25. Guyana file application against Venezuela

ICJ

25. Guyana files application against Venezuela – V27.06.18

Contents (15)

Introduction

This post contains references to a few essential and very interesting historical documents. These may serve for a thoughtful understanding of this application and controversy in the light of its historical background.

For myself to find the mere facts and to be able to evaluate this important issue, as an independant, imparcial petroleum and business consultant.

As well as for all those somehow involved and interested in Guyana, its varied history, petroleum and gold exploration and production?

Explorationists and avid followers that are now finally discovering where Guyana and the prolific Guyana basin is located on this globe. Already 50 years after the first Tambaredjo giant field discovery (see: Petroleum Exploration, Post nr. 4). And 420 years after Sir Walter Raleigh became the ” discoverer ” of Guyana. By searching for El Dorado in the deep jungle.

Investors, mighty IMF and World Bank executives, business, commercial developers, portfolio and business-project-intelligence specialists and managers, real estate agencies and speculants, (corporate)strategists, process-pricing-operations specialists, lawyers, PSC negotiators, bankers, hotel builders, airliners, the-full-gamut-of-entrepreneurs, any-kind-of-clever-consultants-wishing-2-make-lots-of money ?

Black gold rushers, bounty seekers, wheeler dealers, rum runners, would-like-2-be-millionaires, the-get-rich-quick, desperados, opportunists, circus clowns, ware houses, whore houses, adult clubs, offshore buccaneers and privateers, story tellers etc.? It sure is an integral part of the folclore in the gold and blackgold rushes that I have experienced and know of.

In the late seventies and eighties, of last century, I had the great privilige to start my geology career in beautiful Caracas, la Venezuela saudita. I was most fortunate to spent an extended period in this exhuberant country. As such I had the splendid opportunity to live, share, integrate, enjoy, to develop professionally and luckily also to contribute such as with participation in important petroleum discoveries, applied research and publications. ” Chinito, eres un Venezolano re-encauchado “, my friends soon used to joke amiable.

When I arrived in ” La Sucursal del Cielo ” I immediately bought one of the excellent road & geographical maps of Venezuela. These could be acquired cheap for 1 Bolívar in any gasoline station of the oil firms as Maraven, Lagoven, Corpoven, Meneven etc.

What struck me from the very first moment was the immense cross-hatched area in the east, indicated as ” Zona en Reclamación “. The ” controversy area “: The west Essequibo area. About half the area of Guyana. 159,500 Square km or about 4 times the size of the Netherlands.

Since then I have been interested in this subject, continually read the publications and have discussed it with many people and colleagues in Venezuela.

This post represents my personal attempt and private opinion, in studying and in trying to understand the full background and details of this old controversy. I wish to share this with you.

Caracas - Avila Mountain seen from Country Club
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Caracas – Avila Mountain seen from Country Club – from a famous Venezuelan painter – Own collection . This is the view of the Avila mountain. A so-called Avila painting. As we wished to take a tangible piece with a personal commemoration along with us of this iconic mountain and of Caracas we acquired this superb (200 x 100 cm) painting. Now it is our permanent Avila Mountain “window view”. We have it hanging on the main wall of our sleeping room.

Venezuela and Caracas ?

“If you are lucky enough to have lived in Caracas as a young man ? Then wherever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you. For Caracas is a moveable feast.”

Precious and dear memories of my/our period in la ” Sucursal del Cielo ” (…then) very much resembles the atmosphere as magnificently described in ” A moveable feast ” by Ernest Hemingway. The Nobel Prize winner literature describing his time spent as an expatriate in la Ville Lumière. The last of his 21 chapters ?  ” There is Never Any End to Paris “.

Caracas and Venezuela ?

A moveable feast in many aspects. An exiting and educational extensive rollercoaster ride and life (style) experience, both in the subsurface gold mines and on the surface. The always happy and candid people, friends, colleagues. Swinging tropical music, musica llanera, salsa, gaita, with spring temperatures. Excellent food, busy restaurants. With my favourite arepas con carne mechada, empanadas de cazón, pollo a la brasa, parilla de carne, hallaquitas, pargo rojo frito. Polar, rum Caballito Frenado and Diplomático, batidos de guanabana, cafecito con leche, guayoyito etc. etc.

