26. Guyana Basin: How to find a giant oil field by exploring for water.

26. Guyana Basin: How to find a giant oil field by exploring for water. V.010518

The Guyana Basin has become both ” cool ” and hot since the 2015 Liza discovery offshore.

Based on the unique petroleum system(s) in the Guyana Basin one can only be convinced that the Guyana Basin is an awakening oil giant.

In 1965 the first giant field was already found onshore, the Tambaredjo field.

Not noticed by a majority of explorers.

Fifty years later in 2015 followed by the recent giant elephant discoveries of ExxonMobil in nearby Guyana.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

” Birth Announcement ” of a Massive Oil Region: on behalf of ” Guyana Basin “.

http://emg.geoscienceworld.org/content/8/1-2
Birth Tambaredjo Giant Field – Taken from Th.E.Wong et al. p. 383, 1998 – MCAL

In 1965 Guyana Basin proudly announced the birth of its first giant field (unnoticed by the majority of explorers) in onshore Suriname:

Name: Tambaredjo.

Weight: Billion barrel oil field

Father: Geological and Mining Service, GMD (ir. Hugo Coleridge, discoverer). Paleocene, Saramacca Fm. sands at a depth of 150 – 425 metres. Also in Miocene, Coesewijne Fm. sands.

Mother: Canje Formation, U-Cretaceous, Cenomanian source rock (extended Tethys Ocean, Continental Margin family of La Luna, Querecual and Naparima Hill formations).

Place: Tambaredjo, Calcutta, Saramacca district, Suriname.

Time: 13 October, 1965.

Details:

A. Tambaredjo oil is not lazy or obtuse at all.

The newly born and expelled petroleum at a young age already managed to travel (migrate) all alone. Using only its genetic buoyancy instinct. As navigator in the dark, unknown subsurface.

Covering a super long distance (ca. 200 km – ” Olympic Gold Medal, Neogene-Super Long-Distance-Subsurface-Walking “) while pro-actively searching for a suitable home (reservoir). That could provide a safe, leakproof roof (Paleocene shale) and spacious, interconnected pores as confortable habitat. Finally well-received in the fluvial-deltaic Palaeocene T-sands and Miocene Coesewijne, in the most up-dip part of the basin.

Suriname - Source: SOM & Austinbridgeporth FIG. 9 - MCAL

Suriname – ” Tambaredjo giant field: Welcome to my place, this is where I live, this is my cozy petroleum habitat ” – Source & credit: SOM & Austinbridgeporth FIG. 9 – MCAL – http://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2016/10/suriname-new-technology-unlocks-hydrocarbon-potential

Onshore, Tambaredjo?

The ultimate spot, where nowadays one would dare to wildcat with a first oil well in the prolific Guyana Basin. As a most sophisticated and learned digital explorationist. With all the present day information available on the workstation.

A most adventurous migration history, still unlocked and untold by Mr. Tambaredjo.

When and who did you visit since you left the kitchen of mother Canje Fm.? Where did you temporarily camp on route? Which stratigraphic fairways and tectonic shortcuts did you take? Who in addition facilitated your long voyage. How much weight did you gain (lose), decending from 45 to 16 degrees API and 500-cp, low vanadium and sulphur oil ?  Did you earlier split up with your family, if yes, where are they now located. What was the time schedule  of your voyage? When did you depart and arrive? Do you represent only one generation or multiple generations? As a migrant, from – 5000 m. to -180 m.?

Before obtaining definite shelter. Voyaging from mother’s Canje Formation kitchen deep offshore towards Palaeocene T-sands.

Migration history easily unveiled ??

Following 18 will all give you a geologically democratic, interesting and most valid answer. The convincing answer. Part of…

Accompanied by splendid migration maps and traffic arrows, indicating the petroleum where to walk. Like a Tom Tom Navigator. Authentic geo-art using all the colours of the rainbow, to make migration and accumulation visually more pleasant.

BasinMod1D, BasinMod 2D, BasinMod3D, MigriX, IFE-MIG3D-BAS, ZetaWare Trinity, PetroMod, Temis2D, Temis3D, TemisFlow, CougarFlow, OilTracers, Charge Risk, Gussow fill-spill, In-Reservoir Alteration, Biodegradation, Biomarkers etc. etc..

Of course.

Do not forget to analyse why the provided pre-drill “truth” unfortunately proved to be “false”, post-drill and post-mortem.

After drilling the bone and astonishing bone dry, some 200 million US$ hole(s). Without a single ppm of petroleum. The mud loggers, mud logging unit and gas chromatograph had a most boring and lousy time on the rig. Such as in…..guess yourself which one(s).

Post-Mortem ?

Where myself I was happy to learn the best lessons in my career. This as I have been in charge of having to write and present them for more than a decade. A close look in the mirror. R.I.P’s. This time without make-up, without tricks and treats.

” High impact discovery well to-be ” ?

B. Discovered by accident while prospecting for water (….very sorry about that grotesque mistake….).

C. Carrying out a water-drilling project to supply water to a nearby school and village (….our sincere excuses…but…unfortunately we found a giant oilfield….instead of the clean and abundant water we promised you all for your little cozy school in Tambaredjo village).

D. I am in production since 1982. About 115 MMbo produced from 3 oil fields, 87 MMbo remaining reserves, 17,000 bopd production currently.

E. I do have an intrinsic preference for structural basement highs and additional structural elements. The Calcutta Uplift and the E-W Tambaredjo, NE-SW Broederschap, NE-SW Weg near Zee major fault systems. Basement-rooted (and Cretaceous-post-Albian inversion originated) faults that terminate in the Eocene and Miocene.

Tambaredjo Giant Field & Bakhuis High
Tambaredjo Giant Field & Bakhuis High

F. In the offshore area, such as Block 45 ? Find out by yourself. I do not reveal all my secrets so easily. (P.D. @ June 2018: Anapai well, Block 45, P&A).

I am hard-to-get.

Exploration tip and discovery moral ??

So now and then, dare to drill pro-actively for water, if you wish to find oil (elephants).

As a matter of fact one most often pro-actively explores for oil, and finds only water (euphemistically called “technical discovery wells”, the proof for existence of reservoir rocks).

Birth of its second and third giant fields was announced by the arrival of Guyanese twin-sisters Liza and Payara. In 2015 and 2017.

The continuing story will most certainly involve many, many more giant discoveries in the near future?

Suriname offshore license map - may 2018
Suriname offshore license map – may 2018

Prospects abound in both locations, offshore Guyana and Suriname, but a big question that remains in the discussion is how far the prospectivity of the Guyana-Suriname Basin extends across the border into Suriname.

Note at May 30, 2018: Please see my updated blog on Anapai-1A well in Chapter Petroleum Exploration, Blog 27. This blog is from 1 may 2018.

Present Anapai-1 well (Lower Cretaceous fan prospect) spudded beginning of April 2018, by Kosmos/Hess in Block 45, is rather low profile and without bold predictions in the press.

The first ” main ” discovery offshore Suriname? Hopefully, could very well be, a prospect on the west flank of the Demerara High, fingers XX.

The SE-NW seismic cross section very well illustrates the types of play that can be expected, as in Block 45. Such as the Lower Cretacous fans, that were mainly fed by the eastern area, now occupied by the Demerara High. They are fragmented by the west dipping, gravitational fault blocks on the west flank of the Demerara High. Making it structural traps with an important stratigraphic fan element.

Block 45 Kosmos/Chevron - Anapai 1 well - april 2018
Block 45 Kosmos/Chevron – Anapai 1 well – april 2018
Offshore Suriname - SW-NE section - from Demerara High to deep offshore - Playtypes
Offshore Suriname – SW-NE section – from Demerara High to deep offshore – Playtypes – Taken from Staatsolie website
Offshore Suriname - Playtypes
Offshore Suriname – Playtypes

Suriname nearshore potential.

The potential for Suriname is significant according to Tom Ketele, nearshore drilling project manager for Staatsolie. The country, with more than 30 years of onshore production, has onshore crude reserves to sustain it for the next 15 years, he said. By developing its ultra-shallow nearshore resource potential, the country will be able to extend those reserves significantly.

Staatsolie has identified and ranked 15 prospects, some stacked, in water depths of 5 m to 30 m offshore. The company has plans to drill a 10-well exploratory campaign from April 2019 to December 2019, he said.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

 

25. Guyana, Essequibo, Petroleum Exploration

25. Guyana, Essequibo, Petroleum Exploration -V27.06.18

Contents (15)

  1. Introduction

This post contains references to a few essential and very interesting historical documents. These serve for a thoughtful understanding of the Essequibo controversy in the light of its historical background.

Why ??
Principally for myself.
To find the mere facts, to be able to have my own opinion on this important issue, not as a law expert. But as an independent, impartial petroleum explorationist and business consultant.
I became interested in this interesting subject in 1977 when living in Venezuela.

Maybe ?
As well as for all those somehow involved and interested in Guyana, its varied history, petroleum and gold exploration and production ?
Such as…

Explorationists and avid Guyana followers ?

That are now finally discovering where Guyana and the prolific Guyana basin is located on this globe and on Google Maps.
A hidden corner on the globe.
Already 50 years after the first Tambaredjo giant petroleum field discovery. ( https://mar-petroleumexplorationconsultant.com/26-guyana-basin-how-to-find-a-giant-field-by-exploring-for-water/)

And 425 years after Sir Walter Raleigh became the ” discoverer ” of Guyana. By searching for El Dorado in the deep jungle.

Discovery of Guyana 10
Discovery of Guyana 10

Investors, IMF and World Bank executives, business, commercial developers, portfolio and business-project-intelligence specialists and managers.

Real estate agencies and speculants, (corporate) strategists, process-pricing-operations specialists, defense specialists, lawyers, PSC negotiators, bankers, hotel builders, airliners.

The-full-gamut-of-entrepreneurs, any-kind-of-clever-consultants-wishing-2-make-lots-of money ?

Black gold rushers, bounty seekers, wheeler dealers, rum runners, refugees, would-like-2-be-millionaires, the-get-rich-quick, desperados, opportunists, circus clowns.

Ware houses, whore houses, adult clubs, offshore buccaneers and privateers, story tellers etc.?
It sure is an integral part of the folclore in the gold and blackgold rushes that I have experienced and know of.

Guyana ?

Part of my family roots ?

Home country, first, for my mother’s parents and grandparents after emigrating from poverty-stricken mainland Canton by 1880. From the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China.

Guyana, a wonderful country that I first visited in 1972. By travelling over land from Paramaribo, Suriname to Georgetown. Then a lovely dormant colonial city with a lot of Dutch flavour, names etc.

In the late seventies of last century, I was priviliged to start my geology career in beautiful Caracas, la Venezuela saudita. I was fortunate to spent an extended period in this exhuberant country. As such I had the splendid opportunity to live, share, integrate, enjoy. To develop professionally. Herewith to contribute substantially to the progress of Venezuela.
Such as with participation in important giant petroleum discoveries, in Maracaibo, Ceuta field and Orinoco, Hamaca area and basins, with applied research and international publications. ” Chinito, eres un Venezolano re-encauchado “, my friends soon used to joke amiable.

When I arrived in ” La Sucursal del Cielo ” I immediately bought one of the excellent road & geographical maps of Venezuela. These could be acquired cheap for 1 Bolívar in any gasoline station of the oil firms as Maraven, Lagoven, Corpoven, Meneven etc.

What struck me from the very first moment was the immense cross-hatched area in the east, indicated as ” Zona en Reclamación “.

The ” controversy area “: The west Essequibo area. About half the area of Guyana. 159,500 Square km or about 4 times the size of the Netherlands.

