics. It should provide a fair return for both the state and the international companies. It has to be clear and avoid undue speculation, just as is now frequently surfacing in the press. Administration has to be efficient without undue rules, permits and burdens. At the same time it should provide enough flexibility and create a healthy, competitive competition and market efficiency.

A much different Petroleum Sharing Contract is certainly highly recommended in my opinion.

How much money would Guyana get from ExxonMobil’s offshore oil production ?

The following estimate represents merely my own and personal opinion.

Assuming that the ExxonMobil PPL contains the same articles as the PPL with CGX.

A ballpark estimate of the monies involved is as follows.

Precise data must be obtained by making a full DCF economic analysis.

Assumptions are:

Gross oil production volume of 1.5 billion barrels, 160 thousand /bbls /day /during 13 years, oil price US$ 50 / barrel, Capex-Opex 11 billion US$, initial production starting 2020:

Total oil revenue is some 75 billion US$.

Total profit oil is 68 billion US$.

Guyana Government Profit Share is some 35 billion US$.

This amount will be received in the period 2020 – 2033.

Almost 3 billion US$ per year.

Payout (end of negative cash flow) is reached in about 4 years, in 2024.

The economics of the Liza – Payara – Snoek giant fields development is highly profitable, with an IRR exceeding 100%.

Marcel Chin-A-Lien – Advisor Petroleum Exploration & Production, Business-Commercial-Policy Development.

1) Guyana’s oil find estimated at  $2.7B barrels

Inserted, nov. 2019, Liza oil:

Light, low sulfur crude suitable as a general purpose crude oil and suitable for production of middle distillates and mogas. The atmospheric resid is suitable as feedstock for catalytic crackers.

  • Gravity 32.1
  • Sulfur 0.51%
  • Loading port Liza Destiny FPSO

Jul 29, 2017 News 0 Comments –  www.kaieteurnewsonline.com –  V.30717

-Says govt. will receive revenue from day one

ExxonMobil’s Operations Manager, Doug Mc Gehee, on Thursday updated a room full of entrepreneurs about the oil giant’s activities in Guyana. This was at the launch of the eighth edition of the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce and Industry’s (GCCI) Business Guyana Magazine.

Mc Gehee painted a bright picture about what Guyana can expect when oil production begins. So detailed was Mc Gehee’s presentation that GCCI’s Nicholas Boyer, said that he learnt a lot and was reminded of many details surrounding ExxonMobil’s activities in Guyana.

However, much of what was said focused on the drilling and exploration activities itself as opposed to the agreements that it has with the government on oil production. Mc Gehee spoke extensively about the drilling activities and went into some technicalities about the drilling activity.

He noted that the overall estimation of oil already discovered in Guyana is now between 2.25 billion and 2.75 billion oil equivalent barrels. This, according to Mc Gehee, represents oil bearing rocks found in Liza one, two, three and four wells, Liza deep, Payara and Snoek. He reminded that oil was not found in commercial quantities at the SkipJack well.
Mc Gehee even joked that when Skipjack was found empty, they decided that the luck was with Liza so they named the others Liza three, Liza four and Liza deep.

The Operations Manager said that ExxonMobil is committed to exploiting the full potential of the Stabroek Block and “so we will keep drilling.”
He said that about 120 barrels of oil will be produced a day for the first 20 years in Guyana.
During his speech, President of GCCI Deodat Indar charged Mc Gehee to shed light on a few issues. Indar was keen to note that the GCCI is pleased that a world class company such as ExxonMobil has invested heavily in Guyana.

He said, “We are committed to working with you. It is with a degree of excitement that I say, I am pleased to see the announcement that over 140 Guyanese companies now supply either goods or services to ExxonMobil offshore operations.
“Also that you have created a Local Content Center aimed at developing Guyanese businesses to become oil industry compliant suppliers.”
Indar said that it takes a supply boat approximately 10 hours travelling at 9.5 nautical miles per hour to reach the offshore operations compared to 24hours from Chaguaramas, Trinidad to reach Exxon Offshore Operations.

He said that this speaks to time and costs, obviously Guyana being cheaper in this case. He added, “So I am also pleased to see the contract for the onshore base being awarded right here in Guyana, which I understand, Muneshwers’ are hiring Guyanese like crazy.”
The Chamber President noted that ExxonMobil has license to explore 6.6 million acres of land offshore Guyana. “To put that in perspective means that the Island of Trinidad can fit 5.2 times in the blocks now controlled by ExxonMobil.