The varied geography, narrow valleys, extensive tropical grassland plains or Llanos; Andean and Caribbean Mountain System mountains, snow on the 4978 m high Pico Bolívar.

Beaches, really stunning, secluded and pristine, pearl white through to gold soft coloured, along the 2800 km Caribbean coastline. Dense jungles and rainforests covering some 54 million hectares. The mighty 2,140 km Orinoco river. Colourful flora and exotic fauna. 115 Majestic, up to 1000 meters high, flat tabletop Roraima mountains or Tepuis of 2 billion years old in the Guyana Highlands hosting the highest 979 meters Angel waterfall.

The interesting and comprehensive geology, ranging from the 4.6 billion years old Proterozoïc of the Guiana Shield to Recent. With almost all textbook sedimentary, plutonic and metamorphic rocks and a whole scala of different major petroleum basins. A bustling and frenetic exploration and production of both petroleum, bauxite, iron, gold and other ore minerals.

An exquisite geoscience-candy-boutique for a fresh explorationist just flying out from his Alma Mater Leiden in The Netherlands, Europe. Avidly embracing his opportunity to explore the world.

Charming, most elegant and toe-to-head fashionable señoritas, about everywhere. Each and every day (…uh, uhh, uhhh, almost though) were a feast. Certainly an adventure with always a big surprise. A setting and exciting atmosphere soaked in optimism and with an inspiring and dynamic progress. Immigrants flocking in from all over the world, especially from Latin America. Searching for a new prosperous future.

Just 60 km north of Venezuela. Curacao or Dushi Korsou, my own birth place and home. Awesome island, ever swimming and sunbathing in the pristine, emerald blue Caribbean sea. Discovered in 1498 by Alonso de Ojeda.

In 1977, four hundred and seventy nine years later, I felt obviously utmost exited, grateful and honoured to have the opportunity to start exploring in Venezuela.

As the very first Curaçao native geologist and explorationist. What a tremendous thrill.

Korsou, also the birthplace in 1782 of admiral Pedro Luis Brión and general Manuel Piar, 1774, important freedom fighters, or Próceres, in the army of Simón Bolivar during the Venezuelan War of Independence. Piar is the official Libertador de Guyana that conceived and executed the conquest of Guyana Province.

Bolivar himself, The Liberator of South America, took refuge on the island of Curaçao after the first stage of the revolt in Venezuela failed in 1812. He and his two sisters arrived penniless and had to rely on the generosity of friends on the island. Lawyer and merchant Mordechai Ricardo lodged them in two houses. The two sisters stayed in the octagonal building by the sea, now a museum. While Bolívar worked an studied in a small house on a hill overlooking the busy harbor of Willemstad.

Venezuela, a paradise in many aspects, also explored by Alexander von Humbolt. Between 1799 and 1804 as part of his extensive Latin American expedition. Where he also climbed the iconic Avila mountain of Caracas with the young poet Andres Bello.

An impressive national hymn, dedicated to the brave people, Gloria al bravo pueblo.

An even so impressive unofficial, second and most curiously danceable national anthem and joropo. Alma Llanera, Soul of the Plains, stating, Yo naci en la ribera del Arauca vibrador etc.

Caracas. A Moveable Feast.

Presently…

Unfortunately, unwillingly and recklessly being forced to mimic Paradise Lost of John Milton. By ideology encapsulated, money driven buccaneers, privateers and red colored filibusters.

The last 2 chapters ?

” There is Never Any End to Caracas “.

Followed by, somewhere in the very, very, very far future though:

Paradise Regained, also from John Milton.

”  All-in-1 Consultant,  Available-to-Serve-You.

For grounded, vintage stewardship to successfully find lots of oil, mineral resources, develop your business and get sustained value for money ?

See <Contact & Contract Me> at marcelchinalien@gmail.com “.

Doei, salu2, ciao, até logo, grüssen, cordialement, salut, добрый день, ajoo, tur kos bon mi dushi hendenan na Switi Sranan i mi famiri na switi Korsou, tan bun allamala !

1) http://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/171/171-20180404-PRE-01-00-EN.pdf – April 04, 2018 – Filing of application.