Since then I have been interested in this subject, continually read the publications and have discussed it with many people and colleagues in Venezuela.

This post represents my personal attempt and private opinion, in studying and in trying to understand the full background and details of this old controversy. I wish to share this with you.

Caracas - Avila Mountain seen from Country Club
Caracas – Avila Mountain seen from Country Club – from a famous Venezuelan painter – Own collection . This is the view of the Avila mountain. A so-called Avila painting. As we wished to take a tangible piece with a personal commemoration along with us of this iconic mountain and of Caracas we acquired this superb (200 x 100 cm) painting. Now it is our permanent Avila Mountain “window view”. We have it hanging on the main wall of our sleeping room.

Venezuela and Caracas ?

“If you are lucky enough to have lived in Caracas as a young man ? Then wherever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you. For Caracas is a moveable feast.”

Precious and dear memories of my/our period in la ” Sucursal del Cielo ” (…then) very much resembles the atmosphere as magnificently described in ” A moveable feast ” by Ernest Hemingway. The Nobel Prize winner literature describing his time spent as an expatriate in la Ville Lumière. The last of his 21 chapters ?  ” There is Never Any End to Paris “.

Caracas and Venezuela ?

A moveable feast in many aspects. An exiting and educational extensive rollercoaster ride and life (style) experience, both in the subsurface gold mines and on the surface. The always happy and candid people, friends, colleagues. Swinging tropical music, musica llanera, salsa, gaita, with spring temperatures. Excellent food, busy restaurants. With my favourite arepas con carne mechada, empanadas de cazón, pollo a la brasa, parilla de carne, hallaquitas, pargo rojo frito. Polar, rum Caballito Frenado and Diplomático, batidos de guanabana, cafecito con leche, guayoyito etc. etc.

The varied geography, narrow valleys, extensive tropical grassland plains or Llanos; Andean and Caribbean Mountain System mountains, snow on the 4978 m high Pico Bolívar.

Beaches, really stunning, secluded and pristine, pearl white through to gold soft coloured, along the 2800 km Caribbean coastline. Dense jungles and rainforests covering some 54 million hectares. The mighty 2,140 km Orinoco river. Colourful flora and exotic fauna. 115 Majestic, up to 1000 meters high, flat tabletop Roraima mountains or Tepuis of 2 billion years old in the Guyana Highlands hosting the highest 979 meters Angel waterfall.

The interesting and comprehensive geology, ranging from the 4.6 billion years old Proterozoïc of the Guiana Shield to Recent. With almost all textbook sedimentary, plutonic and metamorphic rocks and a whole scala of different major petroleum basins. A bustling and frenetic exploration and production of both petroleum, bauxite, iron, gold and other ore minerals.

An exquisite geoscience-candy-boutique for a fresh explorationist just flying out from his Alma Mater Leiden in The Netherlands, Europe. Avidly embracing his opportunity to explore the world.

Charming, most elegant and toe-to-head fashionable señoritas, about everywhere. Each and every day (…uh, uhh, uhhh, almost though) were a feast. Certainly an adventure with always a big surprise. A setting and exciting atmosphere soaked in optimism and with an inspiring and dynamic progress. Immigrants flocking in from all over the world, especially from Latin America. Searching for a new prosperous future.

Just 60 km north of Venezuela. Curacao or Dushi Korsou, my own birth place and home. Awesome island, ever swimming and sunbathing in the pristine, emerald blue Caribbean sea. Discovered in 1498 by Alonso de Ojeda.

In 1977, four hundred and seventy nine years later, I felt obviously utmost exited, grateful and honoured to have the opportunity to start exploring in Venezuela.

As the very first Curaçao native geologist and explorationist. What a tremendous thrill.

Korsou, also the birthplace in 1782 of admiral Pedro Luis Brión and general Manuel Piar, 1774, important freedom fighters, or Próceres, in the army of Simón Bolivar during the Venezuelan War of Independence.

Piar is the official Libertador de Guyana that conceived and executed the conquest of Guyana Province.

Two heroes from Curaçao that gave their own lives to free Gran Colombia from the oppressor Spain.

General Piar, Libertador de Guyana.
Manuel Piar, from Curaçao, is de facto the person that liberated Provincia de Guyana and Essequibo for the República Gran Colombia of Simón Bolívar.

He was most unfortunately executed, nonetheless his major contribution to freedom, as Libertador de Guyana, as erroneously ordered and admitted by Simón Bolívar.

Without any valid and certainly with skewed reasons.
“ Hoy he derramado mi propia sangre “ Simón Bolívar said in tears after the execution.

Bolivar himself, The Liberator of South America, took refuge on the island of Curaçao after the first stage of the revolt in Venezuela failed in 1812. He and his two sisters arrived penniless and had to rely on the generosity of friends on the island. Lawyer and merchant Mordechai Ricardo lodged them in two houses. The two sisters stayed in the octagonal building by the sea, now a museum. While Bolívar worked an studied in a small house on a hill overlooking the busy harbor of Willemstad.

Nowadays, february 2020, my native Curaçao lodges some 24 thousand refugees from Venezuela. Many escape and arrive in small fisherman ships, helped by professional smugglers and paying up to $ 1500 to the trip.

Venezuela, a paradise in many aspects, also explored by Alexander von Humbolt. Between 1799 and 1804 as part of his extensive Latin American expedition. Where he also climbed the iconic Avila mountain of Caracas with the young poet Andres Bello.

An impressive national hymn, dedicated to the brave people, Gloria al bravo pueblo.

An even so impressive unofficial, second and most curiously danceable national anthem and joropo. Alma Llanera, Soul of the Plains, stating, Yo naci en la ribera del Arauca vibrador etc.

Caracas. A Moveable Feast.

Presently…

Unfortunately, from riches to rags in just 2 decades.

Unwillingly and recklessly being forced to mimic Paradise Lost of John Milton.

The last 2 chapters ?

” There is Never Any End to Caracas “.

Followed by, somewhere in the very, very, very far future though:

Paradise Regained, also from John Milton.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1) http://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/171/171-20180404-PRE-01-00-EN.pdf – April 04, 2018 – Filing of application.

Inserted Note @ June 14, 2018:

I wanted to attend the announced  18th June, 2018 session. Called the ICJ in The Hague to make a seat reservation. But was told that it was cancelled, was not on the agenda and no next date set as yet.

Plan to attend Part of the 23-27 march 2020 public hearings at ICJ, The Hague.

Personal note:

As Venezuela has stated before it does not recognize a ” verdict or solution” by the ICJ on this case. Which makes me think and conclude beforehand that this ICJ ” intervention ” is unfortunately a loss of effort, time and money.

Inserted note at 27 April 2019: Venezuela indeed has notified ICJ that it does not recognize them as mediators. Loss and waste of time and money. In this case the international judges at ICJ have a fruitful time in The Hague, spending (spoiling) valuable time and money in a case that from beforehand was deemed to fail.

Only a F2F, bilateral transnational negotiation, with give-and-take, both-win-win, can lead to a mutually suitable agreement, in my humble opinion. Otherwise it will stay unresolved for an undetermined time (for centuries or for ever, so to say).

June 18th 2018 Venezuela had a session planned to defend its case at the ICJ in the Hague, the Netherlands.

According to Venepress of June 15th, 2018:

” El 18 de junio tendrán que presentarse argumentos sin sesgos ideológicos y con el único fin de preservar los intereses de la nación.

El secretario general de la Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU), Antonio Guterres, anunció meses atrás que ante la falta de avances en la disputa entre Venezuela y Guyana por el territorio Esequibo, el caso quedaría en manos de la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) y el próximo 18 de junio será el primer encuentro.

Durante la cita Venezuela deberá “defender” el derecho del país sobre el Esequibo, con base al Acuerdo de Ginebra de 1966 en búsqueda de una resolución pacífica.

Jorge Luis Fuguett, presidente de la ONG Mi Mapa de Venezuela incluye nuestro Esequibo, explicó a Venepress que Venezuela deberá argumentar su posición ante la CIJ, ya que aún no se han agotado todos los mecanismos del artículo 33, capítulo VI sobre arreglo pacífico de controversias de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas.

“Las partes en una controversia cuya continuación sea susceptible de poner en peligro el mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad internacionales tratarán de buscarle solución, ante todo, mediante la negociación, la investigación, la mediación, la conciliación, el arbitraje, el arreglo judicial, el recurso a organismos o acuerdos regionales u otros medios pacíficos de su elección. El Consejo de Seguridad, si lo estimare necesario, instará a las partes a que arreglen sus controversias por dichos medios.”, reza el artículo.
En ese sentido, Fuguett explicó que el abogado o grupo de abogados que vaya en representación de Venezuela debe enfocarse en tal punto, ser un conocedor de derecho internacional y manejar a profundidad el tema del Esequibo “.

Contents (16)

1) Introduction

2) http://www.icj-cij.org/en (International Court of Justice website).

3) Personal note and musings.

Possible major future implications and adaptations for licensed areas petroleum exploration and production and petroleum already discovered and produced. If present day boundaries, inclusive offshore, were e.g. to be modified / adapted by ICJ ??

See 7 relevant maps included below.

4) 1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela

5) Guyana and Venezuela in bitter border dispute after oil discovery
A bitter row with Venezuela that goes back over a century and nearly started a war is being taken to the United Nations. By David Connett Saturday 26 September 2015 21:27

6) Essequibo, the Territorial Dispute between Venezuela and Guyana
by D. ZWAAGSTRA on JANUARY 8, 2016 · Peace Palace Library –

7)  An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land
A new oil field near Venezuela could be the miracle Maduro was waiting for. There’s just one problem — it’s in territory claimed by Guyana.- By Daniel Lansberg-Rodriguez| June 16, 2015.

8) Guyana-Venezuela: The “controversy” over the arbitral award of 1899
September 11, 2015 COHA essequibo, geneva, great britain, Guyana, Odeen Ishmael, United States, Venezuela, Washington.

9) The Discovery of Guiana by Walter Raleigh – free ebook – 344 KB – Kindle – Gutenberg.

10) Who was Robert Herman Schomburgk ?

11) British Guyana – History – Wikipedia

12) Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 – Wikipedia

13) Chronology of events – http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf

14) 25 Successive maps of Guiana from 1595 to1898: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

15) https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/el-petróleo-en-la-controversia-territorial-por-gamero-lanz/

16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

  1. https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/171/171-20180404-PRE-01-00-EN.pdf– April 04, 2018 – Filing of application.

 

Essequibo Claim 2018 - Georgetown
Essequibo Claim 2018 – Georgetown
Guyana 2018 - El Dorado feeding ourselves - Gold 100 dollars
Guyana 2018 – El Dorado feeding ourselves – Gold 100 dollars
2) https://www.icj-cij.org (International Court of Justice website).
3) Personal note and musings.

Possible major future implications and adaptations for e.g. licensed areas petroleum exploration and production and e.g. petroleum already produced, if present day boundaries, inclusive offshore, were to be modified / adapted by ICJ ??

See 5 relevant maps included below.

Offshore Licences vs Claim Area – 6 maps
Guyana - Venezuelan claims
Guyana – Venezuelan claims – Re. J. R. Gamero Lanz, LI, 2019

Offshore Guyana - Venezuela Claims - 2018 - LI
Offshore Guyana – Venezuela Claims – 2018 – LI, JR. Gamero Lanz
Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 1
Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 1

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 2
Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 2

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3
Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 4
Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 4

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3
Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 5
Essequibo Venezuelan interpretation
Essequibo, Venezuelan interpretation, 10/2019 – from LI, post Jonathan Franco, 9 October 2019, “ Presentación sobre las relaciones bilaterales Venezuela-Guyana. Personal question? I was just wondering if there was someone, invited…from Guyana present ?