“The world class finds in the Liza field and Payara Field say clearly that the oil reservoirs are huge. In some corners of the oil industry this is termed, ‘basin masters’. So with this large resource at your control comes a huge responsibility to the Guyanese people.”
He then charged Mc Gehee to inform this gathering “how you see the role of Exxon in the development of Guyana.” But Mc Gehee did not say too much on this.
“Let us understand where you intend to direct resources to build internal capacity in the areas of labour, providing goods and services to you as a major operator. Over the past three years you have conducted exploration and drilling activities in Guyana.

“We would like to see more Guyanese involvement in the workforce for low end jobs such as cooks, chippers and painters, ablebodied riggers, ablebodied Unlimited riggers, Banksmen on the supply boats and Stena Carron if that’s possible at this time.”
In this regard, Mc Gehee said that already, 60 to 70 percent of the crew on the supply vessel is Guyanese. He said that more are to be employed by ExxonMobil. However, he did not speak to how a Guyanese business can bid to provide service to Stena Carron.

Guyana - Payara 2 Giant discovery - ExxonMobil - MCAL
Guyana – Payara 2 Giant discovery – ExxonMobil – MCAL

“At the end of the day it is Guyanese taxpayers who will be footing the bill as a deduction from its future earning; therefore it is only fair that we be given first priority as they say in Canada, for all things soap, rope and dope. “

2) ExxonMobil secures environmental permit ExxonMobil secures environmental permit –   Eighth well to be drilled – Jun 13, 2017 News 0 Comments — www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

While politicians and anti-corruption advocates alike continue to call for more transparency in the activities of ExxonMobil and its negotiations with the Government of Guyana, the oil giant continues to move closer to

(Photo: The Stena Carron will be part of the drilling programme at the Payara-2 well.)

getting its production licence. Kaieteur News understands that within the last week, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) granted ExxonMobil its Environmental Permit. ExxonMobil’s Senior Director of Public and Government Affairs, Kimberly Brassington confirmed this yesterday.

Brassington said that the Environmental Permit is for the Liza phase 1 development project.She said, “Before a development project goes forward there are two key projects that Exxon, as an operator, looks for—the first is to have the Environmental Permit and then Production Licence.”

Brassington continued, “It is significant that we have the Environmental Permit to go forward with the project and now we are waiting on the Production License which will come on the government.” Brassington said that the final investment decision will follow the receipt of the production licence.

Back in May 2015, ExxonMobil made its first announcement of a huge oil find in the Liza-1 well and encountered more than 295 feet (90 metres) of high-quality oil-bearing sandstone.

A second well was drilled – Liza-2 – and the company confirmed the finding as “significant,” with a potential recoverable resource of 800 million to 1.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent.

Drilling operations on ExxonMobil’s Skipjack prospect, the company’s third well in the Stabroek Block offshore Guyana, yielded disappointing results. It was reported that the company did not find commercial quantities of hydrocarbons within that well.

The Liza-3 appraisal well was subsequently drilled to a total depth of 18,100 feet in 6,000 feet of water on a location about 2.7 miles from the Liza-1 discovery.

The well hit around 200 feet of net pay “in the same high-quality reservoirs” as the first two Liza wells, according to ExxonMobil partner Hess, which further solidified the potential recoverable oil in the reservoir.
EIGHTH WELLMeanwhile, the company through its affiliate Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited (EEPGL), is gearing up to drill its eighth well in the Stabroek Block offshore Guyana.

In an advertisement published in last Monday’s edition of the Kaieteur News, the Maritime Administration Department (MARAD) stated that the EEPGL will commence the drilling programme at the Payara-2 well next Tuesday, June 20.

This programme is scheduled to last for a three-month period.The drill site is approximately 108 nautical miles from the coast of Guyana and covers an area of one square kilometre.A previous well was drilled at Payara – Payara-1 – and is ExxonMobil’s second oil discovery on the Stabroek Block. It encountered more than 95 feet of high quality, oil bearing sandstone reservoirs.

The well data will be analyzed to better understand the full potential of the well. The Snoek-1 well discovery was announced in March 2017. Snoek is ExxonMobil’s third oil discovery on the Stabroek Block and was drilled in a new reservoir. It encountered more than 82 feet of high quality, oil-bearing sandstone reservoirs.

The well data is being analyzed to better understand the full potential of the well. Kaieteur News contacted ExxonMobil’s Head Office in Georgetown yesterday, and was told that the drill ship, Stena Carron is currently wrapping up an exercise at the Liza-4 well and will soon move over to the Payara area.

The drilling operation at the Payara-2 well, will utilise the following vessels: Stena Carron, M/V Cat Island, M/V Fast Titan, M/V Hannah Chouest and the HOS Commander.All mariners are required to stay clear of these vessels and navigate with caution when in this vicinity.