Inserted Note @ June 14, 2018:

I wanted to attend the announced  18th June, 2018 session. Called the ICJ in The Hague to make a seat reservation. But was told that it was cancelled, was not on the agenda and no next date set as yet.

Personal note:

As Venezuela has stated before it does not recognize a ” verdict or solution” by the ICJ on this case. Which makes me think and conclude beforehand that this ICJ ” intervention ” is unfortunately a loss of effort, time and money.

Only a F2F, bilateral transnational negotiation, with give-and-take, both-win-win, can lead to a mutually suitable agreement, in my humble opinion. Otherwise it will stay unresolved for an undetermined time (for centuries or for ever, so to say).

” Next June 18th Venezuela has a session to defend its case at the ICJ in the Hague, the Netherlands.

According to Venepress of June 15th, 2018:

” El 18 de junio tendrán que presentarse argumentos sin sesgos ideológicos y con el único fin de preservar los intereses de la nación.

El secretario general de la Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU), Antonio Guterres, anunció meses atrás que ante la falta de avances en la disputa entre Venezuela y Guyana por el territorio Esequibo, el caso quedaría en manos de la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) y el próximo 18 de junio será el primer encuentro.

Durante la cita Venezuela deberá “defender” el derecho del país sobre el Esequibo, con base al Acuerdo de Ginebra de 1966 en búsqueda de una resolución pacífica.

Jorge Luis Fuguett, presidente de la ONG Mi Mapa de Venezuela incluye nuestro Esequibo, explicó a Venepress que Venezuela deberá argumentar su posición ante la CIJ, ya que aún no se han agotado todos los mecanismos del artículo 33, capítulo VI sobre arreglo pacífico de controversias de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas.

“Las partes en una controversia cuya continuación sea susceptible de poner en peligro el mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad internacionales tratarán de buscarle solución, ante todo, mediante la negociación, la investigación, la mediación, la conciliación, el arbitraje, el arreglo judicial, el recurso a organismos o acuerdos regionales u otros medios pacíficos de su elección. El Consejo de Seguridad, si lo estimare necesario, instará a las partes a que arreglen sus controversias por dichos medios.”, reza el artículo.
En ese sentido, Fuguett explicó que el abogado o grupo de abogados que vaya en representación de Venezuela debe enfocarse en tal punto, ser un conocedor de derecho internacional y manejar a profundidad el tema del Esequibo “.

Contents.

2) http://www.icj-cij.org/en (International Court of Justice website).

3) Personal note and musings.

Possible major future implications and adaptations for e.g. licensed areas petroleum exploration and production and e.g. petroleum already produced, if present day boundaries, inclusive offshore, were to be modified / adapted by ICJ ??

See 5 relevant maps included below.

4) 1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela

5) Guyana and Venezuela in bitter border dispute after oil discovery
A bitter row with Venezuela that goes back over a century and nearly started a war is being taken to the United Nations. By David Connett Saturday 26 September 2015 21:27

6) Essequibo, the Territorial Dispute between Venezuela and Guyana
by D. ZWAAGSTRA on JANUARY 8, 2016 · Peace Palace Library –

7)  An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land
A new oil field near Venezuela could be the miracle Maduro was waiting for. There’s just one problem — it’s in territory claimed by Guyana.- BY DANIEL LANSBERG-RODRÍGUEZ | JUNE 16, 2015, 5:09 PM

8) Guyana-Venezuela: The “controversy” over the arbitral award of 1899
September 11, 2015 COHA essequibo, geneva, great britain, Guyana, Odeen Ishmael, United States, Venezuela, Washington.

9) The Discovery of Guiana by Walter Raleigh – free ebook – 344 KB – Kindle – Gutenberg.

10) Who was Robert Herman Schomburgk ?

11) British Guyana – History – Wkiipedia

12) Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 – Wikipedia

13) Chronology of events – http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf

14) 25 Successive maps of Guiana from 1595 to1898: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

15) https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/el-petróleo-en-la-controversia-territorial-por-gamero-lanz/

16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

  1. http://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/171/171-20180404-PRE-01-00-EN.pdf – April 04, 2018 – Filing of application.