4)  1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_XXVIII/331-340.pdf

1898 Arbritral Award Guyana- Venezuela
1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela -1

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 2
1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 2 -…investigate and ascertain the extent of the terrotories belonging to, or that might lawfully be claimed by, the United Netherlands or by the Kingdom of Spain respectively at the time of the acquisition by Great Britain of the Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela.

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 3
1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 3 – …the boundary-line…is as follows…(My own simple question as an explorationist: Where is the official geographical / geodetical map where these Award data are plotted on?? To be able to see it clearly. Not in poetical words but on a simple and clear cut map?)

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 4
1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 4 – …Executed and published…3rd day of October, A.D. 1899.
5) Guyana and Venezuela in bitter border dispute after oil discovery
A bitter row with Venezuela that goes back over a century and nearly started a war is being taken to the United Nations

David Connett Saturday 26 September 2015 21:27

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/guyana-and-venezuela-in-bitter-border-dispute-after-oil-discovery-a6668651.html

6) Essequibo, the Territorial Dispute between Venezuela and Guyana
by D. ZWAAGSTRA on JANUARY 8, 2016 · Peace Palace Library –

https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/2016/01/essequibo-the-territorial-dispute-between-venezuela-and-guyana/

” The origin of the territorial claim

The Essequibo (in Spanish, Esequibo), is nearly sixty percent of modern Guyana, consisting of all its territory west of the Essequibo River. The Treaty of Munster nor the London Convention defined a western boundary of (the later called) British Guyana.

In 1835 the British Empire sent a German-born naturalist and explorer Robert Herman Schomburgk to conduct geographical research in British Guyana. In the course of his explorations he produced a map between Venezuela and British Guyana. The British government then commissioned Schomburgk to demarcate the territorial boundaries. This Schomburgk Line led to Venezuela protesting British encroachment on their territory, provoking the territorial dispute that has remained unresolved to this day.

In 1850, after years of arguing over the territorial boundaries, both sides agreed not to occupy the disputed territory. Nonetheless, the dispute reignited in the decades after that with the movement of British settlers into the region and with the formation of the British Guyana Mining Company to mine the gold deposits discovered in the zone. In 1897, after pressure from the United States, it was decided by a Treaty of Arbitration (‘The Washington Treaty of Arbitration’) to submit the determination of the boundary line between British Guyana and Venezuela to arbitration. On October 3, 1899, the Arbitration Tribunal delivered its award.

Arbitration Award 1899 and Mallet-Prevost Memorandum 1949

Their decision was to grant Venezuela full control over the disputed area at the mouth of the Orinoco River (Delta Amacuro), and to grant Britain control over the remaining disputed land west of the Essequibo River (around 90% of the territory in dispute). There are different views according to how the Arbitral Award was viewed by Venezuela and Britain, but tensions rose again in 1949, when a memo from Mallet-Prevost, one of the American arbitrators on the Tribunal, was made public posthumously. In the memorandum he said that the American arbitrators had been pressured to agree to the final deal by the Russian President of the Tribunal. In 1962 the Venezuelan government declared the 1899 agreement null and void and revived their claim for all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River. ”

7)  An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land
A new oil field near Venezuela could be the miracle Maduro was waiting for. There’s just one problem — it’s in territory claimed by Guyana.

BY DANIEL LANSBERG-RODRÍGUEZ | JUNE 16, 2015, 5:09 PM –

An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land

8) Guyana-Venezuela: The “controversy” over the arbitral award of 1899
September 11, 2015 COHA essequibo, geneva, great britain, Guyana, Odeen Ishmael, United States, Venezuela, Washington

http://www.coha.org/guyana-venezuela-the-controversy-over-the-arbitral-award-of-1899/

Map Venezuela 1810
Map Venezuela 1810
9) The Discovery of Guiana by Walter Raleigh – free ebook – 344 KB – Kindle – Gutenberg – http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2272

Very simple and straightforward purpose of Walter Raleigh:

In search of discovering, conquering and seizing El Dorado:

” …Manoa, the imperial city of Guaiana, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, that for the greatness, for the riches, and for the excellent seat, it far exceedeth any of the world as is known to the Spanish nation. ”

Raleigh did not know that El Dorado included the Black Gold in the deep subsurface of Offshore. As magnificently unveiled by Lisa and Payara of ExxonMobil.Discovery Guyana 4 – “…and if we sack the River of Hacha, St. Martha, and Carthagena (= Colombia)…”

My personal note: After studying this book and trying to understand his mindset, in his writings Sir Walter Raleigh thinks, plans and philosophises voraciously and proactively about sacking and taking about everything and every place that occurs to his dear, luscious mind and/or that he visited or wanted to visit. Such as also a main part of present day Colombia. Very similar to Hernán Cortés, El Gran Conquistador de México. For the latter pls. see my post nr. 7, Historia de Nueva -España, September 2017, Chapter Various. Philosophy: Just go, conquer, seize, sack, destroy and eliminate whatever is convenient for yourself, your King, Queen and home country or country that you serve. Absolutely no mental, moral, conscientious, ” ethical ” or whatever boundaries. Only the sky is the limit ? In this light I could even imagine that Sir Raleigh would have happily volunteered, if living in 2018, to go and colonize Mars. Or to seize the Black Holes of Einstein and prof. dr. S. Hawkings. By travelling and using the Tesla Roadster of Elon Musk, now en route in our Milky Way Galaxy and Universe. That was the real philosophy in the colonial times. Goneby ??

Suriname Jungle - SW - Near boundary Guyana - Arapahu - Myself
Suriname SW Quadrant – Boundary with Guyana – Corantijn river –  My own jungle exploration trip – Arapahu – Near the El Dorado location of Sir Raleigh – Myself (…have not seen the El Dorado as described by Raleigh). This area is located near the area explored by Sir Raleigh in 1595. And was also visited and mapped by Robert Herman Schomburgk, see his Map Guiana 1872 – This 1872 map has the same land boundaries conceded to Guiana during the 1899 Arbitral Award, 27 years later. What a coincidence ? Transnational negotiation and influencing skills ?? Any other skill or competency needed ?? Apparently?

 

Discovery Guyana 1
Discovery Guyana 1 – Sir WALTER RALEIGH

 

Discovery Guyana 2
Discovery Guyana 2 – …” The country hath more quantity of gold, by manifold, than the best parts of the Indies, or Peru “.

 

Discovery Guyana 3
Discovery Guyana 3 – “…an easier way to invade the best parts thereof than by the common course. The king of Spain is not so impoverished by taking three or four ports in America..”

 

Discovery Guyana 4
Discovery Guyana 4 – “…and if we sack the River of Hacha, St. Martha, and Carthagena (= Colombia)…”                                                               My personal note: After studying this book and trying to understand his mindset, in his writings Sir Walter Raleigh thinks, plans and philosophises voraciously and proactively about sacking and taking about everything and every place that occurs to his dear, luscious mind and/or that he visited or wanted to visit. Such as also a main part of present day Colombia. Very similar to Hernán Cortés, El Gran Conquistador de México. For the latter pls. see my post nr. 7, Historia de Nueva -España, September 2017, Chapter Various. Philosophy: Just go, conquer, seize, sack, destroy and eliminate whatever is convenient for yourself, your King, Queen and home country or country that you serve. Absolutely no mental, moral, conscientious, ” ethical ” or whatever boundaries. Only the sky is the limit ? In this light I could even imagine that Sir Raleigh would have happily volunteered, if living in 2018, to go and colonize Mars. Or to seize the Black Holes of Einstein and prof. dr. S. Hawkings. By travelling and using the Tesla Roadster of Elon Musk, now en route in our Milky Way Galaxy and Universe. That was the real philosophy. Goneby ??

 

Discovery Guyana 5
Discovery Guyana 5 – ” If we take the ports…of Uraba ”  etc. (= Colombia).

 

Discovery Guyana 6
Discovery Guyana 6 – …” a better Indies for her Majesty than the king of Spain hath any..”.

 

Discovery Guyana 7
Discovery Guyana 7 – …” sixth of February, in the year 1595, we departed England,..”.

 

Discovery Guyana 8
Discovery Guyana 8 – …” Manoa, the imperial city of Guaiana, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, that for the greatness, for the riches, and for the excellent seat, it far exceedeth any of the world as is known to the Spanish nation”.

 

Discovery of Guyana 9
Discovery of Guyana 9 – … ” the court and magnificence of Guyana Capac,…”.

 

Discovery of Guyana 10
Discovery of Guyana 10 – Location of El Dorado according to Walter Raleigh (this map taken from internet – is not included in the Gutenberg e-edition).

 

Raleigh map 1575 - Discovery of Guyana 11
Raleigh map 1595? – Discovery of Guyana 11
10) Who was Robert Herman Schomburgk ?

He made / was entrusted to make the map that included the west Essequibo area as an integral part of British Guiana.

Map Guiana 1872 - Robert Herman Schomburgk
Map Guiana 1872 – Robert Herman Schomburgk – Green line is border claim line according to Venezuela – Pink line is border claim line according to Brazil.

This map was ” apparently ” used, given the very high degree of similitude. Thus served as the basis for the 1899 Arbitral Award. In my humble opinion it is crucial and determinant for the present day ongoing controversy.

Sketch Map Guiana 1832 - With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch
Sketch Map Guiana 1832 – With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 1

 

Sketch Map Guiana 1832 - With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 2
Sketch Map Guiana 1832 – With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 2 _ Note that Guiana was officially ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

…in 1835, he was entrusted by the Royal Geographical Society, London with conducting an expedition of exploration of British Guiana.

…In 1841, he returned to Guiana, this time as a British Government official to survey the colony and fix its eastern and western boundaries. The result was the provisional boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela, known as the “Schomburgk Line”, and the boundary with the Dutch colony of Surinam.(Note that this became the official boundary during the 1899 Award).

Map Guiana 1875 - Royal Geographical Society London - Robert Herman Schomburgk
Map Guiana 1875 – Royal Geographical Society London – Robert Herman Schomburgk – Please note the gradual and substantial encroachment / enlargement of Guyana’s territory. When comparing the successive geographical sketch maps in the period 1830 – 1896. Such as the previous 1832 Sketch map with probable boundaries versus the 1872 map. With substantial area added by Robert Herman Schomburgk. Area added comprises the totality of the area previously indicated on the maps as claimed by Portuguese and Dutch. This map also represents the territorial boundaries after the 1899 Award. Abrakadabra, et voilà, a new map and a larger country. How easy. Just consult with Mr. Robert H. Schomburgk if you wish to enlarge your country boundaries.

Question? Was above map used / allowed to use as a basis for decision making, by the 5 honorable judges, during the 1899 Award ???

Map Gran Colombia - Venezuela - 1819 - including Essequibo boundary
Map Gran Colombia – including Venezuela – 1819 – includes the Essequibo border.

 

1778 - Mapa de La Nueva Andalucía - Provincias de Cumaná y Guyana
1778 – Mapa de La Nueva Andalucía – Provincias de Cumaná y Guyana – on this map Guyana area was part of Spain. Province of Guyana located within The New Andalucía .