3) Several questions unanswered about nation’s oil find.
Jul 31, 2017 News 0 Comments — www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

– Georgetown Chamber of Commerce

The Georgetown Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI) still has many unanswered questions about the future of Guyana with oil as one of the main resources contributing to the country’s economy.

GCCI recently launched the eight edition of its yearly magazine—Business Journal. This year’s edition focused on “the promise of oil.”
Because of the theme of the Magazine, GCCI invited an executive of ExxonMobil to speak at the event as well as Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman. While ExxonMobil’s Operations Manager, Doug Mc Gehee attended the event; Minister Trotman was a no show.

However, GCCI was hoping to have the Minister shed light on many issues at the event.
During his speech, GCCI President, Deodat Indar said that the Chamber is committed to working with the Minister and the Ministry of Natural Resources. He said, however, that like any good partner, the chamber will constructively criticize when necessary for the good of the private sector and by extension the Guyanese workers.

Indar commended Minister Trotman in his absence for his outreach with respect to consultation on the oil refinery prospects for Guyana, local content policy and the Petroleum Commission Bill.
He then expressed hope that Trotman can make a few things clear to the members of the Chamber who were present at that forum.
“Minister, in your delivery, I would like to first charge you to give this gathering of great minds here your thinking and intention on the local content policy that is currently in its draft stage, in terms of: the date we should expect an approved policy? And, what model was used as a framework to develop the current draft policy?”

With respect to the Petroleum Commission Bill that is before a parliamentary select Committee; Indar said that the GCCI is very interested in knowing, “What external model was considered in the drafting of the bill? And, was it Newfoundland, Norwegian, Australian, Alaskan?”

Photo; President of GCCI Deodat Indar

Also, Indar expressed hope that the Minister would explain the proposed Petroleum Commission Board and its makeup, independence, appointment, remuneration and removal of Board members.
Further, the GCCI president wanted to know how the bill meshes with good governance, transparency and being Bi-partisan.
“We see from many parts of the daily media and on social media that we have the potential to be a wealthy nation with flow of oil money. Guyana can witness an economic explosion with the Gross Domestic Product (GBP) growing between 400 to 2000% in the next two decades.”

He continued, “We also know as seasoned business people that basic management principles dictate a company with a diversified base of products and services are likely to be healthy and sustainable, these same principles apply to running a country.”

The businessman said that it is imperative that Guyana learns from the mistakes of others and recognizes that any country that has its economy dependent on one or two sectors will be doomed by it in the long term. He pointed to what is going on in Venezuela where 95.6 percent of its economy is dependent on oil which among other things has fractured its society. Indar said that a diversified economy will lead to a sustainable economy.

With that being said, Indar expressed hope that Trotman can shed light on government’s plan to ensure a diversified economy.
Indar said too that the GCCI hopes that the government is already working on strategies for the most effective use of oil revenues. He said, “We would like to see expenditure in the area of; education, healthcare, infrastructure such as bridges, roads, ports, ICT, quality infrastructure and programs for the alleviation of the poor.”

Finally, Indar turned his attention to the outstanding Sovereign Wealth Fund policy.
He noted that the Sovereign Wealth Fund is supposed to be a rainy day fund. He said however that the GCCI found that some countries use monies from their Sovereign Wealth Fund for current year running expenditure that are supposed to be funded from normal revenue cycles of government. Indar expressed his opinion that, “this is not what a SWF should be; I have just describe what would be tantamount to putting your money in a bag with holes if government is to take this approach. I warn against it.”

The President of the Chamber said that it would be welcomed if Trotman can give explanations on “What model was used to develop the framework for the SWF and when would we expect a first draft to be release so we can provide commentary?”
While all those answered requested by Indar remain outstanding, a few questions were answered by ExxonMobil’s Operations Manager, Dough Mc Gehee.

He gave those who gathered a detailed run down on the operations. Mc Gehee noted that the overall estimation of oil already discovered in Guyana is now between 2.25 billion and 2.75 billion oil equivalent barrels. This, according to Mc Gehee, represents oil bearing rocks found in Liza one, two, three and four wells, Liza deep, Payara and Snoek. He reminded that oil was not found in commercial quantities at the Skipjack well.

Mc Gehee even joked that when Skipjack was found empty, they decided that the luck was with Liza so they named the others Liza three, Liza four and Liza deep.
The Operations Manager said that ExxonMobil is committed to exploiting the full potential of the Stabroek Block and “so we will keep drilling.”
He said that about 120 barrels of oil will be produced a day for the first 20 years in Guyana.

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