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Essequibo Claim 2018 - Georgetown
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Essequibo Claim 2018 – Georgetown
Guyana 2018 - El Dorado feeding ourselves - Gold 100 dollars
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Guyana 2018 – El Dorado feeding ourselves – Gold 100 dollars

2) http://www.icj-cij.org/en (International Court of Justice website).

3) Personal note and musings.

Possible major future implications and adaptations for e.g. licensed areas petroleum exploration and production and e.g. petroleum already produced, if present day boundaries, inclusive offshore, were to be modified / adapted by ICJ ??

See 5 relevant maps included below.

Offshore Licences vs Claim Area – 5 maps

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 1
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Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 1

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 2
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Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 2

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3
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Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 4
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Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 4

 

Venezuela - Guyana Offshore Map Claim 3
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Venezuela – Guyana Offshore Map Claim 5

 

4)  1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_XXVIII/331-340.pdf

1898 Arbritral Award Guyana- Venezuela
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1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela -1

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 2
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1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 2 -…investigate and ascertain the extent of the terrotories belonging to, or that might lawfully be claimed by, the United Netherlands or by the Kingdom of Spain respectively at the time of the acquisition by Great Britain of the Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela.

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 3
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1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 3 – …the boundary-line…is as follows…(My own simple question as an explorationist: Where is the official geographical / geodetical map where these Award data are plotted on?? To be able to see it clearly. Not in poetical words but on a simple and clear cut map?)

 

1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela - 4
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1899 Arbritral Award Colony of British Guiana and the United States of Venezuela – 4 – …Executed and published…3rd day of October, A.D. 1899.

 

5) Guyana and Venezuela in bitter border dispute after oil discovery
A bitter row with Venezuela that goes back over a century and nearly started a war is being taken to the United Nations

David Connett Saturday 26 September 2015 21:27

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/guyana-and-venezuela-in-bitter-border-dispute-after-oil-discovery-a6668651.html

6) Essequibo, the Territorial Dispute between Venezuela and Guyana
by D. ZWAAGSTRA on JANUARY 8, 2016 · Peace Palace Library –

https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/2016/01/essequibo-the-territorial-dispute-between-venezuela-and-guyana/

” The origin of the territorial claim

The Essequibo (in Spanish, Esequibo), is nearly sixty percent of modern Guyana, consisting of all its territory west of the Essequibo River. The Treaty of Munster nor the London Convention defined a western boundary of (the later called) British Guyana.

In 1835 the British Empire sent a German-born naturalist and explorer Robert Herman Schomburgk to conduct geographical research in British Guyana. In the course of his explorations he produced a map between Venezuela and British Guyana. The British government then commissioned Schomburgk to demarcate the territorial boundaries. This Schomburgk Line led to Venezuela protesting British encroachment on their territory, provoking the territorial dispute that has remained unresolved to this day.

In 1850, after years of arguing over the territorial boundaries, both sides agreed not to occupy the disputed territory. Nonetheless, the dispute reignited in the decades after that with the movement of British settlers into the region and with the formation of the British Guyana Mining Company to mine the gold deposits discovered in the zone. In 1897, after pressure from the United States, it was decided by a Treaty of Arbitration (‘The Washington Treaty of Arbitration’) to submit the determination of the boundary line between British Guyana and Venezuela to arbitration. On October 3, 1899, the Arbitration Tribunal delivered its award.

Arbitration Award 1899 and Mallet-Prevost Memorandum 1949

Their decision was to grant Venezuela full control over the disputed area at the mouth of the Orinoco River (Delta Amacuro), and to grant Britain control over the remaining disputed land west of the Essequibo River (around 90% of the territory in dispute). There are different views according to how the Arbitral Award was viewed by Venezuela and Britain, but tensions rose again in 1949, when a memo from Mallet-Prevost, one of the American arbitrators on the Tribunal, was made public posthumously. In the memorandum he said that the American arbitrators had been pressured to agree to the final deal by the Russian President of the Tribunal. In 1962 the Venezuelan government declared the 1899 agreement null and void and revived their claim for all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River. “

7)  An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land
A new oil field near Venezuela could be the miracle Maduro was waiting for. There’s just one problem — it’s in territory claimed by Guyana.