 

Map Guiana 1896 - With probable boundaries - And boundary lines of area claimed by others 1
Map Guiana 1896 – With probable boundaries – And boundary lines of area claimed by others 1

 

Map Guiana 1896 - With probable boundaries - And boundary lines of area claimed by others 2
Map Guiana 1896 – With probable boundaries – And boundary lines of area claimed by others 2

A) https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hermann_Schomburgk

B) A Description of British Guiana, Geographical and Statistical, Exhibiting its Resources and Capabilities, Together with the Present and Future Condition and Prospects of the Colony
Geographical, Statistical
Auteur: Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk

11) British Guyana – History – Wikipedia

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Guiana

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Guiana

The first European to discover Guiana was Sir Walter Raleigh, an English explorer. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle there, starting in the early 17th century, when they founded the colonies of Essequibo and Berbice, adding Demerara in the mid-18th century. In 1796, Great Britain took over these three colonies during hostilities with the French, who had occupied the Netherlands. Britain returned control to the Batavian Republic in 1802, but captured the colonies a year later during the Napoleonic Wars. The colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814, and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colony’s capital was at Georgetown (known as Stabroek prior to 1812).

The English made at least two unsuccessful attempts in the 17th century to colonise the lands that would later be known as British Guiana, at which time the Dutch had established two colonies in the area: Essequibo, administered by the Dutch West India Company, and Berbice, administered by the Berbice Association. The Dutch West India Company founded a third colony, Demerara, in the mid-18th century. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the late 18th century, when the Netherlands were occupied by the French, and Great Britain and France were at war, Britain took over the colony in 1796. A British expeditionary force was dispatched from its colony of Barbados to seize the colonies from the French-dominated Batavian Republic. The colonies surrendered without a struggle. Initially very little changed, as the British agreed to allow the long-established laws of the colonies to remain in force.

In 1802 Britain returned the colonies to the Batavian Republic under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. But, after resuming hostilities with France in the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, Britain seized the colonies again less than a year later. The three colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The UK continued separate administration of the individual colonies until 1822, when the administration of Essequibo and Demerara was combined. In 1831, the administration Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice was combined, and the united colony became known as British Guiana.

12) Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Dutch_Treaty_of_1814

The Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands in London on 13 August 1814. It was signed by Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh for the British and Hendrik Fagel for the Dutch.

The treaty returned the colonial possessions of the Dutch as they were at 1 January 1803 before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, in the Americas, Africa, and Asia with the exceptions of the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice (later consolidated as British Guiana), where the Dutch retained trading rights.

In addition, the British ceded the island of Banca off the island of Sumatra in exchange for the settlement of Cochin in India and its dependencies on the coast of Malabar. The Dutch also ceded the district of Bernagore, situated close to Calcutta, in exchange for an annual fee.

The treaty also noted a declaration of 15 June 1814 by the Dutch, that ships for the slave trade were no longer permitted in British ports and it agreed that this restriction would be extended to a ban on involvement in the slave trade by Dutch citizens. Britain also agreed to pay £1,000,000 to Sweden to resolve a claim to the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe (see Guadeloupe Fund). The British and the Dutch agreed to spend £2,000,000 each on improving the defences of the Low Countries. More funds, of up to £3,000,000, are mentioned for the “final and satisfactory settlement of the Low Countries in union with Holland.”

Disputes arising from this treaty were the subject of the Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1824.

13) Chronology of events – http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf
http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf
14) 25 Successive maps of Guiana from 1595 to 1898:

http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

15) https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/el-petróleo-en-la-controversia-territorial-por-gamero-lanz/
16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

http://16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

Following is what Mr. Mallet-Prevost and General Harrison (President of the United States, 1888-1892; grandson of President William Henry Harrison), both negotiators and Harrison senior Counsel for Venezuela declared to Reuter, immediately after the award was announced on Oct. 3, 1899.

(Re. Clifton J. Child, The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693 – The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899).

” So long as arbitration was to be conducted on such principles it could not be regarded a success, at least by those who believed that arbitration would result in an admission of legal rights and not in compromises really diplomatic in their character “.

V-B Boundary Arbitration 1899
V-B Boundary Arbitration 1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. Guyana – Legal challenge campaigners against 3 oil giants

24. Guyanese campaigners mount legal challenge against three oil giants
Crowdfunded case claims offshore oil licences were granted illegally by the Guyanese government

A)

Sandra Laville
Thu 22 Mar 2018 11.48 GMT

Three major oil companies preparing to drill off the shores of Guyana, where a string of discoveries have sparked a rush for crude, are being challenged by a group of citizens who say their dash for oil is illegal.

Lawyers acting for the Guyanese campaigners are to lodge the latest challenge in a court in Guyana this week. They are funding the battle against oil giants Exxon Mobil, Hess Corporation and Nexen, a subsidiary of Chinese national oil, through the crowdfunding site CrowdJustice.

Offshore drilling off the coast of Guyana is seen as one of the most sought-after prospects in the world for oil companies. Analysts predict offshore drilling could provide 350,000 to 400,000 barrels a day by 2026, while Exxon has predicted 500,000 barrels a day.

But concerned citizens of the small South American country, which has never been an oil producer, are challenging the oil giants.

Melinda Janki, one of the lawyers representing the Guyanese campaigners, said the granting of licences to drill by the government was illegal. Under Guyanese law, a licence to drill can only be granted if an environmental permit has been obtained by the company involved.

“It is very simple. If you want to extract oil in Guyana you need an environmental permit in order to get a petroleum production licence,” she said. “Only one of the three companies involved has an environmental permit. We are seeking an order to quash the decision by the minister to issue the licence because, we are saying, he acted illegally.”

Janki lodged an appeal earlier this month after the first attempt to quash the granting of the licences was rejected by a judge.

Ramon Gaskin of A Fair Deal for Guyana campaign said: “In my opinion the government has sold off Guyana’s oil without a care for the environment, without a care for the people, without a care for fishermen and others who stand to lose everything from a spill, without a care for Guyana’s marine environment which could be totally destroyed, without a care for future generations who might inherit nothing but an oil slick, and without any understanding whatsoever of the dangers of climate change. People also have to understand that an oil spill or a well blow-out could harm our Caribbean neighbours and Guyana could be liable for that damage.”

The oil companies oppose the legal claim.

Reblogged & full credit from:

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/22/guyanese-campaigners-mount-legal-challenge-against-three-oil-giants

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

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B) On Mrs. Melinda Janki, one of the lawyers representing the Guyanese campaigners and on Ramon Gaskin:

Ramon Gaskin launches new political group

 

https://www.thenatureofcities.com/author/melindajanki/

http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/m__janki_1.pdf

 

 

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

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23. Guyana – ENI interest

23. Italian supermajor expresses interest in drilling offshore Guyana
Mar 26, 2018 Government, Ministry of Natural Resources, News

A) http://dpi.gov.gy/italian-supermajor-expresses-interest-in-drilling-offshore-guyana/

An Italian oil and gas exploration company could be the “new kid on the block”, if the Government of Guyana gives its go-ahead, for it to carry out exploration offshore Guyana.

Minster of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman with officials from Italian oil company ENI.

ENI is a multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome. It is considered one of the world’s largest publicly owned oil and gas companies, also known as supermajor. It operates in 79 countries and is currently the world’s eleventh largest industrial company with a market capitalisation of 68 billion euros.

Earlier today, Minister of Natural Resources, Raphael Trotman met the company’s Senior Vice President, Guido Zappala and his team at the Natural Resources Ministry, where he received a packaged plan of action from the company’s representatives.

Speaking to the Department of Public Information (DPI) today, minutes after the meeting, Minister Trotman said the oil company had, since last year, expressed its interest to the government.

“So, we had a long discussion with them about their practices elsewhere, what they are looking for. And obviously Guyana’s basin has become attractive and they have assured us that they are not worried about the current issue between Guyana and Venezuela. They are prepared to pursue and should there be any cause for concern they will manage.”

According to Minister Trotman, ENI, which is partly owned by the Italian government, has an excellent track record in terms of safety and good environmental practices. The company he said, has been lending its support to other countries, helping to develop their renewable energy capacity.

“Thirty percent of the shares is owned by the government. So, you actually have a company that is undergirded by the government and is a main driver of the economy of Italy,” he said.

His next move, he said, will be to prepare a report to present to President David Granger for his consideration.

The company has suggested another meeting in the next two weeks.

By: Alexis Rodney

B) ENI’s 2018 – 2021 Strategy

https://www.eni.com/en_IT/investors/strategy/strategic-plan-2018-2021.page

C) ENI 2017 results:

https://www.eni.com/docs/en_IT/enicom/media/press-release/2018/02/eni-fourth-quarter-2017-results-ceo-claudio-descalzi-comments-results.pdf

39 pages.

ENI 2017 results
ENI 2017 results

D) Orinduik Block Reserves

Eco - Reserves - 9/2018
Eco – Reserves – 9/2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

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22. Guyana – Gas – Reinjection and electricity generation onshore.

Contents:

1) Commercialization of gas from Guyana’s oil fields will be growing challenge – Wood Mack – 9/3/2018.

2) Exxon, Guyana look at bringing gas ashore to generate electricity – B.Wilkinson – 20/9/2017.

1) Commercialization of gas from Guyana’s oil fields will be growing challenge – Wood Mack;

Reblogged, credit and map from:
By Oil Now – March 9, 2018.

As more oil discoveries continue to be made offshore the South American country of Guyana the commercialization of gas will become a bigger challenge.

Analyst Wood Mackenzie says lack of infrastructure and a visible marketization plan for commercializing gas which inadvertently accompanies the crude – of which 3.2 billion recoverable barrels have so far been found – means reinjection is the likely scenario in the foreseeable future.

Elena Nikolova
“As discoveries grow, so does the importance of the question on how gas will be evacuated from the field. And for now we assume that no gas makes it to market; it’s either use for reinjection or infield use given the lack of infrastructure or visibility on marketization plans,” says Elena Nikolova, Latin America Upstream Analyst.

Ms. Nikolova says there is potential for more significant oil discoveries in Guyana which would add to the volume already discovered at Stabroek Block, and in so doing, also increase the volume of natural gas.

ExxonMobil Guyana Commercial Manager, Peter Dillon, told a private sector forum on

Peter Dillon
Tuesday that the primary use of natural gas from the fields at this time would be for reinjection into the reservoirs to maximize crude production. However, he said the oil company recognizes the importance of natural gas to the Guyanese economy and as such is in discussions to see if limited volumes of associated natural gas can be commercialized from Liza Phase 1.

Oil production from the Liza Phase 1 development is set to get underway by March of 2020. Already plans are underway for a Liza Phase 2 in 2022 and a third development at the Payara/Pacora fields by 2023.

2) Exxon, Guyana look at bringing gas ashore to generate electricity

Exxon, Guyana look at bringing gas ashore to generate electricity

Reblogged and credit:

By Bert Wilkinson – Caribbean Life News- NY

Oil rigs and production
United States oil giant ExxonMobil and Guyanese authorities this week started two days of talks to determine whether it is feasible to run a 100-mile plus undersea pipeline bringing natural gas from its offshore wells to generate power for the Guyana Power and Light Corporation, the main state utility.

Spokeswoman Kimberly Brasington said Exxon has flown in a special team of specialists from headquarters in Texas to crunch numbers with officials in the country which is anxious to reduce dependency on fossil fuels for power generation.

“Yes we are starting the conversation on how it can be done and whether it should be done. If it is done, it will bring down the cost of power generation and it is cleaner,” Brasington said.

ExxonMobil had back in 2015 declared “a world class” oil and gas find off the Guyana coast and has already drilled eight of 17 wells it plans for the first phase of operations. Actual production is expected to begin in late 2019 or early 2020 with an estimated daily tally of more than 100,000 barrels/day and quickly expanding to 400,000 barrels/day. At that rate, Guyana will easily surpass Trinidad at 70,000 making it not only the latest country in the region to produce oil and gas but the largest.

The find has sent the country, which doubles as the headquarters of the 15-nation Caribbean single trading bloc of nations, into a tailspin as it rushes to prepare for transformation from centuries of dependence on gold, sugar, bauxite, rice and timber to one dominated by oil and gas.

Dozens of oil companies have applied for blocks, while the larger ones like Repsol of Spain and Tullow Oil of the United Kingdom are already preparing to begin exploratory works near Exxon’s Stabroek Block.

Brasington said the teams will study the possibility of running undersea pipelines from a floating production, storage and offloading facility the company is constructing to move crude oil from its wells, about 120 miles offshore Guyana.

Guyana says it spends $100M annually to import fuel to power generators and wants the gas Exxon will find while pumping oil to be brought ashore for domestic and commercial purposes.

“As the first of such sessions, the government of Guyana looks forward to furthering its understanding of the technical and key dynamics of proposed projects in an effort to diversify the energy mix in Guyana,” Minister of Public Infrastructure David Patterson,” said.

September 20, 2017 – Caribbean Life News- NY

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

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21. Would Venezuela invade Guyana?

Inserted on 26 December 2018: Venezuela-invades-Guyana.

https://guyaneseonline.net/2018/12/26/venezuela-invades-guyana-to-block-exxon-mobil-oil-exploration-frances-martel-breitbart/#more-71524

This post is from 28 february 2018

Comment and important observation, as an independant petroleum consultant and observer.

Suriname represents at this moment the lowest political risk country for petroleum exploration in the very prospective Guyana Basin.

This because of the following 3 crucial petroleum industry investment aspects.

They have a proactive attitude for promoting petroleum exploration and attracting IOC’s since 3 decades.

Suriname has already settled and defined all its territorial and offshore boundaries with neighbouring countries. So no conflict possible on this important political theme for IOC’s.

Also the legal status of the Fiscal Stability Clauses and other commitments made to IOC’s in their PSC’s with Staatsolie is saveguarded, as a draft state decree has been recently approved.

French Guyana, France, president Macron, has banned petroleum exploration. Important discoveries of Tullow Oil and Shell are therefore stranded. And represent probably some hundreds of millions US$ of lost exploration money.

Guyana is extremely successful, with already ten grand discoveries of ExxonMobil (at dec. 2018). Really a fabulous exploration and drilling job by ExxonMobil.

Guyana is definitely entering a booming petroleum and economic cycle (…assuming, absence of the terrible Oil Curse and the Dutch Disease. That as a mere cold fact, up to now, unfortunately, generally affect most non-highly-developed oil rich countries).

But, but, but, Guyana does have a severe legal land dispute with Venezuela on the area west of Essequibo river (ca. 159,500 km2, more that half of present day Guyana territory; since 1841,1895-1899 Land Dispute).

To be ” resolved ” (and who knows redefined ??) by the ICJ in The Hague.

For example, just hypothetical at this stage (2018).

What if the western Guyana / eastern Venezuela territorial land and thus also offshore boundaries were to be adapted and/or changed by the ICJ ruling (takes on average 6 years for a ruling).

To whom would all the petroleum already discovered, produced or to-be-discovered belong, on the then resultant final offshore map ??

Explorationist, oil investor, faites vos jeux, success.

And, If for geo-strategic bargaining reasons? Yes, what if ??

21. Would Venezuela invade Guyana ?

Re: my Linkedin post of 25 februari 2017

Explorer? Yes. What if?? Consequences.

1) “Any Venezuelan military action against Guyana comes with major implications for foreign energy companies already doing business there. ExxonMobil, for example, is planning to continue oil exploration drilling off Guyana’s coast in 2018, and other private companies own stakes in offshore blocks. Naval activity by Venezuela or the United States would disrupt business plans and increase the risk to personnel from oil companies with current or future operations in Guyana or neighboring Trinidad and Tobago.”

2) “Indagado sobre o contencioso entre a Venezuela e a Guiana, na questão de Essequibo, objeto de disputa entre os dois países, o ministro Raul Jungmann declarou: “O dissenso do Essequibo diz respeito à Venezuela e à Guiana, mas o Brasil, que possui uma das maiores fronteiras do mundo, construiu seus limites sempre por vias diplomáticas, ou recorrendo ao arbitramento, deixa sua história como um legado de que a solução pacífica para os litígios de fronteiras é fundamental para a estabilidade da região”. Jungmann acrescentou: “Não se pode admitir, portanto, para o equilíbrio da região, qualquer saída pela força”. FONTE: Ministério da Defesa – www.forte.jor.br.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

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A) Credit & reblogged from: https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/would-venezuela-invade-guyana –  Feb 8, 2018 | 20:54 GMT

Would Venezuela Invade Guyana?
According to an unconfirmed report, a Brazilian government delegation plans to meet with Guyana and Suriname about a possible Venezuelan military incursion into Guyana.
For Venezuela, entering Guyanese territory could delay an International Court of Justice border ruling and even grant Caracas a bargaining chip in amnesty negotiations with the United States.
The incursion would come with great risks for Caracas, as it may invite a harsh response from Washington.
A Brazilian delegation’s quick trip to Guyana and Suriname suggests things are moving beneath the surface of the border dispute between Venezuela and Guyana. On Feb. 7, Brazilian President Michel Temer approved a trip by Defense Minister Raul Jungmann, Justice Minister Torquato Jardim and Institutional Security Cabinet Chief Sergio Etchegoyen to Guyana and Suriname. According to Agencia Estado, the visit’s purpose is to discuss border security with the Guyanese and Surinamese governments. However, an unconfirmed report in Brazilian paper O Antagonista claimed the real reason behind the visit was to share information that Brazil’s intelligence services had learned about Venezuela considering a military incursion into Guyana.

Venezuela has claimed ownership over the Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River since 1962. But recently, the U.N. Secretary General referred the border dispute issue to the International Court of Justice, which may issue a binding decision on the matter within the next several years. According to the O Antagonista report, Brazil’s information claims that the Venezuelan government is considering siezing that territory. On Feb. 8, the Brazilian ministers visited their country’s Roraima state, an area bordering Guyana and Venezuela that has seen tens of thousands of Venezuelan refugees pour across the border in recent months as unrest in the country grows.

Much to Lose, Much to Gain
It may seem as though an incursion into Guyana would only further erode the country’s current situation. And right now, O Antagonista is the only open source outlet reporting the alleged Venezuelan plan to enter Guyana militarily. Caracas is under increasing economic pressure at home, as hyperinflation accelerates by the day and the United States threatens sanctions that will choke off Venezuela’s economic lifeline to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Seizing even a small part of territory west of the Essequibo River would draw U.S. attention toward Venezuela’s economic crisis and its slide into dictatorship, increasing the likelihood that Washington will employ heavier sanctions or intervene more directly.

But there are a number of political considerations that may motivate Caracas to make a move. In the short term, the incursion could help Caracas in its ongoing dialogue with the Trump administration over the terms of President Nicolas Maduro and his party’s departure from power. The Venezuelan president won’t leave power — or even loosen his party’s grip over the opposition — unless he has assurances from Washington that he and his acolytes will receive some form of amnesty. And seizing and holding Guyanese territory might offer Caracas a bargaining chip, allowing it to wrangle a better amnesty deal in exchange for a troop withdrawal.

In the long run, holding Guyanese territory could offer Venezuela a way to delay the International Court of Justice’s ruling about the border dispute. After all, the court may hold off on a ruling if Venezuelan troops are present in Guyanese territory. Moreover, the Maduro government may be counting on the incursion to pump up nationalism among Venezuelans. By directing attention outside its borders, the government could be able to buy time before organized domestic unrest gain critical mass, or even forestall any possible military coup attempt by moving units far from the capital.

Envisioning the Incursion
If a military incursion does happen, the majority of Venezuela’s armed forces would likely enter Guyanese territory by helicopter. Some troops may enter by ground, but they would be limited by the dense jungles and lack of roads in the region. Similarly, moving naval forces along Guyana’s coast would be difficult given Venezuela’s limited naval capabilities. But the Venezuelan military does have aerial superiority over the Guyanese, as well as plenty of members of the National Guard and regular armed forces already situated in the eastern part of the country. Guyana, on the other hand, has extremely limited armed forces, which it would struggle to transport to its western border. Ultimately, it would be relatively easy for Venezuela to deploy just a few hundred troops into Guyana to seize limited points such as villages, bridges, or roads throughout the country.

In addition to the logistical challenges Venezuela would face — such as getting enough food rations for its armed forces — there is also the political risk for Caracas that the United States would respond harshly to an incursion into Guyana. So far, Washington has chosen to slowly and selectively raise pressure on Venezuela’s government through escalating sanctions. But Venezuela’s forceful seizure of the land west of the Essequibo River — even if it is disputed — would spark major debate within the White House. The Trump administration would have to either let Venezuela keep land that it could use as leverage, or act against the country in some way. Right now, the United States has a range of options to pressure Venezuela and may choose to implement much heavier economic sanctions. But it may eventually have to contemplate military actions, though a wider conflict with the Venezuelan armed forces would be difficult for Washington as it faces other foreign policy crises across the world.

Any Venezuelan military action against Guyana comes with major implications for foreign energy companies already doing business there. ExxonMobil, for example, is planning to continue oil exploration drilling off Guyana’s coast in 2018, and other private companies own stakes in offshore blocks. Naval activity by Venezuela or the United States would disrupt business plans and increase the risk to personnel from oil companies with current or future operations in Guyana or neighboring Trinidad and Tobago.

Right now, the rumors surrounding the Brazilian delegation’s sudden trip to Guyana and Suriname are just that — rumors. But although it would come with major risk, there is logic behind a Venezuelan incursion into Guyanese territory, and many eyes will likely be trained on the region west of the Essequibo River in the coming months.

B) Brasil has stated that it only accepts a peaceful solution as the largest country in South America with boundaries with Venezuela and Guyana. For the stability of the region.

Brasil só aceita saída pacífica para disputa entre Venezuela e Guiana, diz Jungmann – 10 de Fevereiro de 2018 7492 153 – 

Reference – reblogged from:  http://www.forte.jor.br/2018/02/10/brasil-so-aceita-saida-pacifica-para-disputa-entre-venezuela-e-guiana-diz-jungmann/

Georgetown (Guiana), 09/02/2018 – Em missão oficial à região norte da América do Sul, o ministro da Defesa, Raul Jungmann, acompanhado dos ministros da Justiça, Torquato Jardim, e do Gabinete de Segurança Institucional, Sérgio Etchegoyen, estabeleceu acordos de cooperação com a Guiana para combate aos crimes transnacionais.

Os compromissos abrangem parcerias no enfrentamento aos crimes de tráfico de drogas, de armas, pessoas, contrabando e descaminho.

Este encontro é a continuidade de uma série de reuniões bilaterais realizadas com todos os países da América do Sul, com exceção da Venezuela, cujo ministro da Defesa não respondeu a um convite feito há mais de dois meses por seu contraparte brasileiro.

Na oportunidade pautas como crimes cibernéticos, terrorismo, capacitação militar, troca de informações, atuação conjunta nas fronteiras e parceria nos sistemas de vigilância e monitoramento Sisfron e Sivam foram discutidas.

Indagado sobre o contencioso entre a Venezuela e a Guiana, na questão de Essequibo, objeto de disputa entre os dois países, o ministro Raul Jungmann declarou:

“O dissenso do Essequibo diz respeito à Venezuela e à Guiana, mas o Brasil, que possui uma das maiores fronteiras do mundo, construiu seus limites sempre por vias diplomáticas, ou recorrendo ao arbitramento, deixa sua história como um legado de que a solução pacífica para os litígios de fronteiras é fundamental para a estabilidade da região”.