BY DANIEL LANSBERG-RODRÍGUEZ | JUNE 16, 2015, 5:09 PM –

An Oil Strike in No Man’s Land

8) Guyana-Venezuela: The “controversy” over the arbitral award of 1899
September 11, 2015 COHA essequibo, geneva, great britain, Guyana, Odeen Ishmael, United States, Venezuela, Washington

Guyana-Venezuela: The “controversy” over the arbitral award of 1899

Map Venezuela 1810
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Map Venezuela 1810

9) The Discovery of Guiana by Walter Raleigh – free ebook – 344 KB – Kindle – Gutenberg – http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2272:

Very simple and straightforward purpose of Walter Raleigh:

In search of discovering, conquering and seizing El Dorado:

” …Manoa, the imperial city of Guaiana, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, that for the greatness, for the riches, and for the excellent seat, it far exceedeth any of the world as is known to the Spanish nation. “

Raleigh did not know that El Dorado included the Black Gold in the deep subsurface of Offshore. As magnificently unveiled by Lisa and Payara of ExxonMobil.Discovery Guyana 4 – “…and if we sack the River of Hacha, St. Martha, and Carthagena (= Colombia)…”

My personal note: After studying this book and trying to understand his mindset, in his writings Sir Walter Raleigh thinks, plans and philosophises voraciously and proactively about sacking and taking about everything and every place that occurs to his dear, luscious mind and/or that he visited or wanted to visit. Such as also a main part of present day Colombia. Very similar to Hernán Cortés, El Gran Conquistador de México. For the latter pls. see my post nr. 7, Historia de Nueva -España, September 2017, Chapter Various. Philosophy: Just go, conquer, seize, sack, destroy and eliminate whatever is convenient for yourself, your King, Queen and home country or country that you serve. Absolutely no mental, moral, conscientious, ” ethical ” or whatever boundaries. Only the sky is the limit ? In this light I could even imagine that Sir Raleigh would have happily volunteered, if living in 2018, to go and colonize Mars. Or to seize the Black Holes of Einstein and prof. dr. S. Hawkings. By travelling and using the Tesla Roadster of Elon Musk, now en route in our Milky Way Galaxy and Universe. That was the real philosophy in the colonial times. Goneby ??

Suriname Jungle - SW - Near boundary Guyana - Arapahu - Myself
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Suriname SW Quadrant – Boundary with Guyana – Corantijn river –  My own jungle exploration trip – Arapahu – Near the El Dorado location of Sir Raleigh – Myself (…have not seen the El Dorado as described by Raleigh). This area is located near the area explored by Sir Raleigh in 1595. And was also visited and mapped by Robert Herman Schomburgk, see his Map Guiana 1872 – This 1872 map has the same land boundaries conceded to Guiana during the 1899 Arbitral Award, 27 years later. What a coincidence ? Transnational negotiation and influencing skills ?? Any other skill or competency needed ?? Apparently?

 

Discovery Guyana 1
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Discovery Guyana 1 – Sir WALTER RALEIGH

 

Discovery Guyana 2
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Discovery Guyana 2 – …” The country hath more quantity of gold, by manifold, than the best parts of the Indies, or Peru “.

 

Discovery Guyana 3
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Discovery Guyana 3 – “…an easier way to invade the best parts thereof than by the common course. The king of Spain is not so impoverished by taking three or four ports in America..”

 

Discovery Guyana 4
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Discovery Guyana 4 – “…and if we sack the River of Hacha, St. Martha, and Carthagena (= Colombia)…”                                                               My personal note: After studying this book and trying to understand his mindset, in his writings Sir Walter Raleigh thinks, plans and philosophises voraciously and proactively about sacking and taking about everything and every place that occurs to his dear, luscious mind and/or that he visited or wanted to visit. Such as also a main part of present day Colombia. Very similar to Hernán Cortés, El Gran Conquistador de México. For the latter pls. see my post nr. 7, Historia de Nueva -España, September 2017, Chapter Various. Philosophy: Just go, conquer, seize, sack, destroy and eliminate whatever is convenient for yourself, your King, Queen and home country or country that you serve. Absolutely no mental, moral, conscientious, ” ethical ” or whatever boundaries. Only the sky is the limit ? In this light I could even imagine that Sir Raleigh would have happily volunteered, if living in 2018, to go and colonize Mars. Or to seize the Black Holes of Einstein and prof. dr. S. Hawkings. By travelling and using the Tesla Roadster of Elon Musk, now en route in our Milky Way Galaxy and Universe. That was the real philosophy. Goneby ??