Jungmann acrescentou: “Não se pode admitir, portanto, para o equilíbrio da região, qualquer saída pela força. O Brasil não aceita essa possibilidade e isso vale não só para esse dissenso, como para qualquer outro, pois esse é um princípio constitucional de nosso País”, disse o ministro.

50 anos de cooperação

Em cerimônia realizada em Baribi Benad,State House, o ministro da Defesa, Raul Jungmann, recebeu a medalha Coroa do Cacique, honraria concedida pelo presidente David Granger pelo reconhecimento da Guiana ao compromisso do Ministério com a nação, com leis e tratados já definidos.

O presidente Granger destacou, durante seu discurso, que a visita da comitiva brasileira marcou o início das comemorações dos 50 anos de cooperação entre os dois países.

FONTE: Ministério da Defesa

C) Refererence, reblogged from University Durham, IBRU, Centre for Borders Research.

UN refers Guyana-Venezuela border dispute to the ICJ
(31 January 2018)

United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres has recommended that the Guyana – Venezuela border dispute be referred to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) after a year of talks failed to make progress.

UN representative Dag Halvor Nylander from Norway had been appointed by the UN to help broker a settlement by the end of 2017, however it was concluded that significant progress had not been made towards arriving at a full agreement for the resolution of the dispute.

The century long border dispute escalated in May 2015 when oil was found in disputed waters off the coast of Venezuela.

Guyana’s foreign ministry said it welcomed the decision, stating that the ICJ is the “appropriate forum for the peaceful and definitive settlement of the controversy, and is pleased that that view has prevailed under the process.”

Sources:

http://www.straitstimes.com/world/americas/un-refers-guyana-venezuela-border-dispute-to-icj

https://demerarawaves.com/2018/01/30/un-secretary-general-sends-guyana-venezuela-border-controversy-to-world-court/

20. ExxonMobil 7, 8, 9, 10th oil discovery offshore Guyana

ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil 8 Discoveries @ June 2018
ExxonMobil 8 Discoveries @ June 2018

20. Discovery nr. 10, 3th December 2018

The Pluma-1 well encountered approximately 121 feet (37 meters) of high-quality hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoir. Pluma-1 reached a depth of 16,447 feet (5,013 meters) in 3,340 feet (1,018 meters) of water. The Noble Tom Madden drillship began drilling on Nov. 1. The well is located approximately 17 miles (27 kilometers) south of the Turbot-1 well. The Noble Tom Madden will next drill the Tilapia-1 prospect located 3.4 miles (5.5 kilometers) west of the Longtail-1 well.

ExxonMobil makes 8th oil discovery offshore Guyana – Longtail 1- 20th June, 2018

http://news.exxonmobil.com/press-release/exxonmobil-announces-eighth-discovery-offshore-guyana

ExxonMobil makes 7th oil discovery offshore Guyana

United States (US) oil giant, ExxonMobil, has found even more oil offshore Guyana but a company spokesman would not be drawn into comment about the amount found.

Spokeswoman, Kimberley Brasington confirmed an announcement earlier Tuesday by Minister of Natural Resources that there has been another major oil find.   

She said the Pacora-1 Well, where the latest oil deposit has been found, is located about four kilometers north-west of Payara well and the rock. The well, saw the discovery of approximately 65 ft of oil-bearing sandstone reservoir that is expected to bring Guyana production to more than 500,000 B/D.

Last month, the company said the Ranger 1 well which contains 230 feet (70 meters) of high-quality, oil-bearing carbonate reservoir. The well was drilled to 21,161 ft depth in 8,973 ft of water. Appraisal drilling at the Ranger discovery may take place later this year 2018.

Barring Wednesday morning’s scheduled announcement of the details of Pacora, the company said it has so far found 3.2 billion barrels of oil from six wells at the 6.6 million acre Stabroek Block.

Stena Carron

The Minister of Natural Resources labelled as an “excellent record” the work of the drill-ship, Stena Carron. “We so far have an excellent record and I would like to congratulate the crew of the Stena Carron which has been the ship that has done ninety percent of the discoveries without a day lost or any injury or any man-hours lost and that is commendable and, of course,  it has been done in a very efficient way,” Trotman said in a video release.

ExxonMobil is scheduled to begin commercial oil production from the Liza 1 well offshore Guyana in 2020.

Reference; reblogged from:

https://guyaneseonline.wordpress.com/2018/02/28/exxonmobil-makes-7th-oil-discovery-offshore-guyana/

2) Feb 28, 2018 – 08:00 a.m. EST

ExxonMobil Announces Seventh Oil Discovery Offshore Guyana
Pacora-1 well encounters approximately 65 feet of high-quality, oil-bearing sandstone
High quality resources to be integrated into giant Payara field development
Further drilling on the Stabroek Block planned in 2018
Dateline: IRVING, Texas

Public Company Information:
Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) announced today its seventh oil discovery offshore Guyana, following drilling at the Pacora-1 exploration well.

ExxonMobil encountered approximately 65 feet (20 meters) of high-quality, oil-bearing sandstone reservoir. The well was safely drilled to 18,363 feet (5,597 meters) depth in 6,781 feet (2,067 meters) of water. Drilling commenced on Jan. 29, 2018.

“This latest discovery further increases our confidence in developing this key area of the Stabroek Block,” said Steve Greenlee, president of ExxonMobil Exploration Company. “Pacora will be developed in conjunction with the giant Payara field, and along with other phases, will help bring Guyana production to more than 500,000 barrels per day.”

The Pacora-1 well is located approximately four miles west of the Payara-1 well, and follows previous discoveries on the Stabroek Block at Liza, Payara, Liza Deep, Snoek, Turbot and Ranger.

Following completion of the Pacora-1 well, the Stena Carron drillship will move to the Liza field to drill the Liza-5 well and complete a well test, which will be used to assess concepts for the Payara development. ExxonMobil announced project sanctioning for the Liza phase one development in June 2017. Following Liza-5, the Stena Carron will conduct additional exploration and appraisal drilling on the block.

The Stabroek Block is 6.6 million acres (26,800 square kilometers). Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited is operator and holds 45 percent interest in the Stabroek Block. Hess Guyana Exploration Ltd. holds 30 percent interest and CNOOC Nexen Petroleum Guyana Limited holds 25 percent interest.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

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6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

6. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Descubrimiento de America

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Viajes de Cristobal Colón – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

3. Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

4. La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos: Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America.

& History: How African Muslims “Civilized Spain”

https://www.globalresearch.ca/before-columbus-how-africans-brought-civilization-to-america/5407584

1) Introduction

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…”

Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

As a child at primary school, I became interested in Cristobal Colón and his voyages, during the history classes.

l was born and grew up on Curacao. An island in the Caribbean discovered by Alonso de Ojeda, one of the captains of the ships of Cristobal Colon, during his third voyage, in 1499.

Curazao, 1499, Descubrimiento - MCAL
Discovery of Curazao: 1499..descubriendo las islas de Curazao, p. 5. Noticia cronologica de algunos viajes y descubrimientos marítimos hechos por los Espanoles por Fernandez de Navarrete, Martin, 1803, 16 p. – http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000081158&page=1 – MCAL

Additionally, as a child, I was able to make 4 transatlantic crossings in cruise liners with my parents and family. Covering often about the same route. This made Colon’s voyages even more imaginable, appreciable, vivid and intriguing to me. Since I was 6.

My interest has persisted in reading about the travels of Colon. Discovery trips in search of the still unknown.

Also related with the fascinating history of the Caribbean, Middle and South America, soon afterwards brutally conquered and submitted by Spain.

La Conquista.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Estatua Cristóbal Colón – Madrid – my own pic. – MCAL

Columbus sailed from Palos de la Frontera on 3 August, 1492. With three ships, the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María.

The 12th October is celebrated in whole Latin America, as it is the ” Discovery Day of America by Christophorus Columbus “.

We have visited the replica’s of his flagship Santa Maria (a “nao”,18 m. length; crew of 52) in different countries. Such as in Venezuela, Caracas, in the Parque del Este. In Barcelona, in the harbour.

And with the well known, famous ” Santa María ” in 1957 we made a transatlantic crossing with my parents, from Lisbon to Curacao. The Portuguese cruise liner, from the Companhia Colonial de Navegacao, in the sixties and seventies. First cruise liner to be hijacked the 9th January 1961 by Henrique Galvao. By a ” terrorist ” we would say in 2017.

Impressive the monument,dedicated to Colón and his crew, in Plaza Colon, Madrid.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – “…cruzaron por primera vez el océano y vieron el alba del Nuevo Mundo…” – Historical explorers and discoverers – my own pic. MCAL

Following are a few pages on the voyages that called my attention. Specific aspects. Such as what happened on the 12th October. This manuscript answers many questions that I had on Colon, his voyages and his life. Such as, what emotions did they have realising that they had discovered a new continent. What was going on, on the other ships and with the mariners?

Many of the original documents related to Colon are now freely available on internet. Such as in the open files of the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid. Formerly one had to travel, long and expensive, to Spain, such as to Sevilla and the ” Archivo de las Indias “, to try to get a glimpse of these historic documents. As we indeed did in the past. Now they are available for everyone, just a click away.

Archivo General de las Indias - Sevilla - MCAL
Archivo General de las Indias – Impressive building, the former ” database” of all documents from Latin America, since its discovery .- Sevilla – my own pic. MCAL

I wish to share my own findings with you. Enjoy !

A few quotes of the pages that called my attention:

” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo “.

Nota: me hace pensar en los extranjeros, inmigrantes que hoy en día llegan diariamente en patera, desembarcando en las playas, entre los bañistas. Cargados de ilusiones para su futuro. Parecido a Colón? Los frailes del convento Santa Maria de la Rabida auxiliaron piadosamente a Colon y su hijo. Sin saber que seria el gran descubridor de América.

” …el 20 de Septiembre…Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles…p.16 “.

Nota: ya se percebía la cercanía de tierras.

“…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperación al furor…p. 17”.

” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?”.

Nota: 12 Octubre 1492, el Descubrimiento de America.

“…Procedió luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “.

Plaza Colón - Madrid - MCAL
Plaza Colón – Madrid – List of the crew that accompanied Colón to America – Such as Juan Romero – my own pic. – MCAL

“…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extra habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo…Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro…tomando a bordo de la Santa María una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de inérprete…p.21 “.

Nota: estaban convencidos de estar en la India.

“…entretanto los celos y la envidia corroían las entrañas de Alonzo Pinzón…desapareció sin que sus compañeros supiesen el rumbo que seguía. Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego darles su nombreregresar el primeroa Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro…p. ?”.

Nota: los celos y la gran falsedád de Alonzo Pinzón.

“… Informados Fernando e Isabél del regreso de Colón, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de España acudió solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entró en la capital de Cataluña como un héroe…p. 26 “.

2) Viajes de Cristobal Colon – Autor Casas, Bartolomé de las (1474-1566) – Fecha – 1552?

http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000048660

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000048660&page=1 (Manuscrito, 151 paginas)

Viajes Cristóbal Colón - Bartolomé de las Casas - Manuscrito - MCAL
Bartolomé de las Casas – Manuscrito Original de 150 paginas – Incluye los Viajes de Cristóbal Colón – MCAL
Los diarios originales de los cuatro (4) viajes colombinos se han perdido, pero los hechos se han podido reconstruir en parte gracias a otros documentos.
Del primer viaje (I) se conservan dos (2) extractos escritos por fray Bartolomé de las Casas.
Uno (1) de ellos es este que comentamos, que ingresó en la Biblioteca Nacional formando parte de la magnífica biblioteca del duque de Osuna, adquirida por el Estado.
Pero el dominico no utilizó el documento original, que estaba en los archivos reales, ni es seguro que el resumen lo hiciera él mismo; más bien parece que utilizara un texto ya abreviado.
Este resumen vio la luz por primera vez en el volumen I de la Colección de viajes? de Fernández de Navarrete en 1825, y fue ampliamente traducido y reproducido.
El otro extracto (2) está incluido en la Historia de las Indias del propio De las Casas, que también guarda nuestra Biblioteca Nacional, y fue elaborado en base al primer resumen y a la biografía de Colón que escribió su hijo Hernando.
El diario del segundo viaje (II) se ha reconstruido, en la medida de lo posible, mediante las historias del dominico y del hijo de Colón, ya que ambos consultaron el escrito del almirante.
Para el tercer viaje (III), los dos autores utilizaron el diario perdido y la relación que escribió Colón a los reyes, desde La Española, publicada también por Navarrete, tomándola del documento arriba citado, que entonces, según nota del editor, estaba en la biblioteca del duque del Infantado.
Hernando Colón acompañó a su padre en el cuarto viaje (IV), y, aunque era muy joven, no pudo olvidar, al escribir la biografía del almirante, los dramáticos hechos que le tocó vivir. Hernando cuenta en esta obra que su padre envió una carta (7 de julio de 1503) a los Reyes Católicos desde Jamaica. Es la misma que se conservaba impresa en la biblioteca de Juan de Saldierna, hacia 1629, citada por León Pinelo cuando publicó la primera edición de su Epítome. Lorenzo Ramírez de Prado, del Consejo de India tenía un manuscrito de la misma carta que, traducida al italiano, se publicó en Venecia en 1505.
Contenido
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariamente sin el prologo que hizo a los Reyes, que va a la letra y comiença desta manera (h. 1-67).
Historia del viaje que el almirante don Christoval Colon hizo la tercera vez que vino a las Indias quando descubrio la tierra firme, como lo envio a los Reyes desde la Isla Spanyola (h. 67v-76).
El primer viaje y las derrotas y camino que hizo el almirante don Cristobal Colon quando descubrio las Indias, puesto sumariam…

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL

Colon – Discovery America – MCAL

Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” 18 Abril 1471 – inmediaciones puerto de Palos – 2 extrageros – Cristobal Colon y Diego su hijo ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” …el 20 de Septiembre..Por la noche unos pajarillos revolotearon cantando al rededor de los mastiles..p.16 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…aquellos hombres rudos, pasaron se la desesperacion al furor…p. 17 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – ” ….Esto ocurrio en la noche del 11 al 12 de Octubre de 1492….hizo surgir una isla del seno de las aguas ….Se veian torbellinos de humo, grupos de hombres, mujeres y niños, como sorprendidos, asustados, que se exhibian casi desnudos entre la maleza cercana a la playa…p. ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…. Procedio luego a bautizar aquella isla dandole el nombre de San Salvador…p.20 “- MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “…Convencido Colon de que aquella isla era un fragmento del Asia situado en el mar de las Indias, dio a aquellos extranos habitantes el nombre de Indios…creyendo con tal motivo el Almirante que en dicha dirección hallarían el continente señalado en las famosas narraciones del veneciano Marco Polo….Japon en donde se aseguraba que existían palacios de oro….tomando a bordo de la Santa Maria una de aquellos indios para que aprendiese la lengua castellana y sirviese de interprete…p.21 ” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “….entretanto los celos y la envidia corroian las entranas de Alonzo Pinzon…desaparecio sin que sus companeros supiesen el rumbo que seguia….Su intento era…aprovechar el descubrimiento de Colon, apoderándose sin genio y sin esfuerzo de otras tierras, y luego de darles su nombre, regresar el primero a Europa, con objeto de usurpar la flor de la gloria y de las recompensas al que habia sido su guia y su maestro….p.22 ?” – MCAL
Colon - Discovery America - MCAL
Colon – Discovery America – “… Informados Fernando e Isabel del regreso de Colon, le anunciaron que le esperaban en Barcelona. Toda la aristocracia de Espana acudio solicita a honrar al gran navegante que entro en la capital de Cataluna como un heroe…p. 26 “. – MCAL

3) Carta de Colón a los Reyes Católicos

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000202198&page=1

Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos - MCAL
Carta Colón a los Reyes Católicos – MCAL

4) La verdadera Guanahani de Colón – una carta jeográfica en que se designa el rumbo preferido…p. 135

http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000129231&page=1

Colón - carta jeográfica...P.135 - MCAL

Colón – carta jeográfica…p.135 – MCAL

5. America fue descubierto por los Africanos:

http://Before Columbus: How Africans Brought Civilization to America

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés

7. Historia de Nueva – España – Hernán Cortés – V060917

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Hernan Cortes
  3. Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado en 1770.

1) Introduction

Geschiedenis van Amerika, I and II. By Prof. Dr. C. Goslinga, Drs. C. van Noort, H.E. Sjak Shie.

One of my history books on HBS-B, Maria Immaculate Lyceum, Curacao, in the sixties.

Mister Herman Sjak Shie, one of the authors of the textbook was my history teacher. Always very enthusiastic, explaining the historical context. Such as when talking about Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) the conquerer of Mexico.

Mr. Sjak  Shie could present historical subjects in a most interesting way. I can still hear his clear voice and remember the black-white picture of Cortes in the textbook. Even in the afternoon, at the end of the school day, in the hot tropics and without air conditioning.

Amazing, nowadays accessible and available to read, all for free, on your own PC, tablet or smartphone. The original historical manuscript of 553 pages. This edition published 1770 and perfectly legible.

En general es la historia de la Conquista, de guerra y de invasion en Mexico. De como los Espanoles conquistaron y sometieron a fuerza de armamentos, a Mexico y a su poblacion y cultura india.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

These are a few of the pages and pictures that called my attention. Questions that I had assembled since long ago? While scrolling through the digital book, a lot of answers. A digital exploration and discovery voyage, such as:

The original map of La Nueva Espana, with a description of the route of his voyage on land, from coastal Vera Cruz to Mexico.

The Mexican calendar, somewhat different from the European. With 18 month’s in a year. The names of the months’s and the names of the days of each month.

” Quimichoccan: Ratones por todas partes, o por todo el rededor “, p.36.

” esta los vestigios , o los senales de los Pueblos que quemo Cortes …. p.37″.

” se dejo caer por entre los dos Volcanes a Chalco, Cuitláhuac (hoy Tláhuac) e Iztapalapa, Ciudades situadas en la Laguna, y desde esta ultima hizo su primera entrada en Mexico, donde fue recibido de Pa, y con toda magnificencia. p. 39″.

” volvió a Mexico, donde hallo revueltos los humores de los Mexicanos, que ocasionaron la muerte de su Emperador, y Monarca Muteczuma, y obligaron a Hernan Cortes a resolver su salida de noche, que aun se conoce por la noche triste, por las funestas consecuencias y trabajos que padecieron los Espanoles…p.40, 41 “.

‘ Papel en que escribian. ..se hacia de las Pencas de el Maguei. o Pita, que llaman en Espana: las echaban a podrid en Agua, lababan el hilo de ellas, ablandado le estendian para componer su Papel gruesso, que después brunian para pintar en el, p.55″.

‘ Carta de relación embijada a su Sacra Majestad del Emperador nuestro Señor, por el capitán general de la N.Espana.llamado D. Fernando Cortes. En la cual hace relación de las tierras…(2)…de la cual Ciudad, y Provincia es Rey un grandísimo Señor llamado Muteczuma…(4) del dicho Muteczuma, y de sus ritos, y ceremonias, y de como se sirve…p. 85”.

Etc. etc. etc.

Please join and enjoy ???

2) Hernan Cortes

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernán_Cortés)

Hernán Cortés - MCAL
Hernán Cortés – MCAL

This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Cortés de Monroy and the second or maternal family name is Pizarro.

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue a livelihood in the New World. He went to Hispaniola and later to Cuba, where he received an encomienda and, for a short time, became alcalde (magistrate) of the second Spanish town founded on the island. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, an expedition which he partly funded. His enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored.

Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others. He also used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter; she would later give birth to his first son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of being punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died peacefully but embittered, six years later.

Because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it has become difficult to assert anything definitive about his personality and motivations. Early lionizing of the conquistadors did not encourage deep examination of Cortés. Later reconsideration of the conquistadors’ character in the context of modern anti-colonial sentiment also did little to expand understanding of Cortés as an individual. As a result of these historical trends, descriptions of Cortés tend to be simplistic, and either damning or idealizing.

3) Libro, Historia de Nueva – Espana, por Hernan Cortes; edición publicado 1770.

(http://bdh-rd.bne.es/viewer.vm?id=0000012786&page=1).

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz

Historia Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz – MCAL

Contenido - Libro Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Contenido – Libro Hernan Cortes – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz

7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan - MCAL
Cortés invasion route from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan – MCAL
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España - Hernán Cortéz
7. Historia de Nueva España – Hernán Cortéz
Mexico - MCAL
Mexico – MCAL
Mexico - Hernan Cortes - MCAL
Mexico – Hernan Cortes – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL
Mexico - Muctezuma - MCAL
Mexico – Muctezuma – MCAL

 

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

17. Bella Italia – Rifugio Bergeria Selleries – Piemonte

1. Introduction

2. Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

3. From the Caribbean to Italy

4. Geology Fenestrelle – Parco Orsiera – Rocciavré

1) Introduction

In the summers of 1973 and 1974 I spent 7 months in NW Italy, Piemonte Province, Cottian Alps.

This area was to become the site of the Winter Olympics in 2005. Val Chisone.

Vilar Perosa in Val Chisone is home village of the famous Agnelli, Fiat dynasty family. And of their Juventus football club that every year celebrates the grande festa della Juve in august.

Il Campo sportivo di Villar Perosa è noto in tutta Italia per ospitare ogni anno la Juventus. Infatti qui viene presentata la squadra ufficiale e si svolge la consueta “partita in famiglia”, ed era nota l’immancabile presenza dell’ Avvocato Agnelli. Si tratta di una vera passerella per i nuovi giocatori, che hanno modo di presentarsi al Campionato di calcio che sta per iniziare. La partita di Villar Perosa è un appuntamento fisso della Juventus in Val Chisone: un evento estivo irrinunciabile per tutti i suoi tifosi, che possono ammirare i propri beniamini dal vivo. La consueta partita in famiglia organizzata nel “feudo” degli Agnelli è un appuntamento classico della preparazione estiva bianconera.

Since august 2018 also with CR7, Cristiano Ronaldo, and since 2019 Mathijs de Ligt, ex-Ajax, with Juve.

Located close to my thesis fieldwork area, Fenestrelle and ” Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré “.

Complemented at the end with an amazingly interesting roundtrip in Northern Italy.

With my brand new trusted, iconic and legendary Citroen 2CV AK40, ” Deux Cheveaux Vapour “.

2 Cylinders – boxer, 425 cc, 500 kg, Solex 28BCI carburator, just 10 HP and a top speed of 95 kilometres.

Classic Car anno 2017, attaining prices up to 30,000 Euro’s. In the seventies a preferred car for geology students.

Together with my fellow student. Wilbert Hocks and his dear wife Josely. On honeymoon, just married.

We were allowed to set up our 3 tents and camp together, near Rifugio Bergeria Selleries.