 

Discovery Guyana 5
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Discovery Guyana 5 – ” If we take the ports…of Uraba ”  etc. (= Colombia).

 

Discovery Guyana 6
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Discovery Guyana 6 – …” a better Indies for her Majesty than the king of Spain hath any..”.

 

Discovery Guyana 7
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Discovery Guyana 7 – …” sixth of February, in the year 1595, we departed England,..”.

 

Discovery Guyana 8
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Discovery Guyana 8 – …” Manoa, the imperial city of Guaiana, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, that for the greatness, for the riches, and for the excellent seat, it far exceedeth any of the world as is known to the Spanish nation”.

 

Discovery of Guyana 9
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Discovery of Guyana 9 – … ” the court and magnificence of Guyana Capac,…”.

 

Discovery of Guyana 10
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Discovery of Guyana 10 – Location of El Dorado according to Walter Raleigh (this map taken from internet – is not included in the Gutenberg e-edition).

 

Raleigh map 1575 - Discovery of Guyana 11
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Raleigh map 1595? – Discovery of Guyana 11

10) Who was Robert Herman Schomburgk ?

He made / was entrusted to make the map that included the west Essequibo area as an integral part of British Guiana.

Map Guiana 1872 - Robert Herman Schomburgk
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Map Guiana 1872 – Robert Herman Schomburgk – Green line is border claim line according to Venezuela – Pink line is border claim line according to Brazil.

This map was ” apparently ” used, given the very high degree of similitude. Thus served as the basis for the 1899 Arbitral Award. In my humble opinion it is crucial and determinant for the present day ongoing controversy.

Sketch Map Guiana 1832 - With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch
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Sketch Map Guiana 1832 – With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 1

 

Sketch Map Guiana 1832 - With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 2
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Sketch Map Guiana 1832 – With probable boundaries with Portuguese and Dutch 2 _ Note that Guiana was officially ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

…in 1835, he was entrusted by the Royal Geographical Society, London with conducting an expedition of exploration of British Guiana.

…In 1841, he returned to Guiana, this time as a British Government official to survey the colony and fix its eastern and western boundaries. The result was the provisional boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela, known as the “Schomburgk Line”, and the boundary with the Dutch colony of Surinam.(Note that this became the official boundary during the 1899 Award).

Map Guiana 1875 - Royal Geographical Society London - Robert Herman Schomburgk
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Map Guiana 1875 – Royal Geographical Society London – Robert Herman Schomburgk – Please note the gradual and substantial encroachment / enlargement of Guyana’s territory. When comparing the successive geographical sketch maps in the period 1830 – 1896. Such as the previous 1832 Sketch map with probable boundaries versus the 1872 map. With substantial area added by Robert Herman Schomburgk. Area added comprises the totality of the area previously indicated on the maps as claimed by Portuguese and Dutch. This map also represents the territorial boundaries after the 1899 Award. Abrakadabra, et voilà, a new map and a larger country. How easy. Just consult with Mr. Robert H. Schomburgk if you wish to enlarge your country boundaries.

Question? Was above map used / allowed to use as a basis for decision making, by the 5 honorable judges, during the 1899 Award ???

Map Gran Colombia - Venezuela - 1819 - including Essequibo boundary
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Map Gran Colombia – including Venezuela – 1819 – includes the Essequibo border.

 

1778 - Mapa de La Nueva Andalucía - Provincias de Cumaná y Guyana
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1778 – Mapa de La Nueva Andalucía – Provincias de Cumaná y Guyana – on this map Guyana area was part of Spain. Province of Guyana located within The New Andalucía .