Località Alpe Selleries. Quota 2023 m. 10060 Roreto Chisone, Piemonte, Italy.

At a height of 2023 meters, we had a fabulous time. An Italian fairy tale. Thanks to the really splendid, open, accessible and most interested Italian people that we met. Many of them have become life-long friends. We just felt that it was also our home.

Refugio Bergeria Selleries.

And surroundings in northern Italy?

Val Chisone, Sestriere, Pragelato, Fenestrelle, Chambons, Roure, Perosa Argentina, Pinerolo, Cavour, Torino.

Val di Susa. Cuneo.

Italian Riviera, Riviera dei Fiori, Albenga, Alassio, Ventimiglia, Menton, Monaco.

Genova (then…still with ponte Morandi intact), Rapallo, Porto Fino, Carrara, Pisa, Firenze, Fiesole.

Venezia, Padova, Lago di Garda, Trento, Bolzano, Brennero…….

Through time we have met many times, both in Italy and in the Netherlands. La nostra famiglia Italiana ! La bella Italia & La Dolce Vita.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

I wish to dedicate this post to them All.

In gratitude for their friendship and friendliness of all the Italians that we met at Rifugio Bergeria Selleries and in Italy. Which made every day of our visit so exciting and special:

Persons?

Marisa, Silvana, Tonino, Giovanna.

Madama Lidia Berger, Signore Giacomo Miraglio, Sra. Lida MIraglio, Lida Jr. Miraglio.

Famiglia pastore Agu, Mario, Giovanni, Rita (la bella pastora cantante; inoltre grazie per il gustoso caffe nella grotta, lassù, vicino Lago Ciardonnet), Piero Blengino (minerali), Loredana.

Ing. Gastaldi, Torino.

Prof. dr. Giorgio Dal Piaz, geologo Universita Torino (Padua), that gave us a field introduction in the geology of the Cottian Alps. He received me in his office in Torino to discus my field results.

"Marcel, l'anno scorso non parli affatto italiano. E ora parli correntemente italiano. Sono sorpreso ha detto il professor Giorgio."

So many people of which I have unfortunately forgotten the names. Very sorry about that. But I can still remember your faces and voices.

Molto grazie, carissimi amici. Ciao, ci vediamo. Mille Grazie Tutti !

The son of Silvana and Beppe, dr. Wilbert, is since 2015 post-doc researcher at the University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Anche Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin, ciaoooo.

” In Selleries ho lasciato un pezzo del mio cuore, 1973, 1974 “

The seventies in Bergeria Selleries and Val Chisone ?

The time in slow motion, compared with nowadays. Every thing. Living, driving, food, music. All slow.

Music?

The pace of life and the music was as the mood so nicely created in ” Summertime and the living is easy “.

In Italy and Val Chisone, on my Sony transistor radio, the sounds of Patty Pravo, La Bambola, Pazza Idea.

Domenico Modugno, Ciao ciao bambina, Volare, Nel blu dipinto di blu.

Nicola di Bari, Sai che bevo,  sai che fumo:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCoqyU3-4wk

Gigliola Cinquetti, Non ho l’eta:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QlA3Xd9aAo

Claudio Baglioni, Questo piccolo grande amore.

Claudio Villa, O sole Mio:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNYP_wGVqzI

Tony Dallara, Come Prima.

Mia Martini, Minuetto:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-s21DL8hLM

Communication?

Fortunately no superfast internet, tablets, mobiles, WhatsApp, Social Media yet existed. The world was not yet mainly focussed on and limited to the screen of the iPhone or iPad. Social media was socialising, verbal and non-verbal communication, face to face, in italian (.)

http://www.lastampa.it/2016/05/02/multimedia/societa/come-parlare-litaliano-con-le-mani-guida-turistica-fa-impazzire-gli-usa-BA40txTlmyFw104p0GrzII/pagina.html

Via slow post. Writing and receiving handwritten letters with postal stamps, to and from home, travelling 7969 km to reach destiny. My mother still cherishes the Edelweiss flower from my field area that I included in one of my letters. Sending postcards. My post was received and well kept at the lobby of the only hotel in Villaretto. Unfortunately forgot the name of the hotel and the owners. Each saturday we would also go to Fenestrelle to buy our food and of course, the two liter bottles with red, strong Barbera wine from Piemonte.

On several lazy, touristic saturday’s also regularly to Pinerolo (Pinareul). A charming old little town, at the beginning of Val Chisone, 50 km southwest of Torino. With a beautiful historic center, cathedral, bustling open air market, cinema’s and excellent pizzerias. The home town of Tonino and Giovanna, our friends and members of the ” Banda Rifugio Selleries 1973-1974 “. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinerolo).

Times now gone when slow living was still an art.

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
La-Banda-di-Selleries, 1973,1974 – Val Chisone – Marcel, Madama Lida, Tonino, Silvana, Josely, Giovanna, il Cane – MCAL

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Camp site – 2023 m. – Val Chisone – MCAL

 

Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Il Cane, Josely, Marcel, Tonino, Silvana, Giovanna, le mucce di signor Agu – MCAL

 

2) Rifugio Bergeria Selleries

Rifugio Selleries - Val Chisone - Italia - MCAL
Rifugio Selleries – Val Chisone – Italia – MCAL

Credit: http://www.rifugioselleries.it/?page_id=109 – https://www.facebook.com/rifugioselleries/

stufa_selleries
Si trova nel cuore del Parco Naturale Orsiera Rocciavrè e costituisce base di partenza per numerosi itinerari escursionistici ed alpinistici. A poca distanza dal rifugio è inoltre possibile praticare l’arrampicata sportiva su una piccola struttura rocciosa. Il 18 Giugno del 2006 è stato ufficialmente inaugurato ed ora è dotato di un’ampia sala ristorante, bar e di 12 camere per un totale di 40 posti letto. Alcune camere sono dotate di servizi indipendenti, e l’edificio è stato reso totalmente accessibile ai disabili. Il rifugio è aperto tutto l’anno, ed è raggiungibile anche in auto nel periodo estivo (comodo parcheggio nei pressi dell’edificio). Massimo Manavella e Sylvie Bertin curano, grazie alla loro grande esperienza nel settore, la gestione del rifugio coadiuvati da alcuni bravi collaboratori nei periodi di grande affluenza. La cucina, magistralmente diretta e curata da Sylvie, è ovviamente tradizionale, con interessanti specialità locali, e piacevolmente affiancata da vini e birra di ottima qualità. Il piccolo Leonardo, classe 2005, sta imparando rapidamente come si intrattengono gli ospiti e dimostra come si possano allevare i bambini in un ambiente così fiabesco. Nei giorni festivi e nei periodi di alta stagione è consigliabile la prenotazione.Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL Selleries – Wilbert, Marisa, Marcel H., Silvana, Lida Jr., Tonino – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Forte Fenestrelle – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Monte Orsiera, 2878 m. – Val Chisone & Val di Susa – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Fenestrelle teleferico – Val Chisone – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Marcel, Wilbert, Josely and Amici – MCAL
Selleries - Val Chisone - MCAL
Selleries – Val Chisone – Lida, Tonino, friend ?, Marisa, Loredana, Wilbert, friend ?, Silvana – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Arie Schaap, Andre van der Meulen, Marcel, Ray Bergval (R.I.P.) – MCAL
Mont Genèvre - France - MCAL
Mont Genèvre – France – Marcel Chin-A-Lien, Wilbert Hocks (sitting), Ray Bergval (R.I.P., 2016, Paramaribo, Suriname), Andre van der Meulen, Arie Schaap – MCAL

Additionally:

My thesis fieldwork area covered from the village of Fenetrelle up to Bergería Rifugio Selleries. Along this route one encounters the famous Forte Fenestrelle and a little village called Usseaux.

1. Usseaux: On Youtube I found the following nice recent drone film:

– Riprese aeree a Usseaux, Val Chisone – aerial footage with DJI Phantom 2…Film / full credit to Alessandro Bonaudo.

2. Forte Fenestrelle: Il Forte di Fenestrelle visto dal drone. A drone film taken from Youtube; From / full credit to Mr. Fabrizzio Prelato.

3. Forte Fenestrelle:  https://youtu.be/rEVUN0nPiyE

3) From the Caribbean to Italia

Anna C - First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet - MCAL
Anna C – First passenger cruise ship Costa fleet – MCAL

My first visit to la Bella Italia was as a kid of 12 years old. Impressive. Many permanent, (trans)formative impressions, July 1962. Breath-taking.

” Nostalgia del tiempo que huye y esperanza de un dia renacido.”

It was the sabbatical year of my dear dad.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

With my parents, sister and brothers. Crossing the hugh Atlantic ocean in some 12 days. Arriving in busy and bustling Genova. From little native Curacao in the Caribbean to Italy and Europe.

Via La Guaira-Venezuela, Aves islands; Barbados; Pointe-a-Pitre-Guadaloupe; the majestic and vast Atlantic Ocean; Funchal-Madeira-Azores Portugal; Santa Cruz deTenerife Canary Islands, Gibraltar, Barcelona; Monaco, Genova.

Crossing the Atlantic.

One of our 4 transatlantic crossings and voyages. Old, classic style, in the fifties and sixties. Magnificent memories.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

A 2 week transatlantic voyage with the Anna C. The first true passenger ” cruise ” ship in the Italian Costa fleet, Linea ‘C’. The interior designed by renowned Venetian architect Giovanni “Nino” Zoncada. During the voyage we already got introduced and accustomed to the Italian language, friendliness, cuisine, music and flair. Where we learned how to eat spaghetti, as Italians (http://www.italianliners.com/costa-en).

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Italian Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL – ” The pictures of the ‘Fifties show class passengers at ease in the various moments marking the day on board and consolidated by the ancient tradition of the “transatlantic style”: tramping up the gangway, the noisy farewell to those who remain ashore, the exchange of streamers; souvenir photos, first with relatives or close friends before the departure, then, once the elapsed time has brought new bonds of friendship, in pose with other fellow travelers…”.

Our family discovery trip in Europe.

Italia ? Genova, Vespa’s all around. Milano, Venezia, Roma, Porto Fino etc. etc.. So exciting for a 12 year Curacao kid. For the whole united family.

A history with memories that I still have to write. Hopefully soon.

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Old Style Italian Transatlantic Voyage in the Sixties – MCAL – ” a passage nearby the Azores with the fascinating view of Mount Saint Michael always circled by a cloud ring. In the middle of the ocean the sky is clean and pure, crossed by quick clouds during the day and studded by bright stars at night. Among the most awaited for events there are the encounters at sea with other liners, above all the fleet mates. In the latter case the captains plan the route to meet each other at short distance while the horns fill the air and flags and people wave to wish bon voyage. Even the visit to the bridge is a thrilling moment: the officers welcome the guests and their endless questions on how to “drive” a giant ship”.
Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCAL
Ana C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

Ana C - Transatlantic Voyage - MCALAna C – Transatlantic Voyage – MCAL

The guests belonging to the upper class will show their familiarity with the open-air games and sports on the same large and immaculate open decks which made famous the Italian liners worldwide. The rest on a steamer chair accompanied by a good book, a sun bath, a match of badminton or shuffle-board, a drink enjoyed at the side of the pool where other guests play and swim together.

At night the chefs astonish eyes, noses and palates of the passengers with gorgeous buffets exposing authentic artworks which kept busy since the afternoon ice and fruit sculptures. Among the complex organisation of the ship personnel, the deck seamen preserve spotless the open decks

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one’s lifetime.” – Mark Twain

2) Geology of Fenestrelle – Parco Naturale Orsiera – Rocciavré (under construction)