 

Map Guiana 1896 - With probable boundaries - And boundary lines of area claimed by others 1
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Map Guiana 1896 – With probable boundaries – And boundary lines of area claimed by others 1

 

Map Guiana 1896 - With probable boundaries - And boundary lines of area claimed by others 2
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Map Guiana 1896 – With probable boundaries – And boundary lines of area claimed by others 2

A) https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hermann_Schomburgk

B) A Description of British Guiana, Geographical and Statistical, Exhibiting its Resources and Capabilities, Together with the Present and Future Condition and Prospects of the Colony
Geographical, Statistical
Auteur: Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk

11) British Guyana – History – Wikipedia

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Guiana

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Guiana

The first European to discover Guiana was Sir Walter Raleigh, an English explorer. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle there, starting in the early 17th century, when they founded the colonies of Essequibo and Berbice, adding Demerara in the mid-18th century. In 1796, Great Britain took over these three colonies during hostilities with the French, who had occupied the Netherlands. Britain returned control to the Batavian Republic in 1802, but captured the colonies a year later during the Napoleonic Wars. The colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814, and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colony’s capital was at Georgetown (known as Stabroek prior to 1812).

The English made at least two unsuccessful attempts in the 17th century to colonise the lands that would later be known as British Guiana, at which time the Dutch had established two colonies in the area: Essequibo, administered by the Dutch West India Company, and Berbice, administered by the Berbice Association. The Dutch West India Company founded a third colony, Demerara, in the mid-18th century. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the late 18th century, when the Netherlands were occupied by the French, and Great Britain and France were at war, Britain took over the colony in 1796. A British expeditionary force was dispatched from its colony of Barbados to seize the colonies from the French-dominated Batavian Republic. The colonies surrendered without a struggle. Initially very little changed, as the British agreed to allow the long-established laws of the colonies to remain in force.

In 1802 Britain returned the colonies to the Batavian Republic under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. But, after resuming hostilities with France in the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, Britain seized the colonies again less than a year later. The three colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The UK continued separate administration of the individual colonies until 1822, when the administration of Essequibo and Demerara was combined. In 1831, the administration Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice was combined, and the united colony became known as British Guiana.

12) Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Dutch_Treaty_of_1814

The Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands in London on 13 August 1814. It was signed by Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh for the British and Hendrik Fagel for the Dutch.

The treaty returned the colonial possessions of the Dutch as they were at 1 January 1803 before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, in the Americas, Africa, and Asia with the exceptions of the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice (later consolidated as British Guiana), where the Dutch retained trading rights.

In addition, the British ceded the island of Banca off the island of Sumatra in exchange for the settlement of Cochin in India and its dependencies on the coast of Malabar. The Dutch also ceded the district of Bernagore, situated close to Calcutta, in exchange for an annual fee.

The treaty also noted a declaration of 15 June 1814 by the Dutch, that ships for the slave trade were no longer permitted in British ports and it agreed that this restriction would be extended to a ban on involvement in the slave trade by Dutch citizens. Britain also agreed to pay £1,000,000 to Sweden to resolve a claim to the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe (see Guadeloupe Fund). The British and the Dutch agreed to spend £2,000,000 each on improving the defences of the Low Countries. More funds, of up to £3,000,000, are mentioned for the “final and satisfactory settlement of the Low Countries in union with Holland.”

Disputes arising from this treaty were the subject of the Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1824.

13) Chronology of events – http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf

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http://agriculture.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/1-2-files-merged-new.pdf

 

14) 25 Successive maps of Guiana from 1595 to 1898:

http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/britishguiana.htm

15) https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/el-petróleo-en-la-controversia-territorial-por-gamero-lanz/

16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

http://16) The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899 – by Clifton J. Child – The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693.

Following is what Mr. Mallet-Prevost and General Harrison (President of the United States, 1888-1892; grandson of President William Henry Harrison), both negotiators and Harrison senior Counsel for Venezuela declared to Reuter, immediately after the award was announced on Oct. 3, 1899.

(Re. Clifton J. Child, The American Journal of International Law Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 682-693 – The Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Arbitration of 1899).

” So long as arbitration was to be conducted on such principles it could not be regarded a success, at least by those who believed that arbitration would result in an admission of legal rights and not in compromises really diplomatic in their character “.

V-B Boundary Arbitration 1899
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V-B Boundary Arbitration 1